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Cornell University Library 
D 17.Z15 

Syriac chronicle l(nown as ^^^^t of lachar 

3 1924 027 994 726 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

Byzantine Texts 

Edited by J. B. BURY 









\ AND 







p. 3, note 5- Omit the second sentence. 

P. 20, note 3. For io\. iii. reaii (ol. in. 

P. 23. For Moris read Mori, and again on p. 42. 

P. 27, note 2. The latter part of this note refers to the word "voices" higher up on 

the same page. 
P. 40: For Silentarius read Silentiarius. 

P. 47, note 9. For r->-^J and ^->.^J read r->-'^ and ;.^J^J. 
P. 66, note 2. For o.j7lZ| read wi.jCnZ|. 
P. 7 1 , note 2. For vi. read Ixxxvi . 
P. 100, note I. /br^OJ^J read^ijdS]^. 
P. 116, note 3. For ]^aa.CDai.j read ^.^Q j-COaj-j . 
P. 159, note I, For\f.aj read\,0^. 
P. 167, note 6. For "|Aj,SaC) read lAij,klO. 
P. 168. Transpose notes 2 and 3. 

P. 169, note 5. For " Magisterian" read " Magistrian." 
P. 172, note 2. For >..a.j) read . 1 ■ 1?. 
P. 178, note 6. For ^^aiO0 read ,-.^J\<JlC:iO. 
P. 208, note 4. ^tf?- ^epcSdpioi. read jSepTjSdpioi. 
P. 318, note 12. For 56 «ai? " 56." 

In the Index 
P. 343. For aToS-r/Kri ( !) read &iroBiiK-q (?). 
P. 344. For ra/idelov read rafieTov. 


In Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 17,202 there is a historical work in 
Syriac, which has been published by Dr. Land ^ under the title 
of Zacharice Ep. Mitylenes aliormnque scripta historica Greece 
plerumque deperdita. In the MS. the Chronicle bears no 
author's name, but is simply entitled, A volume of records of 
events which have happened in the world. Extracts from the 
same work are contained (also anonymously) in Cod. Syr. Vat. 
146^ (formerly 24), fol. 78ff. An account of these extracts, 
with quotations, was given by Assemani,^ and the whole was 
published with a Latin translation by Mai in 1838.* A 
passage found among these Vatican fragments is quoted by 
Dionysius Bar Tsalibi as from " Zachariah the Rhetor and 
bishop of Melitene," ^ whence Assemani entitled the author 
" Zachariah of Melitene." The name of Zachariah is con- 
firmed by the fact that Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 12,154 contains 
two extracts from our Chronicle, which it cites as from the 
" Ecclesiastical History of Zachariah."^ Further, Evagrius, in 
bks. 2 and 3 of his History, frequently cites a Monophysite 
writer whom he calls Zachariah the Rhetor, and these citations 
agree closely with our text. " Zachariah the Rhetor " is also 
cited by Michael the Syrian ' (who is copied by Gregory Abu'l 

^ Anecdota Syriaca, vol. iii., Leyden, 1870. 

" On the cover it is numbered 145. s ^ii^i^ q^^ yQ]_ ;;_ uE. 

* Scriptonini Veterum Nova CoUectio, torn. x. 

' Assem. , B. 0. vol. ii. p. 53. 

" Fols. 151, 158. See Land, Introd. p. xiii. Another extract with Zachariah's 
name is found in Add. 14,620, fol. 28 {ibid. p. xiv). 

' In the Arabic translation in Brit. Mus. MS. Or. 4402, which is far superior to 
the Armenian epitome (translated into French by Langlois). As the original Syriac 
is as yet inaccessible, I frequently for brevity's sake write "Michael," where I mean 
the Arabic translator. [The Syriac text is now being published by M. Chabot. ] 


Farag) for the first Synod of Ephesus, the story of the Seven 
Sleepers, events of the reign of Marcian, and the plague in that 
of Justinian. 

On turning, however, to the work as preserved in the London 
MS. we iind that in the appendix to bk. 2 the author states that 
bk. 3 is drawn "for the most part from the Chronicle of Zachariah, 
a rhetor, which he wrote in Greek to a man named Eupraxius, 
who lived at the Court, and was devoted to the service of the 
king and queen " ; and the first chapter of bk. 3 opens with the 
preface of Zachariah addressed to Eupraxius. Again, in the 
appendix to bk. 6 it is stated that that book is derived " from 
the Greek Chronicle of Zachariah the Rhetor, who wrote down 
to this point at great length, according to the Greek practice of 
diffuseness." From this it is clear that the work of Zachariah 
ended in 491, and that he was only one of the authorities used 
by the compiler of the work before us, who followed him in 
bks. 3—6 only, and to whom the name of Zachariah was 
wrongly attached by later writers. This is confirmed by the 
facts that each of the bks. 4—6, and no others, is stated in 
the preface to be taken from Zachariah, that the words 
" Ecclesiastical History of Zachariah " are found at the top of 
the page (with two exceptions in bk. i) in bks. 3—6 only, and 
that the citations in Evagrius are confined to these same 
books. (See Land, Introd. pp. x— xiii.) ^ 

As to the identity of Zachariah, the Life of Isaiah the monk, 
published by Dr. Land^ from Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 12,174, 
fol. 142, is in the MS. ascribed to "Zachariah the Scholastic, 
who wrote the Ecclesiastical History," and a Life of Severus 
by the same author has been published by Dr. Spanuth* 
from a MS. at Berlin (Sachau Collection, 321).* From the 

^ In spite of these facts Land ascribes bk. 7 to Zachariah. The different 
character of that book is enough to show that it is derived from another source. It 
does not, however, follow that it was not taken from another author, distinct from 
the compiler. The list of bishops in 7. 15 must be drawn from an author who wrote 
in 518, 519. See Land, Introd. pp. xi, xii. On the other hand, the end of 7. 6 
was written after 540. 

2 Anecd. Syr. iii. p. 346. ' Progr. des Gymn. zu Kiel, Gottingen, 1893. 

^ Zachariah tells us in this Life that he also wrote a Life of Peter the Iberian • but 
the Life contained in this MS. and in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 12,174, and edited by Dr. 


latter we learn that Zachariah was a native of Gaza, that he 
studied law in company with Severus at Alexandria and 
Berytus in the reign of Zeno, and that he practised as an 
advocate at Constantinople, where he was living at the time of 
writing the Life. There can therefore be little hesitation in 
identifying him with the " Zachariah of Gaza " to whom an ode 
of John of Gaza is addressed, with the " Zachariah " to whom 
several letters of Procopius of Gaza are addressed,^ and with the 
author of the Dialogue, De Mundi Opificio^ inscribed ^^Za-^apiov 
"StypKaaThKOv Xpic7Ti,avov tov jevofMevov fiera ravra eVtcr/coVoK 
MtTuXTjz/Tj?," who in his preface states that he had studied at 
Alexandria. The " Melitene " of Dionysius Bar Tsalibi is 
therefore an error for " Mitylene." 

Now Zachariah of Mitylene was present at the Synod of 
536, but in 553 the see was occupied by Palladius. Hence 
we may infer that Zachariah, a rhetor or scholastic of Gaza, 
residing in Constantinople, between 49 1 and 518 wrote an 
Ecclesiastical History of the years 450—491, and also between 
511 and S 1 8 wrote a Life of Severus,^ at a later time, con- 
forming perhaps to the Chalcedonian faith,* was made bishop of 
Mitylene, and died or was deposed between 536 and 5 5 3.^ The 
courtier Eupraxius, to whom the History is dedicated, is men- 
tioned also in the Life of Severus in terms which imply that he 
was dead,^ from which it seems to follow that the History was 
written before the Life. He is no doubt the same as Eupraxius 
the chamberlain, to whom a letter of Severus is addressed.'^ 

Raabe (Leipzig, 1895), is not his (see Raabe's Introduction). The Life of Theodosius, 
published by Land (Anecd. Syr. iii. p. 341) from Add. 12,174, is ascribed by him to 
Zachariah ; but the discrepancies with the account in our 3. 9 malce this ascription 
very doubtful. All these lives exist in Syriac only. 

1 Mai, op. cit. praf. p. xiv. ^ Migne, Patrol. Grac. vol. Ixxxv. p. 1012. 

^ The Life of Isaiah is mentioned in that of Severus, and is therefore earlier. 
Similarly that of Peter. 

"* His name is not among the signatures to the decree of the Synod of 536, and he 
may possibly have been a nominee of Anthimus. 

* There are some notices of Zachariah in the Plerophoriee of John of Majuma, 
lately published in a translation by M. Nau, chs. 70, 73. From ch. 70 it appears 
that he gave up his secular career before 519. {Revue de I'Orient Chretien, 1898, 
Suppl. trim. pp. 375, 377-) 

« Vit. Sev. p. 28, 1. I, 2, "Eupraxius of illustrious memory.'' 

' Wright, Cat. Syr. MSS. Brit. Mus. p. 944. 


Zachariah's work then forms the basis of our Syriac 
author's bks. 3-6. The author did not, however, incorporate 
Zachariah in full, but epitomated him, as is clear from the 
fact that Evagrius quotes as from Zachariah a statement 
which is not found in our text.^ On the other hand, the 
main narrative in these books is so homogeneous that in 
general we may assume that no other source was used. In 
3. I, however, occur three passages which are found in almost 
identical words in John of Ephesus,^ and must therefore have 
been interpolated either from John or from a common source, 
since the identity of language forbids us to postulate a common 
use of the Greek Zachariah. To another source also may be 
ascribed the list of Emperors and short secular chronicle with 
which bk. 3 concludes, the chronological summary at the end 
of the preface to bk. 4, for which the authority of a certain 
^poviKov is cited,^ and the notice of Zeno's death and the 
secular events of his reign in 6. 6. 

The compilation opens with an introductory chapter con- 
taining a general plan of the work, from which it is clear that 
the whole work, heterogeneous as it is, is the deliberate com- 
position of one man, not a mere collection of extracts. As to 
the personality of the writer, there are two possible indications, 
one in 7. S (p. 161), where, in speaking of a certain Gadono who 
took part in the campaign at Amida in 503, he says, " I know 
him " ; and another in 9. 18 (p. 264), where the same expres- 
sion is used of an Italian named Dominic or Demonicus, who 
fled to Constantinople during the Gothic rule ; but in neither 
case can we feel certain that the author is not copying the 
expression of some other writer, — a supposition which is sup- 
ported in the former instance by the early date of the events 
related, in the latter by the fact that John of Ephesus, whom 

' Evagr. iii. i8 ; cf. also ii. lo. 

" Aneal. Syr. iii. p. 120, 1. 6-') = Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 363, 1.' 6-9 ; Anecd. Syr. iii. 
p. 123, 1. ii-\T,= Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 363, 1. 1-5 ; Anecd. Syr. iii. p. 119, 1. ii-i6 = a 
passage quoted by M. Nau in his analysis of the second part of Jo. Eph. ap. " Dion." 
(Revue de t Orient Chritien, 1897, Suppl. trim. p. 457.) 

5 Cited also in ii. i (p. 93, 1. 9, Land) for the death of Decius and accession of 
Gallus, and in the appendix to bk. 2 for the length of the life and reign of 
Theodosius 11. 


our author appears to have used (see below), resided at Con- 
stantinople, while our author's interests lay entirely in the 
East.i As to the place of writing, in 12. S the author speaks 
of an event which happened at Amida as happening " here," 
from which it may be inferred thkt he was living at Amida, or 
at any rate in Mesopotamia ; ^ and a connexion with Amida is 
also rendered probable by his acquaintance with Eustace, the 
architect of Amida, which may be gathered from 9. 19 (p. 267), 
the special mention of the Amidene who was appointed to 
command the guard at Alexandria in 10. i, and the author's 
intercourse with the Amidene captives mentioned in 12.7 
(p. 329).^ If 7. 3—5 is original, the intimate acquaintance 
with the history of Amida there shown must further be 

The date of writing is given in I. i and i. 3 as A.s. 880 
= A.D. 5 6g. This must have been the date of the completion 
of the work, of which different parts were written at different 
times; thus 12. 4 was written in 561, and 12. 7 in 55 S; 
10. 12, which I have restored from Michael (see below), would 
appear, on "Ca^ prima facie interpretation of the words to have 
been written in 545 ; but, since the style of the narrative 
makes it incredible that it was written within a year of the 
events recorded, " this year 8 " must be understood to mean 
" this year 8, with which we are now dealing." * Throughout 
the history of Justinian's reign the author speaks of the 
Emperor in terms which imply that he was still living. 

In respect of the date a difficulty arises from the use of 
John of Ephesus, which use seems to be proved by the facts 

^ No passage corresponding to this occurs in the analysis of Jo. Eph. given by 
M. Nau from "Dionysius," but I can hardly believe that the vi-hole of Jo. Eph. is 
preserved by "Dion.," since the analysis contains no record of the Synod of 536 or 
of the death of Theodora. 

^ In 12. 6 " the cities here '' = the cities of Mesopotamia ; but, on the other hand, 
the fact that this somewhat obscure event is recorded makes it probable that the 
author was «. native of Amida. Jo. Eph. was also an Amidene, but the late date of 
this event makes it unlikely that the narrative was derived from his work (see below). 
Moreover, at that time he seems to have been living in Constantinople or Asia Minor. 
3 On the other hand, Dodo the anchorite, whom he quotes as an informant in 8. 5, 
seems to have been a native of Emesa. 

* Similarly " this year 4" at the end of 12. 5. 


concerning the letter of Simeon of Beth Arsham in 8. 3. Of 
this letter our author and John (preserved in the Chronicle 
attributed to Dionysius^) have practically the same version, and 
this version is an abbreviation of the original letter, vsrhich is 
preserved in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 14.650 and in a MS. in 
the Museum Borgianum and has been edited by Prof. Guidi.^ 
Now two men cannot have made the same epitome of the same 
document ; hence one must have copied the other ; and that 
the copyist was our author appears from the fact that in his 
work the letter stands alone, while in John it is embedded in 
a narrative of Homerite affairs. Again, our author's account 
of the bishops of Amida in 8. S is so similar to that in Assem., 
B. 0. vol. ii. pp. 48, 49, that, though the divergences show that 
it is not slavishly copied from it, it is scarcely credible that it is 
wholly independent.^ The second part of John's History was, 
however, not completed before 571,* while our author, as we 
have seen, finished his work in 569. It is not, however, 
necessary to suppose that the whole of John's second part was 
published at one time ; indeed we know from his own state- 
ment ^ that a narrative of the persecution which began in 518, 
which, if not a portion of the Ecclesiastical History, must have 
been afterwards in great measure incorporated with it, and 
may well have included an account of the persecution of the 
Homerites, was published by him thirty years before 567. If, 
indeed, this date is to be taken literally, it is too early for our 
purpose, since the headings of the lost chs. 2, 3 of our bk. 10, 

' Assem., B. O. vol. i. p. 364. It has been shown by M. Nau, in Bulletin Critique, 
ser. 2, torn. ii. p. 321 ff., and by Prof. Nbldeke, in Vienna Oriental Journal, torn. x. 
p. l6off., that the attribution of this Chronicle to Dionysius is " mere blunder of 
Assemani ; but, as the name is too well established to abandon, I refer to it as 
" Dionysius." I may here add that from Mich. (fol. 223) it appears that the work of 
Dionysius, whose preface is there given in full, began at 582, and was a continuation 
of Cyrus of Batnse. 

^ Atti deir Accademia de' Lincei, ser. 3, tom. vii. 

' See also Hallier, Untersuchungen uber die Edessenische Chronik, p. 67. His 
argument from the list of banished bishops, which Mich. (fol. 161 v.) quotes as from 
Jo. Eph. , is, however, not quite conclusive, since our author's account in 8. 5 is some- 
what different, and the correspondence as to Akhs'noyo may be explained if both 
drew from the letter to which our author refers. 

* Jo. Eph. pt. iii. I. 3. 

^ De Beat. Orient. 35 [Anecd. Syr. ii. pp. 203, 212 ; transl. pp. 130, 135). 


dealing with the persecution of Abraham Bar Khili at Amida in 
5 37-539) correspond with chapters in " Dionysius," ^ who wrote 
out John, and must therefore be assumed to be derived from 
the latter's work.^ In one of the fragments of the History ,3 
however, John mentions an account of this persecution written 
by him, from which it follows either that the history of the 
persecution was not written before 539, or that a later work 
dealing with this second persecution was afterwards added. 
In either case we have a sufficient explanation of our author's 
use of John. Our author did not, however, merely copy John 
of Ephesus, even for events preceding 540. For instance, 
John's account of the earthquake of Antioch in 526 is pre- 
served,* and is quite different from our author's, and his account 
of the persecution at Edessa under Asclepius ^ is very hard 
to combine with the narrative in our text (8. 4). But the 
true relation between the two can only be solved when the 
full text of " Dionysius " has been published. 

This complication often makes it impossible to determine 
whether a particular passage of Michael is derived from our 
author or from John ; and therefore, though the references 
should give only sources and parallels, not derivatives, I have 
thought it best to give the references to Michael throughout 
rather than venture on arbitrary decisions,^ which might be 
misleading. As Michael is not published, I have added refer- 
ences to his copyist Gregory .'^ There is, however, one test by 
which it is sometimes possible to discriminate, and that is the 
method of dating ; for John dates by Seleucid years only, 
while our author uses also the indictional reckoning, and 
generally writes the numeral in Greek, a practice found also 

' Cod. Syr. Vat. 162, fol. 96. I made a cursory examination of this MS. in 1894, 
but I owe most of my knowledge of " Dionysius " (apart from Assemani's extracts) to 
M. Nau's analysis (see p. 4, note). 

^ It does not follow that the narrative itself was copied, since our author may have 
taken his subjects from John, and given his own account of the events. 

^ Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 294; transl. p. 221. 

* Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 299 ff. ; transl. p. 224 ff. 

^ Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 291 ff. ; transl. p. 219 ff. 

^ This does not apply to the Zachariah books, in wnich there can be no doubt that 
he copies our author. 

' The references to the Chronicoii Syriacum are to the edition of Bedjan. 


in the Edessene Chronicle.^ The use of this method in certain 
passages in Michael has enabled me to restore some lost 
chapters in bk. lo. 

The first book, after the introductory chapter and a dis- 
cussion of the chronology of Genesis, contains the History of 
Joseph and Asnath,^ the Acts of Silvester,^ and the narrative 
of the discovery of the relics of Stephen, Gamaliel, and 
Nicodemus by the presbyter Lucian,* concluding with a short 
account of two early Syriac writers. Bk. 2, ch. i, contains the 
Acts of the Seven Sleepers,* while in ch. 2 the continuous 
historical narrative opens with the Synod of Constantinople in 
448, and at the end of bk. 9 it is brought down to the 
capture of Rome in 536. Bks. 2-6 are almost wholly 
ecclesiastical, but bks. 7—9 contain much valuable information 
on secular matters, particularly on the relations between Rome 
and Persia. So far the work is practically complete,* but the 

^ See Hallier, op. cit. p. 41. 

" The translation from' the Greek is ascribed to Moses of Ingila. This chapter 
has been translated into Latin by Oppenheim (Berlin, 1886). Part of the Greek 
version of this legend and a Latin epitome were published by Fabricius {Cod. 
Pseudepigr. V. T. vols. i. and ii. ), and a complete text in Greek and Latin has now 
been published from several MSS. by the Abbe Batiffol (Paris, 1889-1890). The 
Greek text has been again edited by V. M. Istrin (Moscow, 1898). 

^ The Greek Acts are published in Combefis, Christi martyrum lecti tnumphi. 
Portions are also given by Cedrenus, and in a shorter form by Geo. Mon. and 
Zonaras. A Latin version with large additions exists in a book entered in Brit. 
Mus. Catalogue under "Eusebius," and supposed to have been published at Strass- 
burg in 1470. Another with slight variations is in Mombritius, Sancluarium, vol. ii., 
and the Jewish dispute was published by Wicelius (Maintz, 1544). An epitome is 
in Surius, Act. Sand., Dec. 31. The Syriac Acts are also in Add. MS. 12,174, but 
without the Jewish dispute. See article of A. L. Frothingham in Memorie delV 
Accademia di Lincei, 1882. 

■* Lucian's letter exists in two Latin versions in Migne, Patr. Lat. vol. xli. p. 807 ff. 
The Greek original is mentioned by Fabricius {Bibl. Grcec. vol. x. p. 327), but is 
not published. An epitome is given in Photius, Bibl. Cod. 171, which contains a 
passage found in our author but not in either of the Latin texts. Another Latin 
version, with slight variations from the first of the two in Migne, is published in 
Mombritius, Sanciuarium, vol. ii. 

^ For the various versions of this legend see Act. Sanct., Jul. vol. vi. p. 375 ff., 
and Guidi, Testi Orimtali Inediti sopra i Sette Dormienti di Efeso (Atti deW 
Accademia de' Lincei, ser. 3, torn. xii.). The Greek Acts are in Migne, Patr. Grtec. 
vol. cxv. p. 428. A Syriac version similar to our author's is in Add. MS. 14,641, fol. 
150. El. Nis. quotes the legend from "John the Jacobite," i.e. John of Ephesus. 

° Setting aside small tears and obliterations, the only losses are a part of i. 6, 


remaining books are unfortunately fragmentary. Of bk, 10, 
in which the history is continued to 548, we have the 
headings of the chapters complete and portions of the chapters 
themselves ; ^ the lost chapters I have been able in part to 
restore from Michael, Gregory, and the fragments of James of 
Edessa.^ Bk. i-i is wholly lost : of bk. 1 2 we have a frag- 
ment extending from the middle of ch. 4 to the middle of ch. 
7, and dealing with the years 553-556. The original work 
was, as we are told in the introductory chapter, brought down 
to 569. 

The legendary matter at the beginning, though of great 
value for comparison with other versions of the same legends, 
stands quite apart from the rest of the work ; and, as it does 
not contain anything which does not exist in Greek or Latin, 
it does not appear worth the space that would be required for 
translating it, and is therefore omitted. Of the remainder the 
translation of i. 9, bk. 2 (omitting ch. i), and bks. 3-7 is the 
work of Dr. Hamilton,^ while for the introductory chapter, 
bks. 8 and 9, and the fragments of bks. 10 and 12* I am 

Since Dr. Land, as he states in his preface,^ thought it 
better to spend his time in copying fresh documents than in 
revising his transcripts, his text is naturally far from 
accurate, and an examination of the MS. has enabled us in 
many instances to correct it. The MS. itself, however, is 
considerably corrupted, and supplies a text inferior to that of 
the Roman MS., which is later in date. All departures from 
Land's text on the authority of the MS., or of Cod. Rom. 
(which I have examined), or by conjecture, are noted, except 
in the case of (i) punctuation, including plural marks; (2) 

where a leaf has been lost, and the end of I. 5> which is also missing. The 
beginning of I. 6, also contained on this latter leaf or leaves, is supplied by Dr. Land 
from Add. MS. 7190. 

^ 10. 16 and a part of 10. 15, missing in Cod. Brit, are found in Cod. Rom. 

2 Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 14,685. 

^ A translation of bks. 3-6 was privately printed by Dr. Hamilton in 1892. No 
other continuous translation, except of the Vatican fragments, has as yet appeared. 

* The epitome of Ptolemy's Geography in 12. 7 is omitted. 

^ P. xiv. 


division of words ; (3) final ^ or o ; (4) foreign proper 
names and technical terms, where there is no doubt what is 
meant. In many places assistance has been derived from 
the work of other writers, of whom mention is made in the 




The first chapter, an apology, for undertaking the work. 

The second chapter, an epistle containing a request with 
regard to the table of generations in the book of Genesis. 

The third chapter, a defence of the table of generations in 
the matter of the chronological canons, which are set down 

The fourth chapter, an epistle containing a request with 
regard to the translation of the Greek book of Asyath, which 
was found in the library of the house of Beruya, the bishops 
from the city of Rhesaina.^ 

The fifth chapter, an answer to the epistle. 

The sixth chapter, a translation of the book of Asyath. 

The seventh chapter, a translation of " Silvester, Patriarch 
of Rome," relating the conversion and baptism of Constantine, 
the believing king, and the disputations of the Jewish doctors. 

The eighth chapter, the revelation of the repository of the 
bones of Stephen and Nicodemus and Gamaliel and Habib his 

The ninth chapter, about Isaac and Dodo, the Syriac 

■' Cf. ch. 4 (p. 15, 1. 24, L.), "in the library of the memorable bishops who were 
called the family of the house of Beruya from the city of Rhesaina, in the possession 
of a lad of their kin named Mor'abdo . . . , I found a little book . . '. called the 
book of Asyath." 


Men who were moved like irrational beasts (and they were 
merely animaP) by foul habits and wicked customs and brutal 
instincts and earthly ^ life^ and evil tradition* handed down 
from one to another, in the eager pursuit of passions, in the 
corruption of the flesh, and in the impure desires of the body, 
men whom the Scripture named flesh, saying, " My spirit shall 
not dwell with men for ever, for that they are flesh " ; ^ whom 
Solomon also calls ungodly, saying, " Ungodly men with 
their words and with their works called upon death and 
thought it their friend ; and they melted away and sware and 
made a covenant with it, because they are worthy to be part 
of it. For they said in themselves (and they did not reason 
aright), ' Our life is short and in sorrow,^ and there is no 
further remedy at the death of a man, and no man hath 
appeared who hath been released from Hades. For we were 
suddenly born, and hereafter we shall return to be as though 
we had never been : for the breath in our nostrils is as smoke," 
and reason as a spark stirred in our heart; which being 
extinguished,^ our body shall be as ashes, and the breath shall 
be scattered abroad as thin air, and our name shall be forgotten 
after a time, and no man shall remember our works, and our 
life shall pass away as the trace of clouds, and as a mist that 

^ The MS. has |j_]_ii-2J, not fj_iL2U, as L. prints. 

2 The MS. has "jA i 1 \i], not lAj_i.i,j1, as L. prints. 

3 TToXireia. * Read l^niVnV.Vn for ]^n . Vn\ - Vn 

= Gen. vi. 3. « The MS. has 'jZ)in:iI20, not lALo'i.r^, as L. prints. 

' The MS. has ]±iL, not ]jjZ, as L. prints. 

8 Before (j)Aai,J the MS. has J, which L. does not print. 


is driven away before the beams of the sun, and its heat is heavy 
upon it. For our Hfe is a shadow that passeth away, and 
there is no remedy at our death : for it is sealed, and there is 
none that returneth. Come on therefore, let us enjoy these 
good things : and let us speedily use the creatures in our 
youth. Let us fill ourselves with choice wine and ointments : 
and let no blossom ^ of the air pass by us : let us crown 
ourselves with the flowers of the rose-tree before it be withered : 
and let none of us be without voluptuousness until our old 
age ; and in every place let us leave a token ^ of our volup- 
tuousness : for this is our portion and this is our inheritance '" ; * 
these did as * Moses bears witness : " The whole earth was of 
one language, and of one speech. And it came to pass, when 
they removed from the east, that they found a plain in the 
land of Sin'ar ; and they dwelt there. And they said, each 
man to his fellow, ' Go to, let us cast bricks and burn them 
with fire.' And they had brick for stone, and slime had they 
for mortar. And they said, ' Go to, let us build us a town and a 
tower whose top may reach unto heaven ; and let us make us 
a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the earth.' " ^ And 
they toiled and built zealously,® and laboured in vain at the 

And ^ yet again the tribes of Reuben and Gad and the 
half tribe of Manasseh, when they turned back from the rest 
of the tribes of their brethren, who had taken possession of 
the land of promise, and came to Gilgal by the side of Jordan 
in the land of Kh'na'an, built there with stones which they 

' The MS. reading is 0T_».2C1^, not Cn,j_2.Qi., as L. prints. 

2 (Tifji.p6\ov. ' Wisd. i. 16-ii. 9. 

* Omit J before j^j]. ' Gen. xi. 1-4. 

" A .[ m . osrri This word occurs again in bk. 7, ch. 9 (p. 224, 1. 13, L.), 
where Payne Smith proposes to read A .Im . «-im Xhe word, however, is found in 
both MSS. at that place, and occurs again here, where A-> |cn 1 nm , "frequently," 
does not suit the context. In both places the most suitable meaning is as above. 
The corresponding adjective occurs in ch. 7 (p. 73, 1. 5, L.), and in bk. 12, ch. 5 
(p. 325, 1. 23, L.), where the meaning seems to be "violent" or "stormy" ; see note 
on 12. 5. The adverb also occurs in 7. 6 (p. 215, 1. 2, L.). 

' Josh. xxii. 9-27. 

14 THE CHRONICLE OF [book i. 

collected a great altar to see to by the side of Jordan. And, 
when the rest of the tribes heard of it, Phineas the son of 
Eli'azar the priest and the chiefs of the congregation, the 
captains of the hosts ^ of Israel, came to them and inquired 
at their hands concerning this; and they returned them 
answer, " It is that it may be a witness between us and 
you, that your children may not say to our children in time 
to come, ' What have ye to do with the Lord God of Israel, 
ye children of Reuben and children of Gad ? For behold ! 
the Lord God hath set a border between us and you, even 
this Jordan.' And we said, ' Let us take us occasion and 
build us an altar, not for sacrifice, nor for offering, but for a 
witness between us and you, and between our generations 
after us.'" 

And ^ again Gideon, after he had overthrown the Mid- 
ianites, spread a garment and asked each man for the ear- 
rings of the prey which the men with him had gathered ; and 
the weight of the earrings that he asked was a thousand and 
seven hundred ^ measures of weight : and Gideon took them 
and made thereof a lufro^ and put it in his village, even in 
'Ofrah : and the children of Israel went astray after it, and 
it became a snare to Gideon and to his house. 

And ^ again the mother of Micah of Mount Ephraim, she 
also received eleven hundred measures of silver from her son, 
and made a graven image and a molten image. 

And again Abshalom the son of David " in his lifetime, 
reared up for himself an image in the dale of the kings : for 
he said, ' I have no one to keep my name in remembrance ' : 
and he called the image after his name : and it was called 
' Abshalom's hand,' unto this day." ^ And Methodius also, 
bishop of Olympus and martyr, in the work which he 
addressed to Aglaophon concerning the resurrection of the 

^ Read J for O before |Zn\ i kj. 
^ Judg. viii. 24-27. 

2 Read 1]Vl\a.ii for IV^ViSn i>. 

■* The Syriac corruption of the Heb. n'lBN (efod) with the preposition ^ prefixed. 
^ Judg. xvii. 1-4. 2 Sam. xviii. 18. 


dead, tells a story about Phidias/ a craftsman and sculptor, 
who wrought an ivory ^ statue, beautiful to behold, and, in 
order that it might last a long time and not be destroyed or 
spoilt, poured oil under its feet and anointed the rest of the 

And we see images of divers persons in divers places, and 
we find records ^ written on papyrus concerning divers events 
which have happened in the world, and statues set up to pre- 
serve the memory and extol the merits of those who are dead. 

How just and right is it therefore for the discreet and 
earnest to see that the rest of the events which have occurred 
from time to time after those chronicled in the three Ecclesi- 
astical Histories of Eusebius, Socrates, and Theodoret, which 
are scattered about and not collected in one book, are, as far 
as is possible, collected together from epistles or manuscripts 
or trustworthy reports and set down for the benefit of the 
believers and of those who care for right instruction and 
mental excellence ! May the recording of them have the 
help of Christ our God, to whom we pray that He will give 
us wisdom and eloquence, that without confusion we may 
write the true account of the things which have happened ! 

Now, since in the Syriac manuscripts of the table of 
generations in Genesis there is a certain variation and 
divergence* from the Greek,^ and no small deficiency in the 
number of years, it is right for us and in harmony with our 
work and reasonable ^ that it should begin with the book of 
Genesis, and after this should continue with the book of 
Asyath,'^ and after that with that of Silvester and the con- 
version ^ of Constantine the king and his baptism, with regard 
to which Eusebius has failed to give an accurate account and 
Socrates has missed the truth (for the king was not baptized 

' Method, ap. Epiph. Hcer. Ixiv. 18, Phot. Bibl. Cod. 234. 

- Read ]V - "^ '^rM f°r ]\ 1 "^'t-iA with Sachau {Academy, June 1871). 

3 iTo/j,v/i/j.a,Ta. ^ The MS has IjOOJ, not IjOOl, as L. prints. 

^ Read J for ^ before \ i 10 ■■ 

^ Insert O before (A . \n 

' The Syriac form of the Hebrew nJDN, " Asnath." 

^ KariJxTytrts. 


at the end of his life, as he ^ wrote, since the story of his con- 
version by Silvester is also preserved in writing and in pictures 
at Rome in several places, as those who have been there ^ and 
come to us have seen and tell), and further concerning the 
revelation of the repository of the bones of Stephen and his 
companions, and concerning Isaac and Dodo, the Syriac * 

And here we will end the first book ; and afterwards, from 
such sources as we can find, we will write about the succeed- 
ing events in books and in the chapters contained in them 
severally, as written below, from the thirty-seco.nd year of Theo- 
dosius the son of Arcadius to the year 880 of the Greeks.* 

Now ^ we beg * that the readers or hearers will not blame 
us, if we do not call the kings victorious and mighty, and the 
generals "^ valiant and astute,* and the bishops pious and 
blessed, and the monks chaste and of honourable character, 
because it is our object to relate ^ facts, following in the foot- 
steps of the Holy Scriptures, and it is not our intention on 
our own account to praise and extol rulers with flattering 
words,^'' or to revile and insult with rebuke those who believe 
differently, provided only we do not find something of the 
kind in the manuscripts and epistles which we are about to 

^ I.e. Eusebius ; but perhaps we should read QsAo], " they wrote." 
^ ^^L either is out of place or should be again inserted after 0001. 

3 Read ]j_i'JaiD for V» 'io-CD- 

* 569. The same date is given in ch. 3 ad fin. 
^ Cf. Socr. bk. 6, prcef. 

» Read ^■i.CQ-t-.glLO for ,^ 1 m ^iLO. ' <rTpaTrrY6s. 

* |i3^4- The dictionaries give only a bad sense to this word; but here and 
in bk 9, ch. 17 (p. 286, 1. 3, L.) a good sense is imperatively required. It occurs 
again in bk. 3, ch. 11 (p. 131, 1. 26), where either meaning would suit, and in 7. 13 
(p. 230, 1. 15), where the good sense is much the more probable. 

^ Insert J before fjAjJ. 
" The MS. has ]ZqJ^25Qj, not IZqJ^OCD, as L. prints. 




Isaac the teacher, a native of Syria, issued forth from one of 
the monastic dwellings of the West ; and he in his diligence 
went up to Rome, and he also travelled to other cities. And 
he had books which were full of profitable teaching, containing 
all kinds of comments upon the Sacred Scriptures, following 
Ephraim and his disciples. 

And Dodo also was a worthy monk of Samkfe, a town 
belonging to the district of Amida. And on account of the 
captivity and famine which occurred in his days in that 
country, he was sent by the chiefs of the people to the king ; 
and he proved himself very acceptable. And this man also 
had, as it appears to us, about three hundred works, more or 
less, upon every matter taken from the Divine Scriptures, and 
concerning holy men, and hymns. 



After the Ecclesiastical History of Eusebius of Csesarea, both 
Socrates and Theodoret, in the treatises which they successively 
composed, reaching down to the thirty-second year of the reign 
of Theodosius the Less, wrote for the memory and profit of the 
prudent, as best they were able, accounts of the transactions 
and matters that occurred in various places, which they were 
diligent in learning from the volumes, and letters, and records,^ 
and words of living speakers, that they examined. 

And accordingly I also, insignificant though I be, am 
beginning to write, as you asked me, for the instruction of 
the brethren, and for the gratification of the lovers of doctrine, 
and for the confirmation of believers, Christ our Lord and 
God consenting and aiding and giving the word of power — by 
your great advice, diligent brother, and while you pray that I 
may write the truth with eloquence without confusion or cause 
for blame. 

For when, making a commencement of this treatise of the 
second Book, I am relating, as concisely as possible, without 
prolonging the discourse or being wearisome to the reader or 
tedious to the hearer, what I was able ^ to discover from 
records and Acts^ or from letters, — ^truth that was carefully 
examined, — I shall set down here the truth of the resurrection, 
which took place in the days of Theodosius the king, of the 
bodies of the seven youths who were in a cave in the district 

' t.fe.V) I 1 ViaOCn, i.e. ivoiiviiimTa. 

2 ZLkkI^jI, MS., not Ajj^AjI, as L. prints. 

3 1 1 Vl , .;. c^ g^, i.e. TTSTrpayiJiiva.. 


of Ephesus, and the Syriac records ; both to keep them in the 
memory of the saints and for the glory of God, Who is able 
to do all things. 

And then I shall set down briefly in the form of chapters, 
so that the account may not be enlarged of the events of one 
period which we write in detail in the Acts that are found in 
every place, what happened during the ten remaining years of 
the life of Theodosius, but in this Book I am writing them so to 
speak — what happened in Constantinople respecting Eutyches 
the archimandrite and Flavian the chief priest, and the Synod 
of thirty-one bishops and twenty-two archimandrites who met 
together and who brought about the deprivation of Eutyclies ; 
and also respecting the second Synod which was held in 
Ephesus concerning Flavian in the days of Dioscorus and 
Juvenalis ^ and Domnus, and the one hundred and twenty- 
eight bishops who were with them. 

And then I begin with the third Book. 



There was, in the days of king Theodosius, one Eutyches, 
a presbyter and archimandrite, a recluse belonging to those 
who dwell in Constantinople. This man was visited by 
many (who resorted to him ostensibly on account of his 
chastity and piety) who happened to be in the city, and 
especially by the soldiers of the palace, who were lovers of 
doctrine. For at that time Nestorius, who was ejected, was 
being justly reviled because of his filthy doctrine. This 
Nestorius it was who held and taught base opinions respect- 
ing the Incarnation of God the Word ; and he imagined that 
the two Natures existed separately in Christ our God after the 
union ; and he held the precedence of the infant who was 
conceived and formed in the Virgin, whom he also called 
1 .mn 1 ■ 1 on . MS., an evident mistake for .m 1 \ 1 *~)n 1. 

20 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ii. 

Jesus and Christ; and he thought that God the Word at 
length descended upon Him, views scarcely differing from those 
of Paul of Samosata, and much the same as the teaching of 
the school of Diodorus, which he studied, accepted, and loved ; 
but he lightly and without compunction refused to call the 
ever-virgin, holy Mary, by the title " Theotokos," ^ even 
though the true doctors who were before him, Athanasius and 
Gregory and Basil and Julius, and the others, had so called 
her ; and, moreover, he also censured them, as the letter 
testifies which he wrote from Oasis to the clergy and citizens. 
Whereupon, many being disturbed by his doctrine, a Synod, 
consisting of one hundred and ninety - three bishops, was 
assembled at Ephesus ; and it carefully examined his teach- 
ing ; and it called upon him three times, according to the 
canonical rule of the Church, to apologise and to censure his 
own interpretations, and at length to confess Jesus to be God 
the Word Who became incarnate, one Person and one Nature, 
as the doctors of the holy Church teach. But he would not 
consent, as also Socrates relates in the short account which he 
wrote of him, and which is fully told in the original Acts.^ 
Consequently his deprivation took place in the days of 
Celestine, Cyril, and Juvenalis, before the arrival of John of 
Antioch and his attendant bishops, who were delayed. 

It^ was somewhere about this time that Eutyches, wishing 
to affirm the one Nature in Christ, rejected the truth of the 
body derived from the Virgin, which God the Word took in her 
and from her. And in the conversation which he held with 
those who came together to him, this same Eutyches affirmed 
an inaccurate dogma,* not having been well instructed. 

But he taught many that (the Word became flesh) ^ as 

^ It is impossible to give in English the exact equivalent of this theological 
term ; neither " God-bearer " nor " mother of God " quite meet the case. 

^ I ^ ^ I .; °^ '^ i.e. Treirpar/ijAva,, 

^ Mich. fol. iii. v ; Greg. H. E. i. p. 159 ff. 

^ The text ]i005j ^ZoZLiAjj ZoX is corrupt. Possibly for Zq2\ we should 
read oli, and for ]LDo5j, ]S£1<|0». 

' Some such words must have dropped out of the text ; both Michael and 
Barheb'- supply the omission as above. 


the atmosphere assumes bodily form and becomes rain or 
snow under the influence of the wind, or as water by reason 
of the cold air becomes ice. 

And 1 when the report of his vile teaching was published 
abroad it was investigated by Eusebius of Dorylaeum, who 
happened to be in the city ; and he informed Flavian, the chief 
priest, concerning it, and he gave him an indictment. 

And he was called upon three times by thirty-one bishops 
who were there and twenty-two archimandrites, to come 
forward and apologise for his opinions, and abjure them, and 
make a written statement of the true confession. And at 
first, indeed, he would not do so, at one time saying that it 
was ^ his fixed determination ^ to remain in perpetual seclusion, 
and again, that he was sick, and had a cough, and was old ; 
(and he made these excuses) relying upon the aid of the 
soldiers of the palace, who were his friends. Now the king 
heard of these matters. But at last, when his deprivation was 
decreed to take place, he was compelled to appear before the 
council of bishops ; however, he did not recant his doctrine 
with whple-hearted sincerity, but kept on saying, " Just as you 
teach two Natures in Christ, so do I say." 

And, behold ! all these things are written expressly, one 
after another, in lengthened discourse in the Acts of that 
Council. However, that we may not make our narrative too 
long, but may compress much into small compass, as the wise 
man says,* we refrain from relating them again in detail and 
writing them down here. Then his deprivation took place. 
Now in the accusations against him and in the interlocutions,^ 
and more especially in what was said by Eusebius of Dory- 
laeum when contending with him, the two Natures after the 
union were expressly taught in conformity with the doctrine of 
Nestorius.^ And the interlocution of Flavian set forth'' the 
same views. And * Eutyches, rejecting the party of Flavian 

^Liberal, ii. ^Liberal, ii. 

'IkJQjoZj, MS., I^DOjoZ, L. « Sir. xxxii. (LXX. XXXV.) 8. 

^ .rr\n , \\ .y ;,£, dLoXaXiais. 

» This seems to be the sense of the passage, but the text is evidently corrupt. 
' Reading ]a^5AS£> for ^jAkJ. « Liberat. il. 

22 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ii. 

and Eusebius, who deposed him, sent a libel ^ to Rome to 
Leo, who was the chief priest there, begging that these 
matters should be investigated in another Synod ; with regard 
to which libel he received a reply. And when the party of 
Flavian heard it they also wrote,^ and sent the Acts of the 
Council concerning Eutyches to Leo. And the latter wrote to 
Flavian the letter called the Tome, in which there are many 
heads that have been condemned by the dogmatic ^ doctors ; 
which also were censured at that time by Dioscorus and his 
followers, and again by Timothy the Great, who was with him, 
and by many treatises of others, which we omit to mention 
again here and to write down. 



Accordingly a Synod was convened, the second in Ephesus, 
about the matter of Flavian and Eutyches ; and it was held in 
the presence of the legates of Leo, who were sent with his 
letter. And the bishops came together there to the number 
of one hundred and eighty-eight, the chief rulers among them 
being Dioscorus of Alexandria, and Juvenalis of Jerusalem, and 
Domnus of Antigch. And the contents of the Acts of the 
Constantinopolitan Council concerning Eutyches were ex- 
amined ; ^ and Flavian and Eusebius were ejected. And an 
outcry was raised by the bishops who were there ; and they 
anathematised every one who would say, " There are two 

' Or petitions n\*~l i \, i.e. Xi^eWoi.. For this letter see Leo, Ep. 2i 
(Migne, Patr. Lat. vol. liv.). 
" Leo, Ep. 22, 26. 

3 ] n I f^Vl lO, i.e. BoyfmTiKol. * Liberat. 12. 

^ An exact translation of the text as it stands is impossible. Perhaps for 
QJLk»JDZ.(o we should read QJ_»^»<.£30, and render it, "And they searched in 
the Acts for what was done in Constantinople concerning Eutyches." 


Natures in Christ after the union." But a question ^ was also 
raised again there about what Theodoret of Cyrrhus wrote 
censuring the twelve Heads which Cyril drew up against 
Nestorius, who was previously banished ; and about the letter 
of Hibo of Edessa which he wrote to Moris of Nisibis in oppo- 
sition to Cyril and in favour of Nestorius ; and about what he 
said in his interpretations concerning Jesus Christ and Mary, 
as his own deacons, who were his accusers, testified. And 
besides these the partisans of John of Gaios ^ and others were 
deposed. But Eutyches the archimandrite was received, 
because he presented a libel of recantation ^ to the Synod, 
which was held there in Ephesus, and confessed the true faith. 
But the Synod appointed Anatolius as bishop of Constantin- 
ople in the room of Flavian, and then dispersed. 



With respect to the regular succession of the chief priests 
from the first Synod of Ephesus to the death of Theodosius, 
it is pertinent to our subject to relate who they were. In 

^ For |AikO, "question," it would perhaps be better to substitute ]Ai^, 
" outcry." 

2 ,CDQ_i_^t. No doubt John of ^gse is meant (Brooks). 

' IZoJ-iOAiD. It may stand either for IZoijOlALD, "consent," "agree- 
ment," etc. ; or for ]ZqJ_ioZALD, "recantation." This libel is given in Mansi, 
vol. vi. p. 629. As there is no recantation in it, perhaps the former meaning may be 
the one intended by our author. 

« -m . m Am j\ Ci = Karaa-Taffis, ^ Is- Valentinian. 

24 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ii. 

Rome, after Celestine, Leo was bishop for twenty-one years 
and forty-three days ; and in Alexandria, after Cyril, Dioscorus 
was bishop for eight years and three months. And in Con- 
stantinople, Maximus ^ for two years and two months ; and 
after him, Proclus for two years and two months ; and after 
him, Flavian for six years ; and after him, Anatolius for eight 
years. In Antioch, Domnus was bishop after John ; and after 
him Maximus. And in Jerusalem, Juvenalis was bishop for 
thirty-six years, who, holding the same position, was present 
at the three Synods, because the time of his years was 



The Letter of Proclus.^ 

" Beloved, the mystery of the true faith is true love, and 
the pure undoubting confession of the Trinity equal, undivided, 
and susceptible of no addition ; and a mind not varying in its 
state, but steadfast in its faith towards God. That is the 
faith which we do not possess on tables of stone, as in the 
type, but receive on the tables of our hearts, as in a mystery ; 
tables (I say) which are nailed to the cross, and are inscribed 
with the sprinkling of the blood of God. And it is right for 
us not only to believe, but also to follow earnestly after virtues 
and morals worthy of the faith.* For virtue is to be chosen by 
everyone, especially by those whose beauty of soul has not 
been corrupted by a hateful life of lusts. There are indeed 

1 I.e. Maximian. ^ i-n 1 Vn »A^ MS., not m . ^n »^ as L. prints.- 

^ Migne, PcUr. Crac. vol. Ixv. p. 856, and Pair. Lat. vol. Ixvii. p. 409. 
* Down to this point the Syriac text is quite different from the Greek. 


many kinds of virtue. For even the heathen, drowned in 
error and lost in mind, wrote memorable things ^ concerning 
this virtue. But as for this nature which is visible and flows 
on without cessation, they only felt ^ after it in their written 
teaching. But either their sight was dim from length of time, 
or they were blinded by error, so as to hinder them from the 
perception of the truth and from real virtue. For they say in 
their teaching that there are four kinds of virtue, namely, justice, 
self-restraint, wisdom, and fortitude ; which things, though they 
are to be highly accounted, yet are exercised here below and 
have their sphere upon the earth. They say, indeed, that 
fortitude is the contest with fierce nature, and self-restraint 
the triumph over the passions, and wisdom the distinguished 
government of cities,* and justice right division. And thus they 
ordered and arranged the world, according to that which is in 
the law,* and they defined wickedness on both sides. How- 
ever, anything superior to and transcending this visible scene 
they did not understand, nor were they able to describe it in 
writing. But with the blindness of their mind they have con- 
tracted virtue itself, and have shut ^ it up within what is visible 
alone. The Christians, however, by whose own faith the eyes 
of their heart have been enlightened, whose master and teacher 
is the blessed Paul, have declared that to be^ virtue which lifts 
us up to God, and which governs in orderly fashion the things 
that are on earth. This most illustrious Paul, then, considered 
that there were many kinds of virtue ; but he especially 
preached about these three, namely, faith, hope, and love. 
For faith gives to men something which transcends human 
nature, and causes that fleshly nature, as yet encompassed 
by many passions, to hold converse with spiritual beings. 

' ]iyo,Vn L. ; P'jIOrLD, MS. I suggest PVOjALD, and translate accordingly. 
The Greek is Si.a<p6pas. 

2 I^QiO, MS.; it should be CL«QiD; the Greek is f^rfKa^QyTes. 

3^Al .jV/lj (j,_KtO| [.Kt^fJI; iheonginalisTT]]/ ip Tois irdXeaiv dpio-TOKpareiav. 
* Or, as by law. 

" By reading fi m '-^ x^ for Q.d.«_i,j we obtain the sense of the original 

CTLiAjIj, MS., oij/Ll, L. 

26 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ii. 

For the knowledge of that which angels and spiritual hosts 
did not know on account of its sublimity, faith imparts to men, 
who walk upon the earth and wallow in the dust, and it brings 
them near to the Throne of the Kingdom, and it tells them of 
that Nature which is without beginning and without end ; and 
by the rays of light which it diffuses, it drives away darkness 
of thought 1 from the soul; and when it has cleared off all 
gloom and.denseness from the heart, then it causes that to be 
clearly seen which is comprehended in its invisibility, and also 
is seen in its incomprehensibility. But hope shows things to 
come in the present, not as in a dream, one can say, but 
forcibly; and, without a doubt, confirms in the mind that 
which is future as if it were actually seen ; and it forms before 
a man's eyes, so to speak, what he is still expecting. For 
this hope is superior to every restraint, and brings near, with- 
out delay, the thing expected to him who is expecting it. 

" But love is the chief of all our mysteries, for it persuaded 
God the Word, though He is always on the earth, near to all 
and with all (heaven and earth being filled by Him), to become 
incarnate and come by means of the flesh. And, being God, 
He became also man ; He retained that which properly be- 
longed to Himself on His own part, and He became like us 
on our part. These two then agree together, for faith is the 
mirror of love, and love is the completion of faith. We 
believe, therefore, that God the Word became incarnate with- 
out undergoing any change; and we rightly so believe, for 
this is the foundation of our salvation. For His nature 
receives no change, nor does it cause any addition to the 
Trinity. Thus indeed do we also ourselves believe. 

" Every Christian, therefore, who is not rich in faith, hope, 
and love, is not what he is named ; but even though he seem 
to have subdued his flesh and to have delivered himself from 
the passions of his soul, he is not meet for the crown of 
victory, inasmuch as he maintains the outward appearance^ of 
virtue, but he is not united to Him who crowns the conquerors 
that have resolutely contended on behalf of virtue in faith and 

1 1 venture to read |*~l >Q-k> for (^ ■ k> ; the Greek is ttjv ax\i>v tQv ala-8ri<riwv. 
a |V l I ^ro ], MS. {i.e. axniui), not |V) i fD''^|, as L. prints. 


hope and love. Faith, then, according to what we have said,^ 
is the chief of all blessings ; let it therefore be kept without 
guile, and let us not tarnish it by the falsehood of human 
thoughts, neither let us toss it about in the midst of confusing 
voices, nor by the explanations of those who are reputed to be 
wise : for faith is not to be explained ; faith is a mystery. 
Let it then remain within the limits of the Gospel of the 
apostles ; and let no . man dare to contend in his explanation 
with this faith by which he is saved, and which he confessed 
in baptism by the signature of his tongue. For this lofty 
height of faith has repelled every attack and all vaunting and 
rashness, not of man only, but also of every spiritual nature. 
And the blessed Paul testifies, crying out, ' If we or an angel 
from heaven should preach anything beside what ye have 
received, let him be accursed.' ^ For the angel has been 
appointed to minister and not to preach doctrine, and he 
brings punishment ^ upon any who does not remain * in his 
allotted station, but seeks after what is too high for his 
nature ; but even though * he displays the exaltation of his 
nature, let not the novelty of his preaching be received. Let 
us then guard what we have received with sleepless care ; and 
by the bright shining of our faith let the eye of our soul be 
always open. But what have we received ^ from the Divine 
Scriptures except this, that God by His word created the world 
out of nothing and brought the creation, which had no previous 
existence, into being ; and made man in His own image and 
likeness, and honoured him by the law of nature ; and gave 
him the commandment when he was in a state of freedom ; 
and showed him how to help himself,'' that by the choice of 
the good he should flee from the evil ; and the propensity of 
man being biassed towards the evil expelled disobedience 

1 ^jiol, MS., not ,^ iiV>l, as L. prints it. 

^ Gal. i. 9. Ai o MS., Aj-ii, L. * Or, and punishment comes. 

* loQisD, MS., notlO-fciiD, as L. prints it. 

' Mr. Brooks suggests that this is the correct reading ^S], Gk. d /ta(,not i£)(, 
as in the text. 

8 1 \»--iO MS., not ,^ ■ \nn, as L. prints. 
' OUJJOi, his own help or profit. 

28 THE CHRONICLE OF • [book ii. 

from Paradise ? And again, by the fathers and patriarchs, and 
by the Law, the judges, and the prophets, our Creator instructed 
our nature, that we should keep far away from sin, and should 
concern ourselves about the good and do it. And at last 
when sin established its kingdom over us by our own will, 
because the law of nature had been corrupted on its part.i 
and the written law had been despised, and the prophets, 
after the manner of men, brought deeds to remembrance but 
did not raise up our fleshly humanity from the depth of the 
evils, God the Word Himself, even He who is without 
beginning and without end, incomprehensible, invisible, and 
almighty, God the Word (I say) came and became incarnate ; 
for He could be whatsoever He willed. God the Word then, 
Who is one of the Trinity, became incarnate ; but He became 
incarnate because He so willed. And wishing to show ^ every- 
where that He was really man, He was born from the Virgin.. 
For the evangelist did not say that He entered into a perfect 
man, but that He ' became flesh,' meaning thereby His 
natural beginning and referring to the origin of His birth. 
For just as a man who is naturally born does not come forth 
complete in the perfection of active power all at once, but the 
seed of the nature at first becomes a body, and afterwards, 
little by little, at length attains the strength of the passions 
and of the whole active power ; so God the Word went to 
meet the origin and root of the birth. God the Word then 
became perfect man, and He did not take away anything 
from His own unchangeable nature by the miracle which He 
wrought- — a miracle which did not enter into the heart of man 
to conceive, but which we learn by faith and have not com- 
prehended by investigation. And having become man. He 
saved by His flesh the whole human race, and He paid the 
debt of sin, in that He died as man for all men ; but as God 
the hater of evil. He destroyed him that had the evil power of 
death, that is, Satan. But He showed the capability of the Law 
by fulfilling all righteousness. And He gave to our nature its 
pristine beauty ; and by becoming man He honoured the nature 

^ Or, had become obsolete. 

^ By reading ]q.jjJ for (OOTJ we get the sense of the original Scl^ai. 


which was derived from the earth, and showed Himself to be its 
Creator. There is therefore one Son, for we worship the Trinity 
in unity, and we do not introduce a fourth into this number ; but 
there is one Son, begotten from the Father, without beginning 
and without end, through whom we believe that the worlds 
were made, He Who was from that root. He Who without flux 
sprang from the Father; that same God the Word Who, 
without change of place, issues from the Father; yet remaining 
as He is. For although ^ He became man and appeared on 
the earth, yet He did not depart from Him who begat Him. 

" God the Word therefore wished to save the being whom 
He created ; and He dwelt in the womb which is the gate of 
the universal nature of all, and He revived and blessed the 
womb, and by issuing forth from it He sealed ^ it. And by 
His supernatural birth He showed that He became incarnate 
in a manner transcending reason ; for there are none among 
the beings above and beneath who know how He became 
incarnate. There is not, then, one who is Christ and another 
who is God the Word (away with such a thought !), for the 
divine nature does not know two sons ; He therefore was 
begotten the only One from One ; for where there is not 
copulation of parents, there duality of the offspring is not 
possible. ' In the name of Jesus Christ,' indeed, ' every knee 
shall bow, of things in heaven and on earth, and of things under 
the earth.' * For if Christ is another and not God the Word, 
then of necessity Christ must be mere man ; and how can the 
exalted nature of heavenly beings bow the knee and worship His 
Name, if He be not God of God ? or how shall we receive the 
voices of prophets, crying, ' God appeared upon earth and held 
converse with men ' ? * For concerning His Incarnation it is 
said, ' He appeared,' and the expression, ' He held converse,' 
is used concerning His converse which He displayed with men 
in the end of the ages. For thus He that is exalted in great- 
ness showed His almighty power; and as the universal Ruler 
to Whom everything is easy. He remained what He was on 
His own part, and became what He willed for us. 

1 Read ^1 for ^ ; the Greek is el Kal. 

2 OTLdAjj, MS., not C7lZ,jj, as L. ^ Phil. ii. 10. ^ Bar. iii. 37. 

30 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ii. 

"But if the swaddling clothes, and the lying in the 
manger, and the' growth of the body, and the sleeping \ in the 
ship, and the weariness on the journey, and the occasional 
hunger, and all those things which happened to Him Who was 
truly man, be a cause of stumbling to some persons, let them 
know that if they be in doubt concerning His sufferings, they 
deny the dispensation ; but when they deny the dispensation 
they do not believe in the Incarnation, but when they do not 
believe in the Incarnation they lose their own lives. For if 
from the foundation of the world a man was not born who 
trod a way of birth like this,^ let these new Jewish wranglers^ 
show it, and then indeed their troublesome contention * will be 
disclosed. But if this is the universal beginning of nature, 
and God the Word truly became man, how then, while con- 
fessing with us the dispensation, do they deny the sufferings ? 
Let them therefore choose for themselves one of two things : 
either let them by denying the sufferings deny also the dispen- 
sation and be reckoned among the ungodly ; or, if they accept 
the benefit which is derived from the dispensation, let them 
not be ashamed of the sufferings. I am amazed indeed at 
the blindness of their heart, who by a newly invented way 
have trodden the path that leads to error. For I myself know 
and have rightly learned from the Holy Scriptures only one 
Son ; and I believe in one nature ^ of God the Word Who 
became man, and the same endured the sufferings and wrought 
the miracles, Who was begotten from His Father before all 
things, and became incarnate in the end of the ages, and was 
born from Mary, the Theotokos. And we confess that He is 
God over all, and we introduce no foreign element into the 
nature of the Deity, for no addition is possible to the Trinity 
in Unity ; but the same Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom were all 
things, also endured our sufferings and carried our infirmities, 

I ]nSf)?o, MS., U^Ldj, l. 

^ By transposition of the word |J the Syriac would give the same sense as the 
Greek, i.e. "a man was born who trod a way of birth unHke this." 

= Read Ij-'W for U-'';-'-'. '' Read V»t^ for "jj-'^JS- 

^ P I *"), so (tempted by theological bias) the Monophysite translator rendered the 
iir6<rTairi.s of the original. 


as the prophet ^ says ; and He, being the same, wrought the 
miracles and suffered in our stead. 

" But perhaps in their contention these new Jews will strive 
with us, inventing thoughts weaker than a spider's web, and 
say that if indeed the Trinity be one essence then the Trinity 
is without suffering ; and our Lord Jesus Christ is reckoned 
in the Trinity, and He is God the Word, therefore He is with- 
out suffering ; consequently He Who was crucified must be 
another, and not God the Word Who is without suffering. 
Truly they who speak in this fashion are weaving the texture 
of a spider's web, and they who excogitate these new defini- 
tions are writing upon water ; and ' thinking themselves to 
be wise they have become foolish, and their silly heart is 
darkened.' ^ For the eye, which has been dazzled by the 
brilliant light of the sun, cannot see clearly ; and the mind 
that is sick cannot receive the sublimity of the faith. 

" What then do we say ? Thatj so far as the Godhead is 
concerned, the Trinity is one essence, and is exalted above 
all sufferings. And when we say that the Son suffered, we 
do not mean that He suffered according to Nature, for His 
Nature is above sufferings. But in confessing that God the 
Word, one of the Trinity, became incarnate, we give a reason 
for the understanding of those who in faith ask us why He 
became incarnate. Because man who was formed' in the 
image of God, and to whom imperial freedom was given, erred 
in this freedom, and was led by the counsel of the deceiver ; 
and he gave himself up to error, and he became the slave of 
lustful passions — passions all of which exercise dominion over a 
composite being — ^passions whose end is death — passions which 
none among the created beings is able to destroy. God the 
Word willed to destroy those passions whose end is death. 
He willed, indeed, to become incarnate and to be a com- 
posite being ; that is, a perfect man in all points like us, sin 
only excepted ; because it was not possible for that Natui'e, 
which is incorruptible, intangible, and invisible, to receive 
passions, for all passions are struggles of all composite 

' Isa. liii. 4. " Rom. i. 21, 22. 

3 ^LL], MS., not ^11], as L. prints it. 

32 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ii. 

beings. For with that exalted Nature of the Godhead, which 
alone is uplifted high above all things, there is no composition ; 
passion therefore was unable to enter where composition could 
not be. God the Word then willed to destroy the passions 
which reign over nature subject to passions (as we said before) 
whose citadel was death ; and He became flesh from the 
Virgin, in a manner that He, God the Word, knew ; and He 
became man perfectly, being at the same time God over all. 
For He did not abandon what properly belonged to Him when 
He became like us ; but being God, He became man, for such 
was His will. He emptied Himself, therefore, by His own 
will by taking the likeness of a slave, and He became man, 
and suffered in our stead, by His own will, though His Godhead 
was not in any respect limited ; and thus He saved the whole 
human race. Wherefore Gabriel also, when announcing the 
might and dominion of Him that should be born, said to 
Mary, ' He shall save His people from their sins.' ^ 

" But the people are not the people of a man but of God, 
and a man cannot deliver the world from sins, because he 
also entered into the world in a state of corruption. But 
necessarily He is the same ; He is not divided into two 
(away with such a thought !) ; but being one, by being born 
from a woman, He shows that He is ^ truly man ; but by be- 
coming man without copulation, and preserving His mother's 
virginity, He declared Himself to be God. The Lord Jesus 
Christ, therefore. Who came into the world and held converse 
with men, as the Holy Scriptures testify, saved the world. 
Now, if Christ be man, and not God the Word, how did He 
create everything in the beginning, when He Himself had no 
existence? For if man was later than the (other) created 
things, it is evident that this Christ also did not bring into 
being what had existence before Him. How then does 
Paul cry, saying, ' There is one Lord Christ, through Whom 
were all things ' ? ^ For if all things were through Christ, 
it is evident that Christ is God the Word. The evangelist 
also testifies, saying, ' In the beginning was the Word, and 

' There seems to be a confusion between Matt. i. 21 and Luke i. 31-33. 
- I venture to read |001 for |Q_k<>LO. ' I Cor. viii. 6. 


the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was 
in the beginning with God, and all things were by Him.' ^ 
If, therefore, the evangelist cries that all things were by the 
Word, and Paul, interpreting this expression, says. There is 
one Lord Jesus Christ, by Whom were all things, it is evident 
that Christ is God over all. But if the objectors bring 
forward to us the voices of the Scriptures, in which He is 
called man, namely, that of Peter, who says, 'Jesus of Nazareth, 
a man ' ; ^ and of Paul, who says, ' By that man in Whom God 
has ordained that we should believe ' ; ^ and of our Lord Him- 
self, Who says respecting Himself, ' Why do ye seek to kill 
Me, a man ? ' * let them know that either through their dulness 
they have been hindered from the understanding of Scripture, 
or through their wickedness they are perverting what is well 
written,^ according to their own deceitfulness. For also Christ 
is truly man ; but He became man, not having been so before, 
but only God ; for just as He is uncreated God, so also He, the 
same, is man, truly, personally,^ and certainly, without change 
and without any kind ^ of phantasy. And we do not confess 
that the body of our Lord is from heaven ; indeed we ex- 
communicate everyone who says so ; but we confess that it is 
by the Holy Ghost and the power of the Highest which over- 
shadowed the holy Virgin Mary, the Theotokos. But if the 
Virgin did not bear God, then she who remained undefiled is 
not deserving of admiration. But if the voices of the prophets 
foretelling the incomprehensible nature of our mystery, cried 
out, ' Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and they 
shall call His name Immanuel, which is, God with us,' ^ why 

1 John i. 1-3. ^ Acts ii. 22. 

' Acts xvii. 31. It is interesting to notice that the Syriac version (|;.^^i , » *~) 

<-n7 niV). mV ] - 1] ^\aX . 1 1 g^]o ._»t^> l-J-"]. "through the man 
whom He has ordained, and has converted everyone to the faith of Him") forms a 
connecting link between the Greelc original and the rendering given above. 
^ John viii. 40. ' Reading iSAoZ] for .aAaj. 

6 AjISoqj-d, MS., ZulkJajj, L. 

' Read | » - ' for (.a.j^ ; the latter would convey a positively wrong meaning. 
Of course ]jJO must also be omitted. " Nullam suspicionem phantasiae," Lat. 

8 Isa. vii. 14 ; Matt. i. 23. 


34 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ii. 

do they take away from the glory of His mother, seeing that 
He Who was born in lowly fashion is God over all ? ^ But 
perhaps the objectors will raise this objection, that truly every 
one who is born is of the same nature as the mother who bore 
him ; if, then, she who bore him was human, it necessarily 
follows that he who was born was human also. Ye say well, 
O vain babblers ! but then the child is of the same nature as 
she whom the birth-pangs smite when he who is born comes 
according to the natural course ; however, the naturally-born 
child is corrupt from the beginning, because copulation pre- 
cedes corruption. But where this reproach did not even enter 
the mind, but there was an ineffable miracle, the birth having 
been supernatural, there He that was born was God. We 
confess Him to be the same who created the world, and gave 
the Law, and put the Spirit in the prophets, and in the end of 
the times for the sake of the life and salvation of men' became 
incarnate and was made man ; and He inspired the apostles, 
and sent them forth for the salvation of people and nations. 
Let us flee, then, my brothers, from these troubled streams of 
error ; I mean the doctrines that fight against God — namely, 
from the mad folly of Arius, who was dividing the indivisible 
Trinity; and from the rashness of Eunomius, who limited 
beneath his science the incomprehensible nature ; and from 
the frenzy of Macedonius, who would sever from the Godhead 
the Spirit proceeding not departing ; ^ along with all the other 
heretics lost in their error ; but especially from this new 
doctrine and blasphemy formulated by Nestorius, who far sur- 
passes the Jews in his blasphemy. For those former heretics 
were despising the everlasting Son, Who is from all eternity 
with the Father, and depriving the root of its fruit ; but these 
teachers of our day by their doctrine are bringing in another 
in addition to Him Who is from all eternity. Who became man 
for our salvation, so that they make a plurality of sons in 
that one and incorruptible Nature which is from one essence. 

1 This is a troublesome passage for the translator. Mr. Brooks supposes that the 
word j.XjZ.| has dropped out of the text through homoioteleuton, and he renders 
" because He that was born was born through condescension, Who is God over all." 

^ Or, proceeding immutably. 


Let us say, then, with Paul, that Christ is He Who ' made 
both one ' ; ^ for of Jews and heathen through baptism, He has 
created one new man, and by His power He made that one, 
which, through the exercise of its freedom was divided. Let 
these impious teachers, then, dread the sentence of judgment 
if what was divided has been brought into unity, but that 
one Person Who made both one is, after their manner of 
reasoning, divided. • 

" But now we shall leave the multitude of words and 
come to the concise statement of true doctrine. Whoever 
desires to know that the alone and only-begotten Son, Who 
was before the life of Abraham — that the same became in- 
carnate in the end of the times, let him ask Paul, who thunders 
with his voice, declaring rightly that He Who was born from the 
Jews in the flesh is the everlasting God ; for, while telling and 
declaring the contempt of the Jews and the contention of the 
people with God, and the root which is the Father,^ and the 
seed which is Christ our Lord, he says thus, ' Whose is the 
adoption ' ^ — for God cried through His prophets, ' Israel is 
My son. My firstborn and My glory * ; * and indeed they reaped 
immeasurable glories from the constant miracles and the 
covenants with Abraham, which told of the multitude of the 
people and the blessings—' and the giving of the law,' — that 
of Mount Sinai, which was written by the finger of God, — 
* and the promises,' — both the land of Palestine and that in the 
seed of Abraham the nations should be blessed, — 'whose are 
the fathers,' — for in the night of error they arose and as stars 
of the faith — ' from whom Jesus Christ appeared in the flesh, 
Who is God over all.' And he does not say this only and 
deem it sufficient ; for also indeed the beginning of God the 
Word, Who is without beginning and without end, is not 
from the time of His birth by Mary. Who then is this 
Christ? He Who was begotten of the Father before the 
worlds in a manner which the mind of created beings cannot 
comprehend, and in the end of the times took flesh and became 

1 Eph. ii. 14. ^ 1 •) 1 

2 The Greek is 'A^pdafi ; it may be that we should read >0ai;.2| for [13 1. 
^ Rom. ix. 4. * Ex. iv. 22 and Isa. xlvi. 13. 

36 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ii. 

man from the Virgin Mary, the Theotokos; He Who was 
shut up in the womb and in the cave, in a manner which He 
Himself knows ; He Who was laid in the manger ; He Who 
grew in the flesh ; He Who came down to the lower parts of 
the earth, and by His own will endured all the sufferings of 
men, that He might be believed to be man, and to be no other 
than the One Who came down ; but He Who came down and 
He Who went up is the same ; however. He did not go up 
first, but came down. For He did not become God by addi- 
tion (away with such a thought !), but He became man by the 
dispensation, for the race of men was in need of this. And 
you shall not hear this from me or from any other, but from 
Peter and from Paul — Peter when he says, ' Thou art Christ, 
the Son of the living God ' ; ^ and Paul also, who learned by 
revelation from the Father concerning the Son, and says, 
' When God Who separated me from my mother's womb and 
called me by His grace, was pleased to reveal His Son by 
my means.' ^ This Paul has truly taught you who Jesus 
Christ is when he cries and says, ' Of whom is Christ in the 
flesh. Who is God over all, blessed for ever.'^ What occasion 
of calumny does not the word of Peter and Paul drive away 
from those who love calumny ! for he called Him ' Christ ' to 
show that He truly became man ; he said of Him, ' Who is of 
the Jews in the flesh,' to show that His existence does not 
date only from the time when He became incarnate ; * he said 
of Him, ' He is,' to tell us by his mode of expression that He 
is without beginning ; he said of Him, ' Who is over all,' to 
proclaim Him Lord of created things ; he said of Him, ' Who 
is God,' that we should not be drawn aside by the outward 
appearance and sufferings so as to deny his incorruptible 
Nature ; he said of Him, ' blessed,' that we should worship 
Him as the Ruler ^ of all, and not regard Him as a fellow- 

' Matt. xvi. i6. 2 Qal. i. 15, 16. ^ Rom. ix. 5. 

* In the translation above I adopt Mr. Brooks' suggestion, that we should read 
fD instead of | VlV>S . The rendering of the text as it stands would be, "that He 
did not become incarnate from the Gentiles, but was from thence alone." This 
change brings the text into harmony with the Greek and Latin. 
J I, MS., not wj-Ktl, as in L.'s text. 


slave ; he said of Him, ' Who is for ever,' to show that it is 
He Who by His word created all things, visible and invisible, 
whereby His Godhead is glorified. We have, then, Christ Who 
is God over all, Whom we shall worship, and we shall say to 
the heretics, ' In whomsoever the Spirit of Christ is not, he is 
none of His.' For we have the mind of Christ, and therefore 
we look for the revelation of God our Saviour, the Lord Jesus 
Christ, Who Himself shall reward the well-doers with the 
crown of victory, but the despisers with the recompense ^ of 
their rashness. See, then, my brothers, that no man rob you 
by impious words, or turn you aside by false science from the 
simplicity and unadorned modesty of the pure beauty of the 
faith. But again, I repeat to you the word of Paul, ' Beware 
lest any man rob you by the vain philosophy of the traditions 
of men'^ — men who are inventors of vain things, who have 
not taught us as the prophets and apostles teach, but have 
gone astray by their own wisdom and followed the inter- 
pretation of their own mind ; wherefore their teaching is a 
stumbling-block to the Church of God, which He purchased 
with His precious blood. For other foundation of the true 
faith can no man lay except that which is laid, that there 
is one God, the Father, Ruler of all, and one Lord Jesus 
Christ, by Whom were all things. Who is from all eternity 
with the Father, from Him and of the same Nature with 
Him ; and one ^ Holy Spirit, the Lord and Life-giver, Who 
proceeds from the Father, and together with the Father 
and the Son is worshipped and glorified. Stand, then, in 
one spirit and one mind, and fight for the faith, and be 
not in anything troubled by the adversaries, but keep the 
tradition which you have received from the blessed Fathers, 
who,* out of the whole creation, met together by the 
operation of the Holy Spirit, and preached to us the true 
and undefiled faith, which we have from one end of the 
earth to the other." 

The end of the letter which the blessed Proclus, bishop of 

1 ]jAiaa, MS., not ]j_»jaS), as L. prints. * Col. ii. 8. 

s I ■ "^i, MS., an evident mistake for ,.ki. 

* From this point the Greek and Latin are different from our text. 


Constantinople, wrote to Great Armenia of the Persians, con- 
cerning the true faith. 

But 1 Theodosius lived, as the Chronicle informs us, fifty 
years ; of these he reigned forty-two years, for he was eight 
years old when he began to reign. And the acts of thirty-two 
years of his reign are related in the ecclesiastical history of 
Socrates, and those of the other ten years more are written 
concisely above in this second Book. He died then in the 
three hundred and eighth Olympiad ; and Marcian succeeded 
him in the kingdom. And in the year seven hundred and 
sixty-four by the reckoning of the Greek era of Alexander, he 
gathered to Chalcedon a Synod of five hundred and sixty- 
seven bishops, whose acts we shall describe as concisely as 
possible in this third Book which is written below, and in its 
chapters, which have been taken for the most part from the 
history of Zachariah the Rhetorician, which he wrote in Greek 
to a man called Eupraxius, who lived in the royal palace and 
was engaged in the service of kings. But the body of the 
holy John the bishop, who is called Chrysostom, had been 
brought back from the place of his . banishment, and it was 
honoured with a procession in Constantinople. And Eudocia 
the queen, the wife of Theodosius, went to Jerusalem for 
prayer, and returned, and then died. But Geiseric^ subdued 
Carthage of Africa and reigned over it. And John the 
general ^ was killed by the servants of Arbindus,* and there 
were earthquakes in various places. And then Theodosius 

1 Mich. fol. 115 ». 2 .CDOOj^jI Jl, Zii/fi)pixos. 

3 .Ca4^j_4t4^l' ^'■^- o~r/30Ti;\aT7;s. « I^JLOj], i.e. Areobindus (Brooks). 


The beginning of the third Book, which (inasmuch as it is 
from the history of Zachariah the believer, who wrote in 
Greek to one Eupraxius by name, a minister of the king, 
and engaged in his service) records the events that took place 
in the Synod, which met at Chalcedon, after the death of 
Theodosius, in the days of Marcian, in the year seven hundred 
and sixty-four by the reckoning of the Greeks. And the 
number of the bishops was five hundred and sixty-seven, who 
were brought together in consequence of the exertion of Leo 
of Rome, and the letter that he wrote to the king and his 
wife Pulcheria. And the Synod sent Dioscorus of Alexandria 
away to Gangra of Thrace, and appointed Proterius bishop in 
his stead, and received the letter of Leo, which is called the 
Tome. And the other matters, which occurred in Jerusalem, 
or in Alexandria, or in other places during the life of Marcian, 
that is, a space of six years and a half; behold they are 
written down here distinctly in these twelve Books below and 
the chapters contained in them. 

The first chapter relates the events which occurred in the 
Synod of Chalcedon, until the public address of Marcian the 
king to the bishops assembled there. 

The second chapter tells about the banishment of 
Dioscorus to Gangra, and the consecration of Proterius in 
his stead ; and the events which occurred in Alexandria upon 
his entry there. 

The third chapter relates the events which occurred in 
Palestine, concerning Juvenalis of Jerusalem, who broke his 
promises, and separated from Dioscorus, and agreed to the 
Synod. And when the citizens of Jerusalem and the 

40 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iii, 

Palestinian monks learned this, they appointed, as bishop in 
his stead, one Theodosius, a monk ; who, in his zeal, had 
attended and watched the Synod closely, and then went back 
to Palestine and told what had occurred at Chalcedon. 

The fourth chapter tells of Peter the hostage, the son of 
the king of the Iberians, a wonderful man, who was taken by 
the people of Gaza ; and they brought him to Theodosius of 
Jerusalem, by whom he was consecrated as their bishop. 

The fifth chapter tells about the flight of Theodosius of 
Jerusalem, in consequence of the king's threats ; and also 
about the return of Juvenalis, by force, to Jerusalem, and the 
great slaughter that ensued upon his entry there. 

The sixth chapter gives an account of a certain blind 
Samaritan, who smeared his eyes with the blood of the slain, 
and they were opened. 

The seventh chapter tells how Christ appeared in vision to 
Peter the Iberian, bishop of Gaza, and told him to depart from 
thence, and also himself to suffer banishment of his own accord. 

The eighth chapter tells about a certain monk, named 
Solomon, who acted cunningly, and went in to Juvenalis of 
Jerusalem, and threw a basketful of dust upon his head, and 
reproached him. 

The ninth chapter tells how Theodosius of Jerusalem was 
taken, and was imprisoned in a house containing lime, and 
there he ended his life. 

The tenth chapter tells about the heresy of John the 
Rhetorican, and how this heresy was anathematised by 
Timothy, the bishop of Alexandria, after him.^ 

The eleventh chapter tells about the mission of John the 
Silentarius, from the king to Alexandria. 

The twelfth chapter tells about Anthemius, and Severus, 
and Olybrius, and Leo the Less, and what happened in the 
seven years of their reign.^ 

^Probably JXQ-iJQ^r^J has fallen out, and the translation should be "after 

" Here the text adds, " The thirteenth Book tells about the accession of Marcian, 
and about the council of bishops which came to Chalcedon, and what took place in 
the council until the public address of the king to the bishops. " 




Since it is acceptable unto you, and desired by you, 
Christ-loving Eupraxius,^ who are dwelling in the royal palace, 
and are occupied in the service of kings, to learn what 
happened, in the reign of Marcian, to the holy Church of 
God ; and who they were who, in regular succession, were the 
chief priests in Alexandria, and Rome, and Constantinople, 
and Antioch, and Jerusalem, from the time of the Council of 
Chalcedon — that Council which, ostensibly convened about the 
matter of Eutyches, introduced and increased the heresy of 
Nestorius ; and shook all the world ; and added evil upon 
evil ; and set the two heresies, one against the other ; and 
filled the world with divisions ; and confounded ^ the faith 
delivered by the apostles, and the good order * of the Church ; 
and tore into ten thousand rents the perfect Robe of Christ, 
woven from the top throughout : therefore we, anathematising 
those two heresies, and every wicked teacher of doctrine 
corrupt and contrary to the Church of God, and to the 
orthodox faith of the three holy Synods, which skilfully main- 
tained the true doctrine ; shall, to that end, employ this 
history which you urged us to undertake. 

After the death of the holy Cyril of Alexandria, who 
carried on the conflict against many corrupt doctrines, and 
exposed them, Dioscorus received the throne as his successor ; 

' Evag. ii. 4, 18 ; Liberal. 13. 

2 ].v - .vo\ i>Qjj3o l-»o.j~^J IjiOiai-j ooi . mo ■ mn ^ao] 

" Eupraxius of illustrious and Christ-loving memory, who was one of the eunuchs 
of the royal bedchambers," das Leben des Severus (ed. Spanuth), p. 28. 

3 \\'-^\^ , MS., ]'"'V'^ . L. " Ij-TQU^oI, i.e. eiraila. 

42 THE CHRONICLE OF [book hi. 

and he was a peaceable man, and also a champion ; ^ 
although he had not the same promptitude and boldness as 

At that time Theodoret and Hibo, who, along with 
Flavian of Constantinople and Eusebius, were deposed by the 
second Synod of Ephesus, which met there in the days of 
Theodosius, about the matter of Eutyches and Flavian — 
Theodoret of Cyrrhus, because he wrote twelve censures upon 
Cyril's Heads against Nestorius ; and Hibo of Edessa, because 
he wrote a letter to Moris of Nisibis, reviling Cyril — were, both 
of them, upholding the doctrine of Theodore and Diodorus. 
And Theodoret^ went up to Leo of Rome, and informed him 
about all these matters ; arid, with the gift which blinds the 
eyes of the soul, he got the better of him. Whereupon Leo 
composed ^ that letter which is called the Tome, and which was 
ostensibly written to Flavian against Eutychianism. But Leo 
also wrote to Marcian the king, and his wife Pulcheria, and 
warmly commended Theodoret to them. 

This * Marcian favoured the doctrine of Nestorius, and was 
well disposed towards him ; and so he sent by John the 
Tribune, to recall Nestorius from his place of banishment in 
Oasis ; and to recall also Dorotheus, the bishop who was with 
him. And it happened while he was returning, that he set at 
naught ^ the holy Virgin, the Theotokos, and said, " What is 
Mary ? Why should she indeed be called the Theotokos ? " 
And the righteous judgment of God speedily overtook him 
(as had been the case • formerly with Arius, who blasphemed 
against the Son of God). Accordingly he fell from his mule, 
and the tongue ^ of this Nestorius was cut off, and his mouth 
was eaten by worms, and he died on the roadway. And 
his companion Dorotheus died also. And the king, hearing 
of it, was greatly grieved ; and he was thinking upon 

^ Jo. Eph. ap. "Dion." See Introd. p. 4, note. 

' Here an extract in Cod. Rom. begins. ^ Eva<'. ii. 2. 

^ |V)\LD. This word occurs again in this chapter (p. 47., note 3), and probably 
in bk. 7, ch. 7 (p. 117, note 4) ; the Lexicons do not give any other reference. 
* Evag. i. 7. 


what had occurred, and he was in doubt as to what he 
should do. 

However, written directions from Marcian the king ^ were 
delivered by John the Tribune to Dioscorus and Juvenalis, 
calling upon them to meet in Council, and John also informed 
them of what had happened to Nestorius and to Dorotheus. 

And when the bishops of every place, who were summoned, 
were preparing to meet at Nicea, Providence ^ did not allow 
them ; for the king ^ issued a new order that the assembly 
should be convened to Chalcedon, so that Nicea might not be 
the meeting-place of rebels. 

Then * the Nestorian party earnestly urged and besought 
the king that Theodoret should be appointed the president 
of the Synod, and that, according to his word, every matter 
should be decided there.^ And when they met at Chalcedon, 
Theodoret entered in and lived there boldly, like an honoured 
bishop ; he who a little time before had been ejected ^ from the 
priesthood by their means. And Dioscorus and the chief 
bishops were vexed and troubled on account of the haughty 
insolence which the man displayed ; but they could not put a 
stop to it, because of the royal authority, though they saw 
that the canons were despised by him, and by Hibo also, with 
the help of the Roman legates of Leo, who were aiding and 
abetting them. 

And when Dioscorus was proclaiming the doctrine of the 
faith in the Synod, and with him Juvenalis, and Thalassius of 
Cappadocia, and Anatolius, and Amphilochius of Side, and 
Eusebius of Ancyra, and Eustace of Berytus ; then, as by a 
miracle, Eusebius of Doryl^um also agreed with them ; for 
they saw that the Nestorian doctrine of the two natures was 
confirmed, and established there, by the co-operation of John 
of Germanicia, who fiercely contended, in the course of the 
dispute there, with the side which said, " It is right for 

1 Ili^^LDj, Cod. Rom. = loJf-S), i.e. Tpivoia. 

^ Evag. ii. 2; Liberal. 13. 

^ Jo. Eph. (Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 363). See Introd. I.e. 

' Here extract in Cod. Rom. ends. 

« \i-», MS., not IrJO, as L. prints. 

44 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iii. 

us to confess Christ after His incarnation as one Nature from 
two, according to the belief of the rest of the Fathers, and not 
to introduce any innovation or add any novelty to the faith." 

Wherefore, John of Germanicia, and the rest of the 
Nestorian party, with Theodoret at their head, brought about 
the deprivation of Dioscorus ; because he said, " It is right for 
us to believe that Christ became incarnate from two natures ; 
and we should not confess two natures after the union, like 

And 1 then Anatolius, the bishop of the royal city, cried out 
in words to this effect, " Not for the faith is Dioscorus 
deposed ; but he is set at nought ^ for refusing to hold com- 
munion with the chief priest, my lord Leo." 

And after the outcry of many, and after the things had 
been spoken which have been written in the Acts ^ of that 
Council, at last those bishops being forced to do so, defined 
our Lord Jesus Christ to be in two natures. And they praised 
the Tome of Leo, and they called that an orthodox definition 
which said, " There are two Persons, and two Natures, with 
their properties and their operations." And this being so, 
they were required to subscribe under compulsion ; those very 
priests who, a little time before in the days of the blessed 
Theodosius, being assembled at the second Council of Ephesus, 
cried out many times, " If anyone shall say ' Two natures to 
two,' let the Silentiarius come up ! " * 

And when they repeated this over to Dioscorus, by means 
of John the chief of the Silentiarii, and asked him to agree 
to it, and to subscribe, and get back his throne ; he said, 
courageously, " Sooner would Dioscorus see his own hand cut 
off, and the blood falling on the paper, than do such a thing 
as that." Whereupon he was sent into banishment to Gangra, 

^ Mansi, vol. vii. p. 104. 

" I do not know what (^ \J means. Probably it is a copyist's error. 

' l^^it; °>g>_ i.e. Treirpayijiva. 

^ The words are written over an erasure in the MS. The Synodal Acts give eh 
Sio riiive. Probably -ci fri 1 is a mistake for .ocno^ and |: ' 5 ' \nn i^^g 
crept in from below. Transl. "Cut in two the man who speaks of two natures " 


because the Nestorian party published the report about him, 
that his opinions were the same as those of Eutyches. 

And I think it well, omitting many of his sayings, both 
what he spoke and wrote to Domnus of Antioch, and in the 
Synod of Chalcedon itself, which testify concerning the faith 
of the man, that his faith was like that of Athanasius, and 
Cyril, and the other doctors, I think it well (I say) to make 
a written extract out of what he wrote from his place of 
banishment to Secundinus, in the following words : — 

" Omitting many urgent matters, this I declare, that no 
man shall say that the holy flesh, which our Lord took from 
the Virgin Mary, by the operation of the Holy Spirit, in a 
manner which He Himself knows, was different to and foreign 
from our body. And, indeed, since this is so, they who affirm 
that Christ did not become incarnate for us, give the lie^ to 
Paul. For he has said, ' Not from angels did He take (the 
nature), but from the seed of the House of Abraham ' ; to 
which seed Mary was no stranger, as the Scriptures teach us. 
And again, ' It was right that in everything He should be made 
like unto His brethren,' and that word ' in everything ' does 
not suffer the subtraction of any part of our nature : since in 
nerves, and hair, and bones, and veins,^ and belly, and heart, 
and kidneys, and liver, and lungs, and, in short, in all those 
things that belong to our nature, the flesh which was born 
from Mary was compacted with the soul of our Redeemer, 
that reasonable and intelligent soul, without the seed of man, 
and the gratification and cohabitation of sleep. 

" For if, as the heretics think, this was not so, how is He 
named ' our brother,' supposing that He used a body different 
from ours ? And how, again, is that true which He said to 
His Father, ' I will declare Thy name to My brethren ? ' ^ 
Let us not reject, neither let us despise, those who think 
in this way. For He was like us, for us, and with us, not in 
phantasy, nor in mere semblance, according to the heresy 

' __i_\^i,l0, MS., not - ^ ili*^- ^5 L. prints. 

2 Read ]j5i for 1,j55. ' Ps. xxii. 22. 

46 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iii. 

of the Manichseans, but rather in actual reality from Mary, the 
Theotokos. To comfort the desolate ^ and to repair the vessel 
that had been broken, He came to us new. And as Immanuel, 
indeed, He is confessed ; for He became poor for us, according 
to the saying of Paul, ' that we, by His humiliation, might be 
made rich.'^ He became, by the dispensation, like us ; that we, 
by His tender mercy, might be like Him. He became man, 
and yet He did not destroy that which is His nature, that He 
is Son of God ; that we, by grace, might become the sons of 
God. This I think and believe ; and, if any man does not 
think thus, he is a stranger to the faith of the apostles." 

And although ^ this apostolic man had been well versed in 
this confession of faith from the beginning of his life, yet he 
was deposed and sent into banishment, because he would not 
worship the image, with its two faces, which was set up by 
Leo and by the Council of Chalcedon ; and because he refused 
to hold communion with Theodoret and Hibo, who had been 
deprived on account of their blasphemies. 

But the story goes that when, on one occasion, he saw 
Theodoret sitting upon the throne in the Council, and speak- 
ing from it, and not standing and making his defence, as one 
should who had been canonically deposed from the priest- 
hood ; then he himself arose and descended from the throne 
and sat upon the pavement, saying, " I will not sit with the 
wicked, nor with vain persons will I enter in." 

Whereupon the partisans of Theodoret cried out, " He has 
deposed himself." But the other bishops cried out, " Our 
faith * is perishing. If Theodoret, who holds the opinions of 
Nestorius, be accepted, we reject Cyril." And then Basil, the 
bishop of Tripolis, stood up and said, " We ourselves have 
deposed Theodoret." 

But they say that Amphilochius was beaten on his head 
by Aetius the deacon, to make him sign. It was this Aetius 
who went to Theodoret by night, and made a complete copy 

^ |j~»?i MS., f^-* ?. L., and for ^J^.>..>v>> read ^j_»j«J>. 

^ 2 Cor. viii. 9. ^ Here an extract in Cod. Rom. begins. 

■» The faith (Cod. Rom. ). 


for him of the Symbol of the two Natures ; and when ^ it was 
accepted by the bishops, and they agreed to it, then Theo- 
doret insolently ^ derided ^ them, saying, " See how I have 
made them taste the leaven of the doctrine of Nestorius, and 
they are delighted with it ! " * 

" But Eustace of Berytus, when he signed the document, 
wrote in short hand,^ " This have I written under compulsion, 
not agreeing with it." And he wept very much, as did also 
others who proclaimed the compulsion and exposed the 
hypocritical profession of faith which was made, because 
the chief senators were present time after time at the dis- 
cussions, and closely watched the proceedings of the Synod. 
But, at last, the king came there, with his wife Pulcheria, 
and he delivered a public address* in the Martyr Church of 
Euphemia in the following terms : — 

" From ''■ the first time that we were chosen and accounted 
worthy of the kingdom by God, amidst all the care of public 
business, no concern whatever in which we might be involved ^ 
was allowed to hinder us, but we made it our choice to honour 
the true faith of the Christians, and to accustom ^ the minds of 
men to it, with purity ; all novelty of false doctrines and 
preachings that do not agree with the well proved doctrine of 
the Fathers, being taken out of our midst. Therefore we 
summoned this holy Synod that it might cleanse away all 
darkness, and put away filth of thoughts : that so, in pure 
mind, the doctrine of the faith which is in our Lord Jesus 
Christ might be established," and so on, to the same effect. 

When the king had finished his public address, the 
bishops praised him and the Senate, and also the letter of 
Leo, affirming with respect to it that it agreed with the faith 
of the Apostle Peter. 

1 Jo. Eph. Fr. {Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 363). See Introd. I.e. 

- ^ '^ ■?l'^j p- I99> note 4. ^ jklXlsD, see p. 42, note 5. 

^ Here an extract in Cod. Rom. ends. 

^ In signs ( 1 V? 1 CO *~), i.e. iv o-Tj/ie/ots. 

" |m . in o\rr\.cr\ /_£_ ■wp(i<r(j>ibrq(ns. ' Mansi, vol. vii. p. 132. 

8 ^Ir^Aj, MS., hr^Ll, L. ' r*-^J, MS., }.^\j, L. 

48 THE CHRONICLE OF [book hi. 



The Synod having received such an end as this, Dioscorus ^ 
was decreed to be a confessor, and was sent away to live in 
Gangra ; and Proterius was appointed bishop in Alexandria, 
in his stead. This Proterius^ had been a presbyter on his 
side, and had contended earnestly against the Synod at first, 
but afterwards, with the object of snatching the see for him- 
self, he became like Judas, a betrayer of his master, and like 
Absalom, of his father ; and he showed himself a rapacious 
wolf in the midst of the flock. And many who were un- 
willing he afflicted and ill-treated, to force them into agree- 
ment with himself. And he sent them into banishment, and 
he seized their property by means of the governors ^ who 
obeyed him in consequence of the king's command. 

Whereupon, indeed, the priests, and the monks, and many 
of the people, perceiving that the faith had been polluted, 
both by the unjust deposition of Dioscorus and the oppressive 
conduct of Proterius and his wickedness, assembled by them- 
selves in the monasteries, and severed themselves from his 
communion. And they proclaimed Dioscorus, and wrote his 
name in the book of life as a chosen and faithful priest of God. 

And Proterius was very indignant, and he gave gifts into 
the hand of the Romans, and he armed them against the 
people, and he filled their hands with the blood of believers, 
who were slain ; for they also strengthened themselves,* and 
made war. And many died at the very Altar, and in the 
Baptistery, who had fled and taken refuge there. 

^ Evag. ii. 5 ; Liberal. 14. 

^ Here begins an extract in Cod. Rom. which continues to end of chap. viii. 

2 |J_«3, MS., IJ-*?, L. ^ Or, " became exasperated." 




And in Palestine, indeed, there were evils like these, and 
worse. But from what cause I shall now tell. When 
Juvenalis was summoned to Chalcedon, and he learned from 
John the Tribune the will of the king ; and also that Nes- 
torius, who had been recalled, died on his return from banish- 
ment ; then he (inasmuch as he was persuaded that the 
doctrine of the Tome, which favoured the opinion of Nestorius, 
was corrupt) summoned the clergy, and gathered the monks 
and the people together ; and he exposed this false doctrine, 
and anathematised it. And he confirmed the souls of many 
in the true faith. And he charged them all, that if he' should 
be perverted in the Synod, they should hold communion with 
him no more. 

And at first when he went there, he made a great struggle, 
along with Dioscorus, on behalf of the faith. But because the 
royal pressure ^ was brought to bear ; and because of the flattery 
and compliments of the king, who himself waited personally 
upon the bishops at the banquet, and showed great condescen- 
sion to them ; and because the king also promised that he 
would give the three provinces of Palestine to the honour of 
the see of Jerusalem ; then the eyes of his mind were 
darkened, and he left Dioscorus the champion ^ alone, and 

1 |ajj], i.e. dvdyKT]. ^ \,^SCi^Q-^^\, ayuviarrjs. 


50 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iii. 

he went over to the opposite side. And he treated with 
contempt the oaths which he had made in the name of God. 
And both he and the bishops who were with him agreed and 

And 1 when Theodosius the monk, and his companions 
who were in close fellowship with him, and who zealously 
watched what was taking place in the Synod, heard about 
this they returned quickly to Palestine ; and they came to 
Jerusalem, and told about the betrayal of the faith. And 
they called all the monks together, and gave full information 
to them. 

And the monks assembled, and prepared themselves, and 
went to meet Juvenalis as he was coming. And they reminded 
him of his promises, and that he had failed to keep them. 
And they made this one request of him, that he would censure 
the proceedings which had taken place, and anathematise 
them. But he , showed himself like Pilate, saying, "What 
I have written, I have written." And the monks said to him, 
" We will not receive you then, for you have broken ^ your 
oaths and your promises." So he returned to the king. 

But the assembly of monks and clergy went back to 
Jerusalem. And the people, and the bishops who were with 
them, were distressed,^ and they consulted together as to what 
they should do. And they decided to appoint another bishop 
instead of Juvenalis. When they were speaking of the chaste 
monks, Romanus and Marcian, and of other men of wonderful 
excellence ; at length * it was agreed that they should appoint 
Theodosius, who had been found zealous, and who also had 
contended for years on behalf of the faith. And they took 
him by force, while he persisted in refusing, and conjuring 
them not to do so, and begging them to allow him to be the 
helper of the person whom they appointed from amongst 
themselves. However, they would not yield to his entreaties ; 
but blessed him and placed him on the throne. And when 

1 Evag. ii. 5- 2 2.r^li», litS., not ZpClL, as L. prints. 

' For n ■ K j Cod. Rom. has Q_«_1D. Transl. " and they gathered the people 
and the bishops who were with them." 
'' Evag. ii. 5. 


the other cities of Palestine heard it ; inasmuch as they knew 
him to "be a man of surpassing virtue, and zealous for the 
truth ; they severally ^ brought persons to receive his blessing 
and be admitted to the priesthood. 



Among these also was Peter the Iberian, a man wonder- 
fully celebrated throughout the world, a king's son, who had 
been given as a hostage to Theodosius ; and who was beloved 
by him and by his wife Eudocia, on account of his excellent 
parts. And he was brought up in the king's palace ; and he 
was placed in charge of the royal horses. But he resigned 
this appointment, and gave himself up to the discipline of 
Christ along with John the Eunuch also, who was his 
sponsor, and his father by water and the Spirit. And they 
prospered, and God wrought signs by their means in Con- 
stantinople. And they fled from thence, and betook them- 
selves next to the wilderness of Palestine, and there they 
loved and cultivated the monastic life. And although after 
this manner they desired to be hidden, yet they became 
greatly celebrated ; and they wrought signs like the apostles. 

And as they were changing from place to place, they 
arrived opposite to Ga/a and Majuma. And the men and 
the women and the people of all ranks and ages went out and 
seized Peter, and brought him to Jerusalem to Theodosius, 
whom they besought to make him their bishop. 

And he laid many charges against himself, and refused 
ordination. And against his will Theodosius laid his hand 
upon his - head and consecrated him, for he knew the man. 

1 For ^01^ Cod. Rom. has Ol-^. Trans. " brought persons to him." 

52 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iii. 

And when he became violently agitated, and called himself a 
heretic ; then Theodosius hesitated ^ a little, and said to him, 
" My cause and thine are before the Judgment Seat of 
Christ." And he changed his words, saying, " A heretic 
indeed I am not, but a sinner." And Theodosius, being 
well acquainted with the man, blessed him as priest for the 
people of Gaza. 

But there were other excellent deeds done by this man, 
which, however, I omit, lest I should make my narrative too 



And when Theodosius was prospering in this manner, the 
report ^ of all that he was doing reached Marcian the king. 
And Juvenalis returned, having with him Count Dorotheus 
and an army ; for the purpose of taking Theodosius, and 
making him a prisoner, and deposing all the bishops whom 
he had made in his district, and punishing ^ the monks and the 
people, and expelling them in consequence of their insolence 
and rashness in setting up Theodosius as bishop in Jeru- 
salem. But, by the desire of the queen, Peter the Iberian 
alone was to be spared ; even though he should not consent 
to hold communion with the other bishops. 

And when Juvenalis arrived at Neapolis, he found a large 
number of monks there ; and at first he tried to seduce 
them, simple men as they were, and single-minded, whose 
arms and helmet were the true faith and works of righteous- 

1 For .-.CTlZl Cod. Rom. has ^U^LL]. 

2 Evag. ii. S. s i<ij.caj, MS., not i<aa.£D, as L. prints. 


ness. These he endeavoured to persuade to hold communion 
with himself. And when they turned away from this proposal 
with disgust, unless he would anathematise the violent trans- 
actions of Chalcedon ; he then said, " It is the king's will." 
And they still refused. Whereupon he gave orders to the 
Romans and the Samaritans, who smote and killed these 
monks, while they were singing psalms and saying, " O God, 
the heathen are come into Thine inheritance, and they have 
defiled Thy holy temple ; and behold they are making 
Jerusalem a waste place ! " ^ 

And some of the Romans were overcome with pity, and 
wept. But some of them, along with the Samaritans, killed 
many of the monks, whose blood also was poured out upon 
the ground. 



There was a certain blind Samaritan who deceived his own 
guide, and said, " Since mine eyes cannot see the blood of the 
slaughter of these Christians, so that I may delight myself in 
it; bring me near and I shall feel it." And when the guide 
brought him near and caused him to feel it, he dipped his 
hands in the blood. And he prostrated himself upon the 
ground ; and he wept, with prayer and supplication, that he 
might be a sharer in their martyrdom. Then he arose, and 
smeared his eyes, and lifted up his hands to heaven ; and his 
eyes were opened, and • he received his sight. 

And all who were witnesses of this miracle, were 
astonished and believed in God. And the blind man also 
believed, and was baptized. 

But the party who administered the king's orders, laid 

^ Ps. Ixxix. I. "- ooAaZ], MS., not k>a,.£5Aj»|, as L. prints. 

54 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iii. 

hold upon the surviving believers, and expelled ^ them from 
the whole district. 



But they say that Peter the Illustrious was at rest, being 
left undisturbed by all, both on account of the king's orders, 
and the loving care of the queen for him. 

But he saw the Lord in a vision, saying to him indignantly, 
" How now, Peter ! Am I being expelled in My believing 
servants, and art thou remaining quiet and at rest ? " Then 
Peter repented and obeyed, and he arose and left Gaza; and 
he joined those who were expelled, and departed with them. 



And Juvenalis, having by means of the armed force ^ of 
the Romans expelled the believers and the monks who were 
in the country district, arrived at Jerusalem and sat upon the 
throne. And he paid no regard * at all to his promises, nor to 
the slaughter which had occurred upon his entry there, nor to 
the falsehood of his oaths. 

^ For r-Kj|0 Cod. Rom. has OpJj], and for 0.2555, 02550. 

2 |j_>; g^fn], i.e. a-TTvpls. ' . rf\ . rf\'~i ^.o\^ vapdra^is. 

* OT^S, MS., not OT^D, as L. prints. 


Then a certain monk, Solomon by name, was stirred in 
his spirit; and in this honourable garb of chastity, and as if 
desiring to be blessed by the chief priest himself, acted 
cunningly, and filled a basket with dust and' ashes, and placed 
it under his armpit, and drew near to Juvenalis. And the 
latter was glad when the monk came in to him. And Solomon, 
being received by him, said to him, " Let my lord bless me." 
And, as the Roman guard permitted him to draw near and 
come close to Juvenalis, he took out the basket of dust and 
emptied it on his head, saying, " Shame upon thee, shame upon 
thee, liar and persecutor ! " And when the Roman guard were 
about to strike him, Juvenalis would not allow it. And he 
was not enraged, but was rather moved to penitence by this, 
and shook the dust from his head. So they only put out the 
monk from his presence. And he ordered that money for his 
expenses ^ should be given to him, and that he should leave 
his country. The monk, however, refused the money, but left 
the country. 



But Theodosius, when he was sought for by the king's 
orders ^ through the whole province,^ assumed the garb of a 
Roman, having on his head hair and a helmet ; and he went 
about confirming and encouraging the believers. At length, how- 
ever, when he arrived at the parts about Sidon, he was taken 
and delivered up to the Romans by one of his own friends. 

And the Nestorian party were so enraged against him, 
because he had been going about through the whole world, and 

1 (iDQ^j], i.e. iviXaixa.. ^ l-fe^ il b-^'ji i-^- Siardyfi-aTa. 

3 ] . ^.c^nm i,e. iirapxia for eirapxia. 1'^^'^; has probably crept into the 
text by mistake from the line above (Brooks). 

5 6 THE CHRONICLE OF [book hi. 

exposing and anathematising the false doctrine of Nestorius, 
that they went up to the king, and persuaded him to grant 
that the man should be given into their charge and keeping. 
And they took him and imprisoned him in a small house, 
belonging to the monks, in which there was quicklime. 

And these followers of Nestorius used to go to him in 
troops, and dispute with him, hoping that under pressure of 
great affliction he would change his mind, and agree to their 
will. And he prevailed over them all and repulsed them ; 
and as they departed ^ from him ashamed and confounded, he 
said, " Even though I am imprisoned and thereby prevented 
from going about in the different places, according to my 
former custom ; yet as long as the breath is in my nostrils, 
the word of God shall not be imprisoned in me ; but it shall 
preach that which is true and right in the ears of the hearers." 

But the Eutychian party also imagined that he would 
agree with them ; and they came together to him, and entered 
into discusssion with him. And in like manner, contrary to 
their expectation, he showed them to be in agreement with 
Valentinus, and Manes, and Marcion ; and that their heresy 
was a wicked one, worse even than that of Paul of Samosata, 
and Apollinaris, and Nestorius. And so they, in their turn, 
departed from him, being condemned by him. 

And because they laid one affliction after another upon 
him, his soul also continued steadfast in the good fight. 

While there he met with some writings of John the 
Rhetorician from Alexandria, which were full of false doctrine 
and very defective, and it is a heresy ; and he exposed the 
man and anathematised him. And having finished his course, 
and contended in the fight, and kept his faith, at length 
he died. And departing from the prison, he went to be 
with Christ our Lord. And he left the example of courage to 
the believers. 

^ ^ ■ 1 ■ V>, MS., not _ 1 \ ■ V>, as L. prints. 




John was an adherent of Palladius the Alexandrian 
sophist, and was second to him ; and for that reason he was 
called the Rhetorician ; because that next to sophistry- 
comes rhetoric, and therefore by that name the philosopher 
is surnamed.^ 

This man, in the days of Proterius who succeeded Dioscorus, 
saw that the whole city of Alexandria hated Proterius, some 
in consequence of their zeal for the faith, and others because 
they had been plundered and persecuted by him, with the 
object of making them agree to the Synod and accept the 
Tome. He then sought to ingratiate himself with the people, 
and to present a fine appearance, and to collect money for 
himself, and to be celebrated with this empty glory. And 
not having read the Holy Scriptures, and not understanding 
the meaning of their mysteries, and not having exercised 
himself in the writings of the ancient doctors of the holy 
Church, and not knowing what he was saying, or that about 
which he was contending, he was puffed up^ to write a sort of 
proof that, after the manner of a seed, God the Word was 
wrapped up in the body; and that He suffered in His own 
Nature, if indeed He suffered at all. But he denied that 
the Word was united to a human body; and he would not 
confess the natures from which One Christ appeared. But he 
prepared and collected words, saying, " It can by no means 
be called a nature, as indeed without the seed of a man in 
the Virgin the Incarnation took place." And he said, " There- 
fore Christ was neither by her nor from her." And he did 
not agree with the doctors of the Church, who declare that the 

^ An exact translation of this passage is impossible. I have tried to give what 
appears to be the sense of it. 

2 g> . ^] (■ See note 4, p. 199. 

58 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iii. 

human nature was united to God the Word, and that He 
became man. 

And with vain words such as these he used to chatter ; and 
he also wrote books. And in these he was self-contradictory ; 
sometimes agreeingwith Apollinaris, sometimes with Eutyches ; 
ahd again, stating what was quite new. And because he was 
in doubt about the subject of his writings, lest they should be 
reviled,'^ he did not subscribe his books with his own name. 
But at one time he wrote the name of Theodosius, the bishop 
of Jerusalem, upon one; and again, the name of Peter the 
Iberian upon another; that even the believers might be 
deceived by them and accept them. 

But they say, that on one occasion, Peter the Iberian met 
with one of them, which had been written in his own name, in 
a certain monastery ; and when he took it and read it he was 
full of indignation, arid he anathematised the man who wrote 
it. And not there alone, but also in Alexandria, and in 
Palestine, and in Syria, both he and Theodosius anathematised 
the writings of this man. 



But when the report of the death of Dioscorus reached the 
Alexandrians, there was great trouble and sorrow. And after 
his death, on account of the love that they had for him, they 
proclaimed him as a living man,^ and his name was set in the 
Diptych. But let no man even of those, whose endeavour it 
is to revile what is not done in exact order, find fault. 

But the believing party were desirous of appointing a 
bishop instead of Dioscorus. However, they were afraid of 

' Or, remain unknown. 

^ (.A_KK^), MS., not ].«.>,.L.^), as L. prints. 


the threats of Marcian the king ; for he was sending letters in 
every direction, and fulminations against all who would not 
agree to the Synod and receive the Tome. For so it was, that 
when he heard of the men of Alexandria, and of their intention 
to appoint a bishop for themselves after the death of Dioscorus, 
he sent John, the chief of the Silentiarii, with a letter from him- 
self exhorting the Alexandrians to be united to Proterius. 

And this John was of the same mind as the king, and 
he was an astute ^ man. And ' when he came and saw the 
crowd, the numbers of monks arrayed in chastity, and possess- 
ing readiness of speech in defence of the faith, and also the 
strong body of the common people who were believers, with 
whom he had to deal, he was astounded, and said, " I am 
ready, if the Lord will, to inform the king and to plead with 
him on your behalf." And he received from them a petition — 
which gave information concerning their faith ; and concerning 
all that happened to them at the hands of Proterius ; and 
concerning the impious conduct of the man, and his wicked- 
ness, and the Church property which he expended upon 
vanity — written at length in words which I omit to reproduce 
here, lest I should be tedious to the reader. 

And when John returned to the king and told him about 
these matters, he said to him, " We sent you, indeed, to 
persuade and exhort the Egyptians to obey our will : but ygu 
have returned to us, not according as we wished, since we 
find you an Egyptian." However, when he perceived the 
things that wer6 written about Proterius, in the petition which 
the monks sent, he blamed the pride and the craftiness ^ of 
the man. And while he was occupied with this matter, he 
died, having reigned six years and a half. 

But Morian^ also, who reigned four years along with 
him, died. 

And after him, Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius 
received the kingdom. And one year after, Leo the First 
was associated with them. So that the lives of these four 
made up seven years. 
^ ] ^ "I; ^ See note, p. 16. 
2 m7ooA\Vn MS., not m7n^\Vn as L. ' I.e. Majorian. 




When Anthemius had reigned five years he was killed by 
Ricimer. And Severus, having reigned one year with him, 
died. And Olybrius, who reigned after Severus along with 
Anthemius for one year, died. And Leo the First also died, 
having reigned with Anthemius for three years, and two years 

In the first year of Leo indeed, Antioch was overturned 
by the earthquakes which occurred ; and there was also a 
great fire. And in the second year of his reign, Sulifos, the 
Gothic tyrant, was killed. And in the third year of his reign, 
Aspar the general ^ and his sons were killed. 

But there is in this third Book and in its chapters, which 
are written above, a period of thirteen and a half years. And 
it is made up in the following manner: — Of Marcian and 
Morian six years and a half ; and of Anthemius, and Severus, 
and Olybrius, and Leo the First, who reigned in succession and 
together, seven years. 

And this period begins from the third ^ year of the three 
hundred and fifth Olympiad, and it ends in the three hundred 
and eighth Olympiad. 

1 . ffl I 5 ' ' Oi O^^li ^■^- <!"rpii,TT!\dTTis. 
' jA^Z, MS., not ^l^L as L. prints. 


This fourth Book also, inasmuch as it is from ^ the History of 
Zachariah the Rhetorican, relates (in its twelve chapters that 
are written down distinctly below) and makes known the 
events occurring after the death of Marcian, and Morian, and 
Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius, who reigned in all 
twelve years, as the Chronicle testifies — these events (I say) it 
makes known which took place in Alexandria, and in Ephesus, 
in the days of Leo, and Leo, during a period of twenty years. 
It tells about the consecration of Timothy the Great, surnamed 
the " Weasel." And how Proterius, who was appointed as the 
successor of Dioscorus by the Synod of Chalcedon, was killed ; 
and how, after his death, his clergy presented a libel to 
Timothy, and sought to come to the Church ; but the zealous 
priests, on the side of Timothy, and the people would not 
allow them. Whereupon they went to Rome, and informed 
Leo about the matter; who wrote a letter to Leo the king 
censuring the consecration of Timothy. 

But this Book, further, tells about the letter of Timothy to 
Leo censuring the additions which had been made in the 
Synod, and the Tome. 

And, moreover, it tells about John, who was the bishop in 
Ephesus after the resignation of Bassianus ; and about the 
encyclical letter of Leo the king, which he wrote to the 
bishops, with the object of eliciting from them their written 
opinions respecting the definitions that were made in the 
Synod. And they all, with the exception of Amphilochius 
of Side, wrote in praise of these definitions. 

^ Or, "being, so far as it goes, drawn from,'' etc. This may be an intimation that 
our Syriac text is a compilation of extracts from the original Greek. 


62 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

This Book, further, tells how Timothy was banished to 
Gangra, and from Gangra to Cherson ; and that his successor 
was one of the Proterian party, another Timothy surnamed 

And it, moreover, tells about Isaiah the bishop, and 
Theophilus the presbyter, who showed themselves to be 
Eutychians ; and about the letter which Timothy wrote 
respecting them, and by which he exposed them. 

The first chapter tells about the consecration of Timothy 
the Great, surnamed the " Weasel " ; and the events which 
then occurred. 

The second chapter shows how Proterius was killed, and 
dragged away ; and his body was burned with fire. 

The third chapter explains how after Timothy appeared as 
the sole bishop, the other clergy also, who were adherents 
of Proterius, presented a libel by which they showed them- 
selves desirous of coming to the Church ; but ^ the zealous 
priests, on the side of Timothy, would not allow them. 

The fourth chapter tells how these men, because they were 
not received by Timothy, got ready and went up to Rome and 
gave information to the chief priest Leo (respecting the matter). 

The fifth chapter tells about Timothy; and also what 
happened in Ephesus to John the successor of Bassianus. 

The sixth chapter, moreover, explains about the petition ^ 
of Timothy which he wrote to the king, which contained a 
censure upon Leo and his letter. 

The seventh chapter tells about the replies to the Encyclical 
respecting the Synod, which were sent to Leo the king by the 
bishops ; and how Amphilochius did not agree with the others 
in what he wrote. 

The eighth chapter tells about the letter of Anatolius to 
the king, proving him to have influenced the bishops, as to the 
purport of their replies respecting the Synod. 

1 |l . oo^Xn v; "shaking cap"; again (ch. lo) )1 . n <yi ^niAVn 
"crooked cap," from SaXo0o/c/oXos, hence I translate uniformly Salopkaciolus. 

' Probably >£QSQj) has dropped out of the text, and the translation should be 
as in the heading of Chap. III. 


The ninth chapter tells about the banishment of Timothy, 
and the events which happened at his departure from 

The tenth chapter explains about the other Timothy, 
who was the bishop of the Proterian party, and was called 

The eleventh chapter tells about the removal of Timothy 
from Gangra to Cherson. 

The twelfth chapter tells about Isaiah and Theophilus, 
the Eutychians ; and about the letter which Timothy wrote 
respecting them, and by which he exposed them. 

But the time occupied by this Book is two or three years 
of Leo the First, and seventeen years of Leo the Second, less 
by two months, as the Chronicle informs us. For Timothy 
the Great was about two years, more or less, bishop in 
Alexandria ; and then he was banished to Gangra, and after 
the lapse of eighteen years he returned to his see ; and he 
very soon died. 

This fourth Book is a narrative of the consecration of 
Timothy, and of the events which occurred in the days of 
King Leo the First, and Leo the Second. 

64 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 



The Alexandrian Church being in the condition that we 
have described above, suddenly the report of the death of 
Marcian reached them, and they all took courage, and consulted 
with the whole order of the monks as to whom they should 
make the bishop of the believing party. For^ at that time 
Dionysius the general ^ was not there, but was on a visit to 
Egypt.* And they agreed upon Timothy, a man expert in 
business ^ and of ascetic life ; who had been brought from the 
wilderness, by force, to Cyril, and ordained as presbyter by 
him. Moreover, he was of the same faith as Dioscorus ; and 
he was well versed in all the truth of the faith of the doctors 
of the Church. This man the people of Alexandria along 
with the monks seized, and brought to the great Church which 
is called Casarian. And they sought for three bishops, 
according to the canonical statute, to consecrate him. And 
since two Egyptian bishops were present, it was necessary that 
some other bishop should be found. And on making diligent 
inquiry, some of the people heard of Peter the Iberian, who 
had left Palestine and was sojourning there in Alexandria. 
And they ran quickly and laid hold of the man ; and carried 
him on their shoulders, not letting him touch the ground. 
And as they were bringing him along, a voice was heard in 
the minds of the clergy, and of the monks, and of the 
believing citizens, like that voice which Philip heard respecting 
the eunuch of Candace the queen, saying, " Consecrate him by 
force, even though he be unwilling, and set him on the throne 

' J3D03ciA(, i.e. atXovpos. ' Evag. ii. 8 ; Liberal. 15. 

' Ufc.-»-fet-6XD|, 7.e. a-TpaTTiy6s. ■• I.e. Upper Egypt, see Evag, 

9 .JOnn I ^g^Q, I.e. Tpa.KTi.K6i. 


of Mark." And he was weak in body through much self- 
mortification ; so that, on account of his emaciation, the 
Proterian party used jestingly to style him the " Weasel." 
And when Dionysius the general ^ heard of the matter, he 
became uneasy, lest he might receive blame for there being 
two bishops in the city, when the king heard it. And accord- 
■ ingly he returned, and taking the whole Roman force with him, 
he made Timothy prisoner. And many were killed. And 
Dionysius gave orders that they should carry him off to a 
place called Cabarsarin.^ And upon his departure the conflict 
between the citizens and the Romans became severe.* And 
there was a great tumult, and slaughters were matters of daily 
occurrence ; more especially as he (Dionysius) kept inciting and 
urging on * the Romans called Cartadon,^ who were passionate 
men and Arians. And so the custodian of the Church funds 
expended them upon the Romans who were contending 
with the people. But it happened that numbers of them and 
of their wives fell and perished in the conflict. And they 
were divided into parties, and fought one against another. 
And when confusion like this had prevailed in the city for 
many days, Dionysius was at his wits' end, so he brought a 
certain monk Longinus, celebrated for chastity and virtue, 
and he intrusted Timothy to him ; that he might restore the 
bishop to the city and to his church, upon the condition that 
the fighting should cease, and that there should be no more 

And when Timothy had returned to the great church from 
which he had been forcibly removed, and Proterius had taken 
for himself the church which is called Quirinian, and Easter ^ 

1 ]-^ 1 ^^fejD, i.e. aTpaT-qybs. 

3 •;rn. >-^r1 otherwise called ^j^CDOS, i.e. _j^£Da.£L^ (Life of Peter 
lb., ed. Raabe, p. 67) = Ta<l>o<rlpi.ot> (see Euseb. /f.^E. vi. 40). Clearlythen ^£3 
= T(i0os, and the name was taken to mean "Tomb of Osiris" (Brooks). 

3 _b_^ASd, MS., not ^mvAVn as L. prints. 

» For S o\. ..A^f) I read i<l*j,i^A!^. 

5 .0,.^^^. I cannot even guess what this word may mean. 

° 1 : ' ^''^ ■1 unleavened bread. 


66 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

time came round, children without number were brought to 
Timothy to be baptized ; so that because of their multitude 
those who were writing and reading out their names became 
weary ; but only five were brought to Proterius. And the 
people were so devotedly ^ attached ^ to Timothy that they 
drove Proterius out of the church of Quirinus ; and slaughter 



And ^ when Proterius continued to threaten the Romans, 
and to display his rage against them ; because they took his 
gold, but did not fill their hands with the blood of his enemies : 
then, indeed, a certain Roman was stirred to anger in his 
heart, and was boiling over with rage ; and he invited 
Proterius to look round and he would show him the corpses 
of the slain as they lay. And suddenly and secretly, he drew 
his sword and stabbed Proterius in the ribs along with his 
Roman comrades, and they despatched him, and dragged him 
to the Tetrapylum, calling out respecting him as they went 
along, " This is Proterius." And others suspected that it 
was some crafty plot. But the Romans left the body, and 
went away. Then the people, perceiving this, became also 
greatly excited, and they dragged off the corpse, and burnt 
it with fire in the Hippodrome. Thus the end of death 
overtook* Proterius, who had done evil to the Alexandrians, 
just as George the Arian, and he suffered at their hands in 
like manner, and so was it done to him. 

' "IrjQjJ, MS., not tsOCTl, as L. 2 ^.jcjiZ."), MS., ooOlZ], L. 

■3 Evag. ii. 8 ; Liberat. 15. ■» (J\L»^ MS., OiAjA, L. 





But Timothy, when he appeared before them as the only 
chief priest of Alexandria, showed that he was really what a 
priest should be. For the silver and the gold that were given 
to the Romans in the days of Proterius, he expended upon the 
poor, and the widows, and the entertaining of strangers, and 
upon the needy in the city. So that, in a short time, the 
rich men, perceiving his honourable conduct, lovingly and 
devotedly supplied him with funds,^ both gold and silver. But 
the presbyters and all the clergy belonging to the Proterian 
party, since they knew all his virtues and his angelic mode of 
life, and the devotion of the citizens to him, joined themselves 
together and made libels in which they entreated him that they 
might be received. They also promised that they would go 
to Rome to Leo, and admonish him concerning the novelties 
which he had written in the Tome. Among these persons 
there were some who were ready and eloquent, and of great 
wealth and dignity, and of high birth also, who had been 
called to the clerical order by Cyril ; and who were honoured 
in the eyes of the citizens of Rome ; and they presented the 
petition on their behalf to Timothy. And Eustace of Berytus 
wrote also recommending their reception. 

But the jealousy and hatred of the citizens against these 
persons were great, on account of the events which had 
occurred in the days of Proterius, and the various sufferings 
which they had endured. So they would not consent to their 
reception, but they prepared the others to cry out, " Not one 

68 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

of them shall set his foot here, neither shall the trans- 
gressors be received," 



This was the reason why matters were disturbed and 
thrown into confusion. For when these men were ignomini- 
ously refused, they betook themselves to Rome, and there 
they told about the contempt of the canons, and about the 
dreadful death of Proterius ; and they said that he died for 
the, sake of the Synod and for the honour of Leo ; and that 
they themselves, also, had endured many indignities ; and 
further, that Timothy had come forward in a lawless manner 
and taken the priesthood. So they rendered the latter odious, 
and made the whole business appear disgraceful in the eyes 
of Leo ; and they stirred him up against Timothy. 



But how it came about that Timothy was given up, I 
shall now relate. Marcian the king having died, and 
Anthemius, and Severus, and Olybrius having reigned for 
only short lives, in Italy and the regions beyond, Leo the 
First received the kingdom in the territory of Europe in 
conjunction with them and after them. And he was both a 
believer and vigorous, but simple in the faith. 


And when Leo the king learned the evils which occurred 
in Egypt, and in Alexandria, and in Palestine, and in every- 
place ; and that many had been disturbed on account of the 
Synod. And also that in Ephesus there had been much 
slaughter, upon the entrance of John, after Bassianus had 
resigned and fled because he would not subscribe the trans- 
actions of Chalcedon. But this John, being inflamed with 
desire for pre-eminence, betrayed the rights and honours of 
the see ; so that in Ephesus they call him " the traitor " 
unto this day ; and they blotted his name out of the book 
of life. He accordingly, when he received a letter from 
Timothy of Alexandria, was willing to convene a Synod. 
But Anatolius, the bishop of the royal city, prevented him ; 
not, indeed, that he was able to find any fault with the 
written statement of Timothy, but he was very uneasy 
lest, if a Synod were assembled, it might put an end to 
all the transactions of Chalcedon. And his anxiety was 
not for the faith, but rather for the privileges and honours 
which had been unjustly granted to the see of the royal 

Accordingly, Anatolius persuaded the king not to 
assemble a Synod, but by means of written letters, called 
Encyclicals, to inquire what the mind of the bishops was 
respecting the Synod of Chalcedon and the consecration^ of 

And^ the king began to write to the bishops about 
Timothy and the Synod of Chalcedon, in the encyclical letter, 
to the following effect : — 

" Do ye, without fear of man or partiality, and unbiassed 
by influence or by favour, setting the fear of God alone before 
your eyes, and considering that to Him alone ye must make 
your defence and give your account, tell me briefly the 
common opinion held by you the priests in our dominion, 
what ye think right, after having carefully investigated the 
transactions of Chalcedon, and concerning the consecration 
of Timothy of Alexandria." 

1 ( . 1 ^{"^ i.e. xeipoTovla. ' Liberal. 15 ; Evag. ii. 9. 


And 1 when a letter such as this from the king was given 
to Leo of Rome, he wrote two letters to Leo the king ; one 
concerning Timothy, and the other on behalf of the Proterian 
party, in which he also asserted of the clergy of Constantinople 
that they were of the same mind as Timothy ; and he called 
Anatolius indolent i^ and he defended the Tome which he 
himself wrote respecting Eutyches, and which was accepted 
in the Council of Chalcedon. However, in a similar strain he 
wrote distinctly concerning the taking of the Manhood by 
Christ in this letter also. And Leo the king sent it on to 
Timothy of Alexandria. And, upon the receipt of it, the 
latter wrote a petition * to the king as follows. 



" O kind and indulgent king ! Since among wise men * 
there is nothing more honourable than the soul, and also 
we have learned to despise the things of the flesh, and not 
to lose the soul ; therefore, as far as in me lies and with all 
my might, I am careful to keep my soul, lest before the time 
of judgment I may be condemned as a lover of the flesh, 
and prepare for myself the fire of Hell. And this I think, 
that all who are wise concerning that which is good, desire 
that nothing hateful to their brethren should ever occur. And 
accordingly, in writing this petition I assure your Serenity 
that from my youth I have learned the Holy Scriptures, and 
I have studied the divine mysteries contained in them. And 
even until now, I have ever been careful to hold the true 
faith as it was delivered to us by the apostles, and by my 

' Evag. ii. 10. •■' For U4-»-^ I read |li-^i=>. 

s .m I m O, i.e. Siijins. * ]jlJ -i-l-G, MS., ].£ljJL», L. 


fathers the doctors. And, being united to them by the 
grace of God our Saviour, I have reached my present age. 
And I confess the one faith which our Redeemer and 
Creator Jesus Christ delivered when He became incarnate, 
and sent out the blessed apostles, saying, ' Go, teach all 
nations ; baptizing them in the name of the Father, and the 
Son, and the Holy Spirit' ^ For ^ the Trinity is perfect, equal 
of Nature, in glory and blessedness ; and there is not in It 
anything less or more. For thus also the three hundred and 
eighteen blessed fathers taught concerning the true Incarnation 
of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, that He became man, 
according to His dispensation, which He Himself knows. 
And with them I agree and believe, as do all others who 
prosper^ in the true faith. For in it there is nothing difficult, 
neither does the definition of the faith which the fathers pro- 
claimed require addition. And all (whoever they be) holding 
other opinions and corrupted by heresy, are rejected by me. 
And I also myself flee from them. For this is a disease 
which destroys the soul, namely, the doctrine of Apollinaris, 
and the blasphemies of Nestorius, both those who hold 
erroneous views about the Incarnation of Jesus Christ, Who 
became flesh from us ; and introduce into Him the cleavage 
in two, and divide asunder even the dispensation of the only- 
begotten Son of God : and those, on the other hand, who say 
with respect to His Body that it was taken from Heaven, 
or that God the Word was changed, or that He suffered 
in His own Nature ; and who do not confess that to a 
human body what pertains to the soul derived from us was 

" And I say to any who have fallen into one or other of 
these heresies, ' Ye are in grievous error, and ye know not the 
Scriptures.' * And with such I do not hold communion, nor 
do I love them as believers. But I am joined, and united, 
and truly agreeing with the faith which was defined at Nicea ; 
and it is my care to live in accordance with it. 

^ Matt, xxviii. 19. ^ Migne, Patr. GrcBc. vi. p. 274. 

s ^-.-KK^^, MS., \t^ . Nt V>, L- 

^ Matt. xxii. 29. 

72 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

" But when Diomedes, the distinguished Silentiarius, came 
to me and gave me the letter of the bishop of Rome, and I 
studied it, and I was not pleased with its contents ; then 
lest the Church, O Christ-loving man, should be disturbed, I 
neither, as yet, have publicly read nor censured it. 

" But I believe that God has put it into the mind of your 
Serenity to set right the statements in this letter, which are a 
cause of stumbling to the believers ; for these statements are 
in accord, and agreement, and conjunction with the doctrine of 
Nestorius ; who was condemned for cleaving asunder and 
dividing the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ, in respect 
of natures, and persons, and properties, and names, and 
operations ; who also interpreted the words of Scripture to 
mean two (natures), which are not contained in the Confession 
of Faith of the three hundred and eighteen. For they 
declared that the only-begotten Son of God, Who is of the 
same Nature with the Father, came down, and became incar- 
nate, and was made man ; and suffered, arid rose again, and 
ascended to Heaven ; and shall come to judge the quick and 
the dead. And natures, and persons, and properties were not 
mentioned by them, nor did they divide them. But they 
confessed the divine and the human properties to be of One 
by the dispensation. 

" Accordingly, I do not agree with the transactions of 
Chalcedon, because I find in them divisions and cleavage of 
the dispensation. 

" And now, O victorious king, receive me, for I am 
speaking this confidently on behalf of the truth ; that your 
Highness may prosper as on earth, so also in Heaven. And 
accept this my petition with goodwill, for in this letter from 
the West there runs confusion likely to cause stumbling; 
for it cleaves asunder the dispensation. And I pray that 
this letter may be annulled, so that God Christ may be purely ^ 
confessed by all tongues that He truly suffered in the flesh ; 
while He remained without suffering in His Godhead, which 
He has with the Father and the Spirit. 

" And I entreat and ^ beseech your honoured Majesty that 

1 AjIjJJ, MS., AjIjJ, L. 2 ^oi.aj^)ioO, MS., v£L«^AiD, L. 


orders be sent to all men to hold ^ the Confession of the faith, 
as defined by our three hundred and eighteen fathers, which, 
in a few words, declares the truth to all the Churches, and 
puts an end to every heresy and all false doctrine and causes 
of stumbling ; and which itself stands in no need of correction. 
But the matters in this letter which appear to me to require 
correction" (which are not repeated) "are these — " and because 
they are given at length with quotations refuting them, we 
do not repeat ^ them here, lest the reader should be wearied. 
For believers may find, in all places, the censures upon them 
that have been made by wise men. In the first place, by 
Dioscorus ; and after him, by this Timothy ; and after him by 
Peter ; and by Akhs'noyo of Hierapolis ; and by the learned 
Severus, the chief priest of Antioch, in his work Against the 
Grammarian ; ^ and by Cosmas ; and by Simeon of L'gino ; 
and by the letter of the Alexandrines. 



But Timothy wrote confidently, as above, concerning the 
letter of Leo and the Synod of Chalcedon. The other 
bishops, however, the Metropolitans of every place, having 
received the encyclical letter of the king, testified to what 
was done by them in Chalcedon, to which also they agreed." 
And they censured the consecration of Timothy, whom Leo, 

1 Imperfectly written in MS. Z KifJ. "Mich, has 'that they hold fast,' 

reading ^0)Q.KiP ; but it is hard to explain the corruption in the text " (Brooks). 

2 Read ,^1 V)»3 for ,^ 1 Vl »3. ^ See bk. 7, ch. 10. 

^ Read y-^l, for yS\. ^ Mansi, vol. vii. p. 539 ff. 

74 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

the bishop of Rome, even named " the Antichrist." ^ They 
say, indeed, that the other bishops also were influenced to 
write thus by the instigation of Anatohus, and his letters to 

But ^ Amphilochius of Side alone showed truth and 
uprightness without fear. And he and the bishops of his 
province wrote confidently, censuring and reviling the 
transactions of the Synod, and the doctrine of the Tome, 
telling of the violence and partiality there displayed, and con- 
firming their statements by proofs and copious testimony from 
the Holy Scriptures and the Fathers. He, moreover, besought 
the king that the transactions of Chalcedon should be can- 
celled, since they were a cause of stumbling to the believers, 
as well as of confusion.^ Nevertheless, he censured the con- 
secration of Timothy, and said that it had been done in an 
uncanonical manner. This man, indeed, who testified thus 
confidently and truly to the king respecting the Synod, fell 
into danger from the Nestorian party, in consequence of the 
malignity and treachery which they exhibited towards him ; 
for he was the only one of all the bishops who had the courage 
to revile the Synod with its transactions, and also the Tome. 
But Aspar, who was general * at that time, although he was 
an Arian, pleaded and begged for him that such a truthful 
priest should not be exposed to danger. And thus, indeed, 
Amphilochius was delivered from danger. 

But^ in his endeavour to correct the evils which were 
done in the days of Marcian, the king was hindered by the 
bishops. And by their means also Timothy was condemned 
to banishment in Gangra. Now that Anatolius of Constantin- 
ople was the one to instigate the bishops to make these state- 
ments to the king in the Encyclicals, you will learn from his 
letter to the king which I have written below. 

1 Leo, Ep. 156, ch. ii. 2 Evag. ii. lo. 

» Read UizAoSj for ]1'-^\no^ 

* w ffi 1 5 ' ' (ji 5^ ) '■^- CTpaTriKdTTjs. ' Evag. ii. II. 




" Anatolius, bishop of Constantinople, to the believing 
and Christ-loving king, victorious Augustus, Leo the emperor. 
It is a subject of prayer with me, Christ-loving and believ- 
ing king," etc. And a little further on he says : " Those 
audacious acts which have been committed in Alexandria, do 
not suffer me to remain silent. But, as becomes one holding 
the priesthood of this your royal city, being attached to the 
peaceable will of your Majesty, which desires that the canons 
of the Fathers should not be despised, but that the laws 
should be maintained, I have testified thus to the pious chief 
priest Leo and the chaste Metropolitans of your dominion. 
And I weep for the canons which have been despised by the 
wicked deeds of Timothy ; since the records ^ sent to your 
Majesty respecting him declare that he has trampled upon the 
laws of the Church and of the world ; and that he has loved 
vainglory, according to the saying of Scripture, that ' the 
wicked man is a despiser, even when he is falling into the 
depth of evils.'" 3 

And the rest of his letter will be understood* from this 
specimen; how^ he was the cause of the letters sent by the 
bishops to the emperor, in which they agreed to the trans- 
action of the Synod. But many senators and citizens, having 
learned this respecting Anatolius, withdrew from his com- 

^ Mansi, vol. vii. p. 537. ^ \k^ ' ^ Vl'^OOl; i-e. vTo/j.n'fifiaTa. 

3 Prov. xviii. 3 (LXX). ^ Read ^.^^AfiOkJ for ^-lAsAcol. 

* MS. OC71J, not 0C7I0. 

•]6 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 



But, because the king's order ^ respecting the departure of 
Timothy was sent to Alexandria at this time, the general^ 
was consequently much distressed, and felt himself constrained 
to suffer many things rather than that the city should lose 
such a priest. However, since he saw^ the slaughter which 
was threatened against him by the Proterian party, and 
especially' as the members of that party had taken refuge* 
with the king, and were aided by all the bishops ; this same 
Stilas the general ^ thought it well that he and the bishop 
should betake themselves for refuge to the Baptistery of the 
great Church. And he did so for two reasons : one was, 
that they themselves might be preserved from harm ; and 
the other, that they might not be the cause of the loss of 
life and of slaughter. 

But when Timothy had taken refuge at the font of the 
Baptistery, the clergy of the Proterian party paid no regard 
either to the priesthood, or to the chastity, or to the age, or 
to the ascetic life, or to the labours of the man, or indeed to 
the place where he had taken refuge ; but with an armed force, 
they snatched the chief priest from the very font, and dragged 
him away. And, as soon as the report of this '^ reached 
the people, they killed '^ more than ten thousand ther^ to rescue 
the priest from them. However, after the Romans had slain 
many of the Alexandrians, the man was taken ; and he went 
out across Egypt to Palestine, that his journey might be along 
the sea of Phoenice. 

■^ PaQ-iiL..^ fy>i °^) i-e- 7r/)6rrTa7/na. '^ I II ' L. 5"^- ^•^- <yTpa.T-rftb%. 

8 loCJl, MS., not 2.001, as L. ^ a£Da-t2.1, MS., CUQ.yi.'l, L. 

^ Libeiat. 15 and 16. " 'jjOl, MS., not (JOI, as L. prints. 

' Perhaps we should read - \ » ^ '^. ^"d trans. ' ' more than ten thousand 
persons were killed there in the attempt to rescue," etc. 


But when the cities and the inhabitants of Palestine and 
the seacoasti heard it, they came to him to be sanctified, 
and that the sick among them gain healing for their diseases 
through the grace of God which was attached to his person ; 
and they snatched torn pieces of stuff from his garments, that 
they might have them as charms to protect them from evil. 

And when he arrived at Berytus, Eustace the bishop urged 
the citizens there to receive him with public honour. 

And he begged Timothy, upon his entry into the city, to 
pray for it ; and the latter stood in the midst of the city and 
made supplications and prayers to God for it, and blessed it. 

But Auxonius, the brother of Eustace, who was at that 
time an interpreter of the law, acting upon the advice of his 
brother, spent the whole night with Timothy, speaking 
earnestly about the faith, and against Nestorius. And 
during the whole of his long discourse Timothy was a silent 
listener ; but when at length Auxonius, after many words, 
ceased speaking, Timothy said to him, " Who could persuade 
me that these three fingers should write upon the paper of 
Chalcedon ? " And, upon hearing this, Auxonius was very sad, 
and began to weep. Then Timothy, encouraging both him 
and his brother Eustace, who afterwards joined ^ them, said, 
" Attach yourselves to me, and let us contend together for the 
faith, and let us prevail ; so that either we shall recover our 
bishoprics, or else we shall be driven into banishment by our 
enemies, and live a sincere life with God." And he alleged 
as an excuse the dedication of a church, a great temple 
which Eustace built and named " Anastasia " ; and Timothy 
said, " Shall we wait for the dedication of an earthly temple ? 
But if you obey me, then we shall hold our festival in the 
heavenly Jerusalem ? " 

And Timothy received the same kind of honour along the 
way, until he reached Gangra. 

1 -m\.cp\ j_e. TdpaKos, the province of Phoenice Maritima. 

2 Read r^ol] for OfJt.oZ'i. 

78 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 



But ^ the members of the Proterian party, because of the 
order ^ of the king and the governors of the • cities who were 
obedient to the command, elected one of themselves, also 
called Timothy Salophaciolus,^ and placed him upon the 
episcopal throne. He was a man who sought popularity ; * 
and was soft in his manners and feeble in his actions ; as 
events, indeed, proved. 

For when all the people of the city forsook the church, 
and assembled, along with the believing clergy, in the monas- 
teries, he was neither enraged nor distressed. But when his 
own clergy were anxious to restrain the people by means of 
the Roman armed force, he would not allow them. 

Now it happened that a certain woman met him carrying 
her child, who had just been baptized by the believers, and 
was being borne along in triumph according to the usual 
custom. And his attendants were very indignant at it. But 
he ordered them to bring her to him quietly ; and he took up 
the child and kissed him, and he urged the mother to take 
whatever she wanted. And he said to his own followers, 
" Let us and these Christians, each as he thinks right, believe 
and honour our Lord." Nevertheless, though he did all this, 
he could not appease the rage of the citizens ; and because 
he dreaded the fate of Proterius, he would not walk abroad 
without the Romans. And just in proportion as the people 
loved Timothy the believer, so they hated * this man. And 
they never ceased imploring and entreating the king that 
Timothy should be restored to them from banishment. 

; ) 1 I n°^ ^Oil^, see note i, p. 62. ^ Liberal. 16. 

' pQ.<k.9'£0p^, «.«. vpbtTTayii.a,. 

i -pno ri . ^Vn .^ i.e. ST/fioTiKis. 

^ ^.•J.CO, MS., not ■ I S(T), as L. prints. 


But they say of this Salophaciolus that he tried hard to 
persuade the Alexandrians to hold communion with him ; and, 
as if rejecting the Synod, he wrote in the Diptych the name 
of Dioscorus. And when Leo of Rome heard it, he excom- 
municated him. 

And on one occasion, when he went up to Constantinople, 
he had a great dispute with Gennadius, the successor of 
Anatolius, in the king's presence. And he said, " I do not 
accept the Synod which would make your see the next in 
importance to Rome, and cast contempt upon the honour of 
my see." And the king laughed when he saw them, and 
heard the two priests contending for the pre-eminence. 

And he wrote to tell about this dispute to the bishop of 
Rome ; who at that time replied in writing, that the privileges 
of each see should be restored according to their original 
constitution. And he made this known to the king. 

So much about this Timothy Salophaciolus. 



But Gennadius of Constantinople and his adherents did not 
desist from their persecution of Timothy, even when he was 
in banishment. For they persuaded the king to command 
his removal from Gangra to Cherson, which is a region in- 
habited by barbarous and uncivilised men. 

But the bishop of Gangra heartily consented to this, on 
account of the envy which he felt towards the believing, virtu- 
ous, and miracle-working Timothy, the friend of the poor; 
because he used to receive gifts from the believers of Alex- 
andria and Egypt and other places, and to make , liberal 
distribution for the relief of the needy. 

And having embarked on board ship, and launched upon 

8o THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

the sea, though he was tossed in the midst of the winter, 
yet he reached Cherson without danger. And when the in- 
habitants of the country learned the reason, they were filled 
with admiration for him ; and they became followers of his 
faith, and submitted themselves to his authority. 

But the hatred which the Nestorjan party entertained 
against him was caused by his diligence in continually writing 
reproaches and censures upon the Synod and the Tome, and 
sending them forth on all sides ; thereby encouraging the 
believers. And he corroborated his words from the Holy 
Scriptures, and the doctors of the Church, from the time of 
Christ's preaching even to his own day. 

In consequence of these writings, those persons who under- 
stood the matter left Gennadius of Constantinople and joined 
in communion with Acacius the presbyter and Master of the 
Orphans, the brother of Timocletus the composer, who joined 
the believers, and strenuously opposed the Nestorians ; and he 
also set verses ^ to music, and they used to sing them. And 
the people were delighted with them, and they flocked in 
crowds to the Orphan Hospital.^ 

But the king ordered that the blessed Mary should be 
proclaimed and written in the book of life as Theotokos, on 
account of Martyrius of Antioch, who was an avowed Nestorian, 
and would not now consent to teach these things, who also 
was deposed. 

But Gregory of Nyssa (a believing and virtuous man, 
the namesake of the learned Gregory) was summoned by the 
king to put an end to the doctrine of the Nestorians at that 
time ; as some monks went on a mission to the king about 
the matter of Martyrius. And Gennadius * had died ; and 
Acacius, the Master of the Orphan Hospital,* was appointed 
as his successor. 

And a promise had been made by the latter that he would 
put an end to the Tome of Leo, and the Synod of Chalcedon, 

1 Read lA^iLo for "jAi '.' v^n. 

2 ,n . gyi. ^ 1 g\i| ,.£. 'Opcl>avoTpo<peiov. ' Evag. ii. II. 
4 »Ea2)i-^£5J I, i.e. 'Op<j>avoTp6^os. 


and the innovations and additions which had been imposed 
upon the faith in it. 



The affairs of the Church of the royal city, indeed, were 
in the condition described above. 

But Timothy, when in banishment, wrote not alone against 
the Nestorians, but also against the Eutychianists. And this 
appears from his letters to Alexandria and Palestine, against 
those who hold the opinions of Eutyches, and do not confess 
Christ to be of the same nature with us in the flesh as well as 
of the same Nature with the Father in the Godhead. 

And it so happened that the Eutychianists, Isaiah, bishop 
of Hermopolis, and Theophilus, a presbyter of Alexandria, 
were sojourning in the royal city with the desire of making 
money. And they circulated a report that Timothy also was 
of their way of thinking. And when he heard this he wrote 
a letter dealing with the doctrines of Eutyches and Nestorius, 
which he sent to Constantinople signed with his own signature. 
And when ^ the bearers of this letter became known, they were 
treated by these men with contempt ; and were exposed to 
danger, because he called the followers of Isaiah " deceivers." 
Whereupon he sent again another letter respecting them, con- 
firming it by quotations from the fathers. And it was to the 
following effect : — 

The Letter of Timothy 

" Our Lord and God, Jesus Christ, in order that He might 
redeem us and set us free from the dominion of Satan, and 

' For _D read f3 ; and for the defective word OTj . AjJjD read (7 1 i 1 x L^lP. 


82 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

make us meet for the blessings of Heaven, appointed for us, 
through the holy fathers, the law of those things which are 
pleasing to Himself. And He gave commandment that no 
man, thinking to honour, should insult the Merciful One ; but 
that He should receive the dispensation for our redemption. 
And He said, ' Turn not aside to the right hand or to the left, 
but walk in the way of the kingdom.' ^ And again He said, 
' Be not righteous overmuch, nor count thyself too wise, lest 
thou fall into error. And do not fall deeply into error, nor 
be stubborn, lest thou die before the time ' ; ^ the meaning of 
which is, lest the evil one should infuse into thee anything 
contrary to My commandments, and set a stumbling-block for 
thee on the way of the kingdom along which thou art walking, 
and slay thee. For he said, ' In the way wherein I walked they 
laid snares ^ for me.' * Take heed, therefore, to thyself,^ and 
do not turn aside nor depart from the way of the kingdom. 
For this is the desire of the evil one, who, if thou shalt fill up 
much wickedness, will meet thee, and thou wilt fall into danger. 
" For, suppose a man seeking to enter a city surrounded 
by water ; if he attempt to pass through on foot he will sink 
and be drowned in its depth ; if, on the other hand, he be 
afraid to pass over, he cannot enter the city at all ; but if 
there be a convenient* ford, and he try to cross over by it, 
then he can enter the city. In like manner also we being 
anxious to enter Jerusalem, which is above, if we do not follow 
the Law of God, which we have learned from the holy doctors, 
cannot indeed stand upon the rock of our leader Peter Kepho, 
the true faith.^ ' For thou shalt indeed be called Kepho, and 
upon this rock I will build My Church ; and the bars of Sheol 
shall not prevail against it.' * Let no man be so led astray 
by the evil one as to imagine that he can subvert the 
true faith ; and if he is contending, it is against his own soul 

1 Num. XX. 17 ; Prov. iv. 27. ^ A free quotation from Eccles. vii. i6-i8. 

' Uj^, MS., Ojo^, L. ■> Ps. cxlii. (Syr. cxli.) 3. 

5 AjI, MS., /ul, L. " ]J0XL, MS., not ViCTli., as L. 

' IZoiSOjOl, MS., not m7niVn.m as L. 

*Johni. 42; Matt. xvi. 18. 


that he contends ; but nothing can overcome the faith. And 
this is the meaning of the expression, ' The bars ^ of Sheol 
shall not prevail against it.' Wherefore, if any man stand not 
upon the truth of the faith, but is righteous overmuch, when 
he thinks to confer honour, he rather offers insult; but if he 
accept the Law of the Lord, which has been laid down for us 
by the saints, he survives visions of death and the verge of 
Sheol. For we have learned ^ that apart from the standard of 
the faith, we cannot please God. 

" These things I have written, because I have heard that 
some persons are contentious, and are not obedient unto the 
Law of the Lord which has been laid down for us by the saints ; 
and which declares that our Lord, by His incarnation, was of the 
same nature with us in the flesh which He took from us, which 
doctrine they have even rejected if they are not of this mind. 

" Accordingly, let no one, thinking to honour God, insult 
His mercy by refusing to obey the doctrine of the holy fathers, 
who ihave declared that our Lord Jesus Christ is of the same 
nature with us in the flesh, and is one with His flesh. For I 
have heard also the holy apostle teaching and saying, ' Foras- 
much as the children were partakers of the flesh and the blood, 
He also (partook of the same) in like manner; that by means 
of death He might destroy the power of death, who is Satan ; 
and might deliver all who were held in the fear of death, and 
were subject to bondage, that so they might live for ever. For 
He did not take (the nature) from angels, but He took it from 
the seed of Abraham. And it was fitting that He should be 
made in all points like unto His brethren, and that He should 
be a merciful priest, and faithful with God ; and that He 
should make reconciliation for the sins of the people. For in 
that He suffered being tempted. He is able to succour them 
that are tempted.' * For this expression, ' He was made like us 
in all points,' teaches all who desire to be meet for the blessings 
of heaven and to be redeemed, that they must confess * the 
Incarnation of our Lord Jesus Christ as being from Mary the 

1 ]loQlD, i.e. /j.ox>^ol. ^ ^}<=^\,, MS., ^ 1 '=^\ 1, L. 

^ Heb. ii. 14-18. * Read J for O before ^OJOJ. 

84 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

holy Virgin and Theotokos ; Christ Who was of the same 
nature with her and with us in the flesh, and is of the same 
Nature with the Father in His Godhead. 

" For the fathers anathematised, and we also agreeing 
with them anathematise in like manner, any who do not 
hold their doctrines. 

" But we have, moreover, in our letter added some quota- 
tions from them, attesting the truth of this doctrine : — 

" Of Athanasius ^ 

" ' For this, indeed, the apostle writes expressly, that, 
" other foundation can no man lay (than that which is laid),^ 
even Christ ; but let every man take heed how he builds." * 
Now it is necessary that a foundation such as this should be 
in conformity and likeness with those who are built upon it. 
God the Word, because He is the Word and the only-begotten 
one, has no peers who could be the sons of the Godhead in 
the same manner as He. But inasmuch as He became man, 
of our nature, and clothed Himself with our body, we are 
of the same nature with Him. Accordingly, in the matter of 
our humanity He is the foundation ; so that we may be 
precious stones, and be built upon Him, and be a temple 
for the indwelling of the Holy Spirit. 

" ' For, in like manner as He is the foundation and 
we are the stones built upon Him, so also He is the vine 
and we are the branches, hanging from Him and in Him ; 
not indeed in the nature of the Godhead, for that would not 
be possible, but in the manhood. Now it is fitting that the 
branches should be like the vine, because we also are like Him 
in that body which He took from us. 

" ' And * we confess that He is the Son of God, and God 
in the Spirit, and man in the flesh. And there are not two 
natures in one Son, one to be worshipped and the other 

^ Orat. ii., contra Arian. 74. 

2 The words |Vl 1 m> (jOl ^JiO ^.^CD must have dropped out of the MS. 

" I Cor. iii. 11, 12. 

* De Incarn. Dei Verbi (Migne, Pair. Grac. vol. xxviii. p. 25). 


unworthy of worship ; but there is one Nature of God the 
Word, Who became incarnate, and Who, along with the flesh 
in which He is clothed, is to be worshipped with one worship.' 

" Of the Same, in his Letter to Epictetus ^ 

" ' Now there are many, hiding themselves and blushing, 
who imagine that, if we affirm the body of our Lord to be 
from Mary, we introduce a fourth Person into the Trinity ; 
but if we affirm ^ the body to be of the same Nature with the 
Word, the Trinity thereby remains without the addition of 
any foreign element. While if we maintain with respect to 
His body that it is human ; then since the body is foreign 
to the Nature of God, when the Word is in it, there must of 
necessity be a Quaternity instead of a Trinity, in consequence 
of the addition of the body. 

" ' When they talk in this way they do not consider how 
their own argument breaks down and fails. For even if they 
deny the body to be from Mary, they, no less than those who 
hold a distinct body,* also seem to hold a Quaternity. For 
in like manner as the Son is of the same Nature with the 
Father, and is not the Father but the Son in Person, yet being 
of the same Nature with the Father ; so also, if the body is of 
the same Nature with the Word, it is not the Word, and since 
there is another, the Trinity, even according to their showing, 
is found to be a Quaternity. 

" ' But the true, indivisible and perfect Trinity can never 
receive any addition. What then must be the mind of these 
persons, and how can they be Christians who hold that there 
is another besides Him who is God ? ' 

" Of the Same, from the same Letter * 

" ' The body of our Redeemer, derived from Mary, was in 
reality and truth human in nature, because it was like our body ; 

1 Athan. ad Epict. 8, 9. 2 Read ,-J_.iiDl for ^f.^1. 

^ This is the best I can make of it, the text may be corrupt. 
^ Ibid. 7. 

86 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

since Mary is our sister, we being all descended from our 
father Adam.' 

"Of Julius of Rome i 

" ' And there is no change whatsoever in the Divine 
Nature, for It is not subject to diminution or increase. And 
when He says, " Glorify Me," that is the voice of the body, 
and is spoken concerning the body. For glory was affirmed 
with respect to His whole Being, for He is all one. And by 
this the " glory which I had with Thee before the world was," ^ 
He testified concerning His Godhead that It is always 
glorified, for such glory properly belongs to It, even though 
this affirmation was made equally concerning His whole Being. 
So in the Spirit He is of the same Nature with the Father 
invisibly ; and since the body also was united to Him in 
His Nature, it is equally included under the name. And 
again, also, His Godhead is comprehended under the name 
because It is united to our nature, and the nature of the 
body is not converted into the nature of God by the union 
and conjunction of the name of the nature. Just as the nature 
of the Godhead was not changed by the conjunction of the 
human body, and by the appellation of a body of our nature.' 

" Of the Same, from his Letter to Dionysius ^ 

" ' They indeed, who confess that the God of heaven 
became incarnate from the Virgin, and that He being joined 
to His flesh was one, give themselves needless trouble in con- 
tending with the maintainers of the opposite view, who affirm 
(as I have heard) that thefe are two natures. Since John 
proved our Lord to be one by saying, " The Word became 
flesh." * And Paul by saying, " There is one Lord Jesus 
Christ, through Whom are all things." ^ Now, if He Who 
was born from the Virgin was named Jesus, and He it is 
through Whom were all things ; He is one nature because He 

1 Migne, Patr. Lat. vol. viii. p. 874. ^ John xvii. 5. 

'^ Migne, Patr. Lat. vol. viii. p. 929. * John i. 14. 

" I Cor. vi. 8. 


is one Person, Who is not divided into two. For the nature of 
the body was not separate, nor yet did the Nature of the God- 
head remain distinct at the Incarnation ; but just as man, 
composed of body and soul, is one nature, so also He, Who 
is in the likeness of men, is one Jesus Christ.' 

" Of Gregory the Miracle-Worker ^ 

" ' Whosoever says that Christ appeared in the world in 
phantasy, and does not confess Him to have come in the 
body, as it is written : let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever says concerning the body of Christ that it 
was without soul ^ and without mind, and does not confess 
His humanity to be perfect. He being the same, according as 
it is written : let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever says that Christ took a part of man only, 
and does not confess Him to have been in all points like as 
we are, yet without sin : let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever says that Christ was liable to change and * 
variation, and does not confess Him to be unchanged in Spirit, 
and uncorrupt in the flesh, as it is written : let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever says that Christ was perfect man separately 
(and God the Word separately),* and does not confess Him to 
be one Lord Jesus Christ : let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever says that there was One Who suffered and 
Another Who did not suffer, and does not confess God the 
Word, Himself impassible, to have suffered in His flesh, as it 
is written : let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever says that there was One Who existed before 
the worlds, the Son of God; and another, who at length came 
into being ; and does not confess Him to be the same Who was 
before the worlds and at length came into being, according as it 
is written, " Christ yesterday and to-day " : ^ let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever says that Christ was of the seed of a man in 
like manner as the rest of mankind, and does not confess Him 

^ Migne, Patr. Crac. vol. a. p. ii28ff. ^ . . gM MS., wQ.2U, L. 

' 0010, MS., which L. omits. ■* Supplied from the Greek. 

' Heb. xiii. 8. This quotation is not in the Greek. 

88 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

to have been incarnate, and to have become man, of the Holy- 
Spirit and also of the Virgin Mary, of the seed of the house 
of David, as it is written : let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever says that the body of Christ was of the 
same nature as His Godhead, and does not confess Him to 
be God before all worlds, Who " emptied Himself and took 
upon Him the form of a servant," ^ as it is written : let him be 

"'Whosoever says that the body of Christ was not a 
created body, and does not confess the uncreated God the 
Word to have received incarnation and manhood from created 
man, as it is written : let him be accursed. 

" ' For how can one affirm the body of Christ to be 
uncreated ; since that which is not created is not susceptible 
of siiffering, or wounds, or contact. But Christ Himself, after 
His resurrection from the dead, shov/ed His disciples the 
prints of the nails and the wound of the spear, and afforded 
them bodily contact with Himself. And although the doors 
were shut He entered, that He might display the power of His 
Godhead and the reality of His body.^ For the flesh which 
comes into being after lapse of time, cannot be said to be of 
the same nature with the eternal Godhead.* For whatsoever in 
nature and property is incapable of change is of the same nature. 

" ' And * He is the true incorporeal God who appeared 
in the flesh, a perfect Being ; He is not two persons nor two 
natures. For we do not worship Four, God, and the Son of 
God, and a man, and the Holy Spirit ; but, on the contrary, 
we anathematise those who act so wickedly, and who would 
place man in the glory of God. But we hold that God the 
Word became man for the sake of our redemption, and that 
He took our likeness upon Him, and that He who came in our 
likeness is in His true Nature the Son of God, but in the flesh 
a man, our Lord Jesus Christ.'* 

^ Phil. ii. 7. " Luke xxiv. 36-43 ; John xx. 19-27. 

' MS. has i before iOoAk^SD, which L. omits. 

^ Migne, Pair. Grac. vol. x. p. 11 17. Here Mich, has "OF THE SAME." 
^ This is only an attempt at translating the sentence ; a comparison with the 
Greek shows that the text is corrupt. 


" Of Basil of C^sarea ^ 

" ' That which is made is not of the same nature as its 
maker, but that which is begotten is of the same essence as its 
begetter. Accordingly, that which is created and that which is 
born are not one and the same.' And again, ' The children 
have the same nature as the parent, even though he that was 
born has come into being in a different fashion. For Abel, 
who was born as the result of copulation, was in no respect 
different from Adam who was not born, but was formed.' 
And again, ' If they who are different in the manner of their 
creation are different also in their essential being, then men 
must be unlike one another in nature. For there is one 
creation of Adam, who was formed out of the earth ; and 
another creation of Eve, who was made from a rib ; and 
another of Abel, who was from copulation ; and another of 
Him Who was from Mary, who was from a virgin alone. And, 
indeed, the same might be said with respect to birds and 

" Of Gregory, his Brother ^ 

" ' The nature, indeed, of those who are begotten must of 
necessity be like their begetters.' 

" Or Gregory of Nazianzum ^ 

" ' Now these are generally accepted doctrines, that He 
Who was exalted far above us, for our sake took our qualities 
upon Him and became man ; not that through the body 
He should thenceforth be limited to the body, for He is 
not so limited, since His Nature is infinite ; but that He 
might sanctify man by His body He became as leaven to the 
whole lump, and drew it to Himself And him who was 
guilty he released from his guilt. He was, for our sake, in all 
points like as we are, sin only excepted, in body, soul, mind, 

'Migne, Pair. Grcec. vol. xxix. pp. 673, 680, 681. 

- Ibid. vol. xlv. p. 601. 

" The source of this quotation we are not able to find. 

90 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

of which the ordinary mortal man is composed. He Who 
manifested Himself was God in respect of His spiritual being, 
but human in respect of Adam and the Virgin from whom 
He was derived ; from the former as His ancestor, but from 
the latter who was His mother according to the (natural) law, 
and who gave Him birth in a manner superior to nature, and 
not after the (natural) law.' 

" Of Julius of Rome ^ 

it ( 

But, again, with respect to the dispensation of our 
Redeemer in the flesh, we believe that God the Word remain- 
ing unchanged, became flesh, with the object of renewing 
mankind. And He, being the true Son of God by the eternal 
generation, became man by the birth from the Virgin. And 
He, Who is perfect God in His Godhead of the same Nature 
with the Father, and also perfect man of the same bodily 
nature with mankind by birth from the Virgin, is one and 
the same. But whosoever says that Christ had a body from 
heaven, or that His body was of His nature: let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever- denies that the flesh of our Lord is from the 
Virgin, of the same nature as ours : let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever holds concerning our Lord and Saviour 
Who was from the Holy Spirit and from Mary the Virgin in 
the flesh, that He was incomposite and without consciousness, 
and without reason, and without mind : let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever shall dare to say with respect to Christ that 
He suffered in His Godhead, and not in the flesh, as it is 
written : let him be accursed. 

" ' Whosoever would separate and divide our Lord and 
Saviour, and say that God the Word is one Son, and the 
man whom He' took another, and does not confess Him to 
be one and the same : let him be accursed.' 

" Of John Chrysostom 
" ' He Who transcends all our conceptions and surpasses 

^ Not in any of the extant works of Pseudo-Julius. 


all our thoughts, and is exalted above angels and above all 
intelligent powers, was content to become man ; and He took 
flesh, which was formed from the earth and the clay. And 
this He did by entering the Virgin's womb, where He was 
carried for the period of nine months ; and after His birth 
He sucked ^ milk ; and indeed He suffered all things per- 
taining to the human lot. Why ^ was He called a Table ? 
Because when I eat the mystery which is upon Him, I am 
refreshed. Why was He called a House ? Because I dwell 
in Him. Why was He called an Indweller ? Because I am 
His temple. Why was He called a Head ? Because I am 
His member. When ^ He set His love upon a harlot, what 
did He do ? He did not call her up ; for He would not bring 
a harlot up to Heaven. But He came down ; as she was not 
able to ascend to Him, He descended to her. And coming 
to her hovel. He Himself was not ashamed ; and He found her 
drunk. And how did He come ? Not openly in His own 
Nature ; but He became like the harlot herself in nature 
though not in will ; lest, when she saw Him, she might be con- 
founded through terror and flee. He came to her having 
become man. And how did He become man ? He was con- 
ceived in the womb, and He grew gradually.' 

" Of the Same * 

" ' This is the day on which the Eternal One was born and 
became man, a thing which never took place before, though 
He did not change from being God, for it was not by a change 
of the Godhead that He became man ; neither from a human 
original by growth did He become God ; but the impassible 
Word suffered no change in His Nature by becoming flesh. 
He that is seated upon the throne high and lifted up, was laid 
in the manger. He that is simple and without body, and 
cannot be touched, was embraced by human hands. He 

'.ni I, MS., iQjj, L. 

^ De Capt. Eutrop. 8. Here, and at the beginning of the next quotation, Mich, 
has " OF THE SAME," which must therefore have dropped out of our text (Brooks). 
^ Ibia. II. 
* This quotation does not occur in either of the extant sermons on the Nativity. 

92 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

Who severs the chains of sin, was wrapped in swathing- 

" Of Athanasius ^ 

" ' If any man teaches doctrine contrary to the Holy 
Scriptures, and says that the Son of God is One, and 
he who is man from Mary is another, who became a son by 
grace as we ; so that there would be Two dwelling in the 
Deity ; ^ One, of the same Nature with God, and the other 
who became so by grace, the man from Mary : and whosoever, 
further, says that the body of our Lord was from above, and 
not from the Virgin Mary ; or that the Godhead was con- 
verted into flesh ; or tjaat It was confounded or changed ; 
or that the Godhead of our Lord suffered ; or that the body 
of Christ, inasmuch as it is from men, should not be wor- 
shipped, and not that the body is to be worshipped because 
it is that of our Lord and God ; — the man who asserts these 
things we anathematise, for we obey the apostle when he says, 
" Whosoever preaches to you a gospel different from that which 
we have preached to you, let him be accursed."'^ 

" Of Bishop Ambrose 

" ' He is the same Person Who speaks, though not always 
in the same manner. But He had regard in it at one time to 
the glory of God, and at another time to the passions of men. 
As God, He teaches divine things, because He is the Word ; 
and as man, He teaches human things, because He speaks in 
our nature.' 

" Of Theophilus of Alexandria * 

" ' The Word, the living God, the Lord of all, and 
Creator of the worlds, did not clothe Himself in a heavenly 

1 Migne, Pair. GrcBC. vol. xxviii. p. 28. 

2 Probably for |C7L^]£3 we should read |tiX| -^ (Gk. vlhv GeoO), and transl. 
" two dwelling together, One the Son of God, of the same nature," etc. 

3 Gal. i. 8, 9. 

^ Sixth Paschal Letter, Migne, Pair. Grac. vol. Ixv. p. 60. 


body 1 as in some costly substance and come to us, but He dis- 
played in clay ^ the greatness of the skill of His art. For, when 
He would restore and renew man who was formed from the clay, 
He was born as man from the Virgin, who, corresponding to us 
in all points, sin only excepted, and coming into being by a 
miracle, shone upon us and blessed our human nature. 

" ' However, the first man also came into being in a 
manner different and distinct from us, as the intercourse and 
association of man and woman did not minister to his creation. 
And if they allow, in his case, that he was formed out of the 
earth by the will of God, no parents having ministered to his 
birth by the conjunction of male and female ; why do they 
quarrel with the Incarnation of our Lord and Saviour, which 
was from the Virgin ? And when they oppose us in this 
matter, we ask them whether is it easier that a man should 
come into being from the earth without parents, or that our 
Saviour Christ should be born from the Virgin, with flesh, and 
soul, and consciousness ? And the first man, indeed, who was 
from the earth, partook of flesh and blood in all the likeness 
of humanity ; but our Saviour, by His own power, created and 
prepared from the Virgin a body for Himself with flesh, and 
blood, and soul, and consciousness. And we confess that He 
consorted with men, even though in His holy Incarnation the 
sensual intercourse of man and woman had no part.' 

" Of the Same ^ 

" ' Now it was not difficult for God the Word to prepare 
for Himself a temple from the Virgin's body, for the purpose 
of our redemption. For consider, indeed, that God also is 
never polluted by natural Sopulation * when He creates. man; 
and how much more then, by His mercy, may He become 

^ The Greek oipavlov Xa^6/iei/os atiimroi shows that for |V) » we should read 
|j.i V>» l^^t-a or 1 1 V) • ^. 

2 For fj-l-^ read ]^ - ^"^ (Gr. TnjXijJ), and for 'jZo^Jj read IZo n; \. 

2 This and the latter part of the preceding are probably from the lost part of the 
fifth Paschal Letter. 

* For Ljpl read LiOOV 

94 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

incarnate from the blood of the Virgin, for the purpose of 
our redemption.' 

"Of Cyril 

" ' So, truly, the Theotokos still remained a virgin after 
giving birth to Christ by a miracle ; and He was partaker, in 
like manner as we, of flesh and blood, not of His own nature, 
as the heretics say, but of our nature, according to the saying, 
" He took the seed of Abraham." ' ^ 

" Of the Same ^ 

(I ( 

We assert that the body of the Word was His own, 
and not that of some other man separately and distinctly who 
is held to be different from Christ the Son. And as the body 
of each one of us is said to be his own, so also we believe 
respecting the one Christ. And although He took the body 
from our race and our nature, because He was born of the 
Virgin ; yet it must be held and declared to be His own body. 
And, since God the Word is the Life in His own Nature, He 
declared His body to be a life-giving one. And therefore He 
became to us a blessing, giving life to all.^ And if it be not 
so, how then is He like us, while yet remaining as He was 
before, God the Word ? However, grant to Him that in the 
unity of the Person His body is not separated, and do not 
denude Him of His flesh. And thus I rightly worship one 
Son, Who is of the same Nature indeed with the Father in 
the Godhead, but of the same nature with us in the manhood. 
And as for those who delight to believe this truth, Christ will 
enlighten their knowledge also of Himself by His mysteries.' 

" Of the Same 

" ' It is right, indeed, for us to say and believe that God 
the Word, still remaining of the same Nature with God the 
Father, was sent and became man, of the same nature with us. 

' Heb. ii. i6. ^ Migne, Pair. Grac. vol. Ixxvi. p. 372. 

* The rest is not in the Greek. Mich, has "OF THE SAME," which must therefore 
have dropped out of our text (Brooks). 


He is and He remains as He is, and by becoming man He 
was not changed. And He was sent to preach deliverance to 
the captives and light to the blind.' 

" Of the Same, from his Letter to Succensus ^ 

" ' They say, if Christ be perfect God and perfect man, and 
the same is of the Nature of the Father in the Godhead and 
of our nature in the manhood, how^ is He perfect if His 
human nature is not seen ? and how is He of our nature if that 
actual and self-same nature which is ours be not seen ? Th^e 
answer which we have given at the beginning should suffice to 
enlighten them. For if,* when speaking of one nature of the 
Word, we refrained from saying " incarnate," rejecting the dis- 
pensation, their word would be plausible when they ask, " How 
can He be perfect in manhood and in Nature ? " But since 
our word indeed testifies that He is perfect in manhood and in 
Nature by saying that He became flesh, therefore let them 
cease from these objections, and not lean upon a broken reed.' 

" Of the Same 

" ' In the might, indeed, of His Godhead He took the hand 
of the daughter of Jairus, saying, " Maid, arise." * And ^ He 
did not give the command in word ^ merely, and the work was 
accomplished according to His own will. But ^ that we might 
believe that His holy body was of the same nature with our 
bodies, while it also was glorious, and divine, and raised above 
our measure, it being also His own. He wrought in it. For which 
reason, also, He called His own body the " Bread of Life." ' ^ 

" And so these fathers and holy men like them have with 

^ Cyr. Ep. 46. 3. 

2 We must insert [^ "^ ■] ; the Greek is ttoO t6 riXewv. 

3 For oXo read aXI, Gk. d. * Mark v. 41. 

^ Reading oXo for oklo. « ]A\n ^n, L., l^NV^n, MS. 

' Pusey's Libr. of the Fathers (Cyr. 5 Tomes, p. 368) ; cf. Migne, Patr. Grcec. 76, 
p. 1429, where, however, the extract begins after this sentence. 
* John vi. 48. 

96 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

one consent anathematised every man who is not obedient to 
their doctrine. 

" And I have written to Alexandria, to the clergy, to the 
monks, to the sisters the virgins in Christ, and to the believing 
people ; and I have sent the letter to you, my dear friends ; 
and that ye may know what I have written, I, Timothy, have 
marked the salutation with my own handwriting. 

" Whosoever does not believe in the doctrine of the holy 
fathers, in accordance with the tradition of our Lord Jesus 
Christ : let him be accursed. For it is right for each one of us 
either to stand fast in the faith and to live in it, or else to die 
on behalf of it, and to live for evermore. 

" My brother Anatolius the presbyter, and Theophilus, and 
Cyrus, and Christodorus, and Gennadius the deacons, and the 
members of the brotherhood who are with me, send you their 

The foregoing letter, with the quotations appended thereto, 
we have written down here. By reading and considering it, 
lovers of the doctrine will find in it a sufficient refutation of the 
notion of Nestorius, who holds that there are two Natures in 
the unity of Christ ; and also of the teaching of Eutyches, who 
does not confess that God the Word became perfect Man, 
and remained without change God the Word, One Person who 
became flesh. 

And, besides this letter, we have subjoined another explain- 
ing the right method of reception in the case of those who 
repent and turn from heresy. 

The Letter of Timothy which he wrote to Alex- 

Theophilus from Communion with the Believers 

" Timothy to the God-loving bishops, and presbyters, and 
deacons, and archimandrites, and sisters, and faithful people 
in the Lord, greeting — 

" Inasmuch as Isaiah and Theophilus have been for a long 
time heretics in secret, whom I admonished by letter, urging 


them to agree to the holy doctrine of the fathers, and they 
have not been obedient to the letters which I wrote to them 
to Constantinople, containing proofs from Scripture, and the 
doctors of the Church, that our Lord Jesus Christ was of the 
same nature with us in the body ; and furthermore they have 
shown no respect for my sufferings in being banished from place 
to place, but have behaved treacherously towards the bearers 
of my letter, and also informed the prefects ^ against them, and 
they stirred up others, saying, 'It is a forgery,'^ even though 
they knew my signature which was on the letter. And I 
waited a considerable time for them though I knew their 
disposition, and they made no reply, either by word of mouth 
or in writing. And upon reflection, I thought it right to 
send them another letter; so I wrote urging them to come 
and confess the true faith. And in my admonition I reminded 
them that God does not condemn nor reject those who repent. 
And I cited the examples of holy men who sinned and denied 
the Lord, but who afterwards repented ; and God accepted 
their repentance, and accounted them worthy of their former 
dignity ; ^ such was the case of David, and Peter, and Paul. 

" And I wrote to them that in like manner, if they would 
repent and confess the body of Christ to be of the same nature 
as ours, I would continue to entertain my old esteem and love 
for them ; and I would maintain them in the honour of their 
rank. And they showed no affection for me, but treated me 
with contempt. 

"And after this I waited four years more for them, without 
exposing them by name. And they still persevered in their 
disobedience, and showed no sign of repentance, and they 
neither received the. doctrine of the holy fathers nor me. And 
they associated with some heretics who openly deny that our 
Lord took a human body, and that He became perfect man 
from us. And they creep into houses, and greedily grasp at 
gain,* which they hold as their god, while they are sojourning 
in the royal city. And I wrote to them that they should 

1 (10i£iOCi, i.e. iiirapxoi. ^ ^OmN"^, i.e. </idXcroc. 

3 ^ooTJ-fe^Q-*, MS., ^cruA^aj, l. ' 

■• A word has been erased here from the MS. 


98 THE CHRONICLE OF [book iv. 

depart from it, but they would not. And they continued to 
lead simple folk astray, and to circulate other rumours 
respecting me, with the object of doing me great harm. And 
being distressed and saddened by them, I was compelled to 
excommunicate them by their names lest they should cause 
many to stumble ^ and err. 

" And I now give sentence upon Isaiah and Theophilus, 
who say that the body of the Lord is of His own divine 
Nature, and not of ours, and who deny His true humanity, 
thereby cutting themselves off from the fellowship of the holy 
fathers and mine; that no man henceforth hold communion 
with them. For John the evangelist commands, saying, 
' My brethren, believe not every spirit, but try the spirits 
whether they be of God ; for indeed, many false prophets 
have appeared in the world. And hereby the spirit which is 
from God is known, every spirit which confesses that Jesus 
Christ is come in the flesh is of God, and every spirit which 
does not confess Jesus is not from God. And this is the spirit 
of the false Christ. Because many deceivers have gone forth into 
the world, who do not confess Jesus Christ to have come in 
the flesh ; this is a deceiver and a false Christ.' ^ And again, ' If 
any man comes to you not preaching this doctrine, do not either 
receive him into the house or greet him, for he that greets him 
is partaker with his evil deeds.' ^ And because of the apostle 
who says, ' Whosoever preaches to you a gospel different from 
what we have preached to you, let him be accursed.'* 

" I am clear from their blood and from that of their 
associates ; for I have not ceased to show them, according 
to the will of God, what is for their good. For Paul further 
exhorts us, saying, ' After thou hast warned an heretic once 
or twice, and he has refused thine admonition, avoid him ; 
since by continuing in his sin he is corrupted and guilty.'^ 
But the blessed Dioscorus the Confessor wrote sentiments 
agreeable to these of the holy fathers, and after the same 
manner, in his letter to Secundinus." . . . And the letter 
goes on to say, " Now, I beseech you, brethren, by the 

1 ^ \ ■ n j, MS., not y ONa 1 , as L. ■■' i John iv. 1-3 ; 2 John 7. 

" 2 John 10, II. * Gal. i. 8. « Tit. iii. 10, 11. 


Lord Jesus Christ, and by the love of the Spirit, concerning 
those who repent and turn from the heresy of the Diphysites, 
as I wrote in a letter a year ago, that you, the bishops, and 
clergy, and other believers, all who are subject to you, help 
them, and extend the hand to them in the Lord. 

" And when anyone is converted let him have one year 
of repentance, and after that let him be established in his 
former rank, and his dignity be restored to him. And if there 
be no believing bishop, let the clergy or the believing bishops, 
who from any cause happen to be in the country, fill the place 
in the love of God, even though those who repent are not 
subject to them in jurisdiction.^ 

" This same order and regulation ^ Cyril and Dioscorus 
observed of one year's repentance for bishops, presbyters, and 
deacons ; after which they should be established in their former 

" Pray for me that God may help me in this conihct ; the 
Lord be with you. Amen ! " 

Such letters he wrote advising them how they should 
receive converts from the Proterian party.^ 

And he became so celebrated, even with the people of 
India, that when their bishop died they, being of the same 
faith with him, sent a request to him that he would appoint 
a bishop for them. 

But, indeed, the Alexandrians never ceased sending peti- 
tions and supplications to the king on his behalf, time after 
time, and stirring up popular tumult* for him. For as soon 
as they heard of the death of Leo and the succession of 
Basiliscus, they sent a deputation of certain chosen monks, 
Paul the Sophist, and James, and Theopompus. 

But the chief priests who held office from the Council of 
Chalcedon until the time of Basiliscus, and the encyclical 

1 Reading ]i4^Qj for ^_1_4^Q_». 

2 ]VQjj(12) read ]^v. g^ (or ]iDQjoZ, Brooks). 

3 Reading ^ii^. for U^- 

^ - pn . pn ^on] i,s, o-rciiris. 


letters which he and Marcus wrote, and up to the reign of 
Zeno, who became emperor, are as follows : — 

Of Rome, Leo, and his successor Hilary. 

Of Alexandria, Proterius, who. was killed. And his suc- 
cessor was Timothy the Great, who was banished. And until 
he returned by means of the ^Encyclicals, they appointed 
another Timothy, called Salophaciolus. 

In Constantinople, Anatolius, and his successor Gennadius, 
who was succeeded by Acacius. 

In Ephesus, John, who took the place of Bassian ; and 
Paul, who was banished, and who returned by means of the 
Encyclicals, but was banished again. 

In Antioch, Domnus, and his successor was Maximus, and 
then Martyrius, who was driven out; and after him Julian, 
who was succeeded by Stephen ; and then another Stephen, 
who was driven out; and Peter, who returned from banish- 
ment two or three times. 

And in Jerusalem, Juvenalis, and Anastasius his successor.^ 

Now King Leo the emperor died, and there arose after him 
Basiliscus, and Marcus, and Zeno, who had retired for a little 
time to the strongholds of Salmon ; but he afterwards returned 
and became emperor, and Basiliscus and Marcus were driven 

1 The MS. here adds ^^j]? "jtiolLD, "Fourth Book." 

2 aj-wsZ], MS., not QjoJjZI, as L. 


The fifth Book (in its twelve chapters, which are written down 
distinctly below) tells of Basiliscus and Marcus the Illustrious ; ^ 
and the encyclical letter which they wrote to the bishops of 
their dominion, in which also they anathematised the Synod of 
Chalcedon and the Tome. For after eighteen years of banish- 
ment in Gangra and Cherson, Timothy the Great returned and 
arrived at Constantinople ; and then he and Paul the Sophist, 
and James, and Theopompus, his chosen monks, persuaded 
Basiliscus to write the Encyclical. It also tells about the 
petition ^ sent by the bishops of Asia, who met at Ephesus and 
subscribed to the Encyclical. 

Moreover, it tells about some Eutychian monks then resid- 
ing at Constantinople, who, along with Zenaia ^ the king's wife, 
basely conspired against Timothy to have him sent again 
into banishment. Whereupon he departed to Ephesus. And 
by means of a Synod, which he convened, he reinstated Paul 
there, and gave him the rights * of the Patriarchate that the 
Synod of Chalcedon had taken away from him, and had given to 
the royal city, through the flattery and treachery of John, whom 
they made bishop instead of Bassian. For the latter resigned, 
and departed and went into banishment. Now Timothy was 
received with much state. And without any rancour he 
admitted to his communion the penitents from the Proterian 
party and from that of Timothy Salophaciolus, who was driven 
out ^ before him by the king's command. 

i.rrim^rfiie7<.e^| /.^. iTi<pavi<rraTos. "Probably f£D-i-0, Kotaap, has 
dropped out" (Brooks). 

2 ■ m . m .^ i,e. diricis. ' In ch. 4 PCU_.1, really " Zenonis." 

4 (£1jJ, i.e. Siras. ^ ._t.»5Z|, read .->-kj)Z]. 


102 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

But this Book also relates the deeds of Acacius in Constan- 
tinople, and how he raised an insurrection and rebellion against 
Basiliscus ; and he took possession of the Churches ; and he 
compelled Basiliscus to write the Antencyclical, and to deny 
his former letter. And the bishops again subscribed to this 
Antencyclical, with the exception of Amphilochius of Side and 
Epiphanius of Magdolum. And then Zeno returned and 
became emperor, and he thrust out Basiliscus, and cancelled 
every law and enactment which he had made. And when he 
was wishing to depose Timothy, the latter died, having retained 
his See to the end ; and Peter, who became bishop in his 
stead, hid from the threats of Zeno. 

Then Timothy Salophaciolus returned, and took possession 
of the church, and sought for Peter. But this Book further 
tells about John the archimandrite, who was sent to Zeno 
with the petition of the party of Timothy Salophaciolus, 
praying for an order that, after the death of Timothy, one of 
their side should be the bishop in Alexandria. Now this 
John coveted the see for himself And Zeno heard it ; and, 
with the object of trying him, he required from him an oath in 
the presence of the Senate, and also of Bishop Acacius, that 
he would not take the bishopric. 

And John then returned to Alexandria, bearing an 
order from the king that, in succession to Timothy, any 
of his party whom the citizens might desire should be ap- 
pointed as bishop. But about the same time it happened 
that this Timothy Salophaciolus died. And then John trans- 
gressed his oath, and used bribery to get the bishopric 
there for himself. But when Zeno heard of it, through the 
report of eminent believers among the monks there who 
went up to him and informed him of all the events which 
had occurred in Alexandria from the time of the Synod, he 
was greatly moved ; and he changed his mind, and wrote a 
letter called the " Henotikon." 

And he gave orders that Peter should return to his place, 
upon the condition of his receiving the Henotikon, and that 
John the liar should be deprived. Whereupon John repaired 
to Rome, and declared that he had suffered deprivation for 


the sake of the Synod and the Tome. And then Zeno wrote 
to the Patriarch there, and exposed John. 

But Peter of Antioch also returned and convened a Synod, 
and received the Henotikon. 

And in Hke manner, Acacius of Constantinople and Mar- 
tyrius of Jerusalem, the successor of Anastasius. 

And they all, except the bishop of Rome, wrote synodical 
letters, and received Peter of Alexandria into their communion. 

But certain zealous monks withdrew from Peter and be- 
came separatists, because he had received the Henotikon in 
which there was no express anathema of the Synod. And 
Peter thrust them out from their monasteries. Accordingly 
some of them went up to Zeno and persuaded him to send 
back with them Cosmas the Spatharius, to inquire ^ into their 
matter ; and at another time he sent Arsenius the prefect, and 
a prolonged dispute ensued. 

These, indeed, are the matters which are written expressly 
in the twelve chapters of this fifth Book, which (so to speak) 
has been translated^ from the same Greek Flistory of Zachariah, 
and has here been written in the Syriac language for the 
study and instruction of the diligent, that they may learn the 
events that occurred in former times. 



When Timothy had completed eighteen years in banish- 
ment, and Leo the emperor was dead, and Zeno, his successor, 
had received the kingdom, the people of Alexandria, observing 
this crisis in imperial affairs, sent a petition by certain chosen, 
and (as we may say) illustrious and noble monks, among them 
Amon who was called the wild bull, and Paul who had been a 
1 '\^^, MS., not ai.£3, as L. ^ .nmaZ], L., .n.a-^Zl, MS. 

104 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

sophist, and Theorion and James the miracle- workers, and 
Theopompus the brother of the master of the offices. 

However,! l^ consequence of a rebelHon that was raised 
against Zeno by Basiliscus, the brother of Verina the wife of 
Leo, who had been associated with Zeno in the command of 
the army ^ in the days of Leo, Zeno ^ had betaken himself to 
the strongholds called Salmon; and Basiliscus had assumed 
the crown. And he appointed Theoctistus his physician, an 
Alexandrian, the brother of this Theopompus the monk, as 
master of the offices. 

Now* when these monks entered into the royal presence, 
the king, and the courtiers, and the queen were struck with 
admiration of them. But also Theoctistus the master of the 
offices and Acacius the bishop rendered them assistance. 

So Basiliscus issued an order that Timothy should return 
from banishment. 

And at first Acacius was preparing a lodging for him at 
the church called Irene; and he was setting apart some of 
his own clergy for his retinue and service. But afterwards, 
because he thought that they were forming a plan to make 
Theopompus bishop at the royal city instead of him, Acacius 
was distressed and indignant ; and he endeavoured to put a 
stop to Timothy's coming. However, he did not succeed. 
For he returned, and was welcomed with great state by the 
Alexandrian sailors and the people who happened to be then 
in Constantinople. And he went to lodge in the king's 
palace. And large numbers were coming to him to be blessed, 
and to be sanctified, and to receive healing from him. And 
becoming intimate both with Basiliscus and his wife, Timothy,^ 
along with those who happened to be there with him and on 
his behalf, persuaded the king, so that he consented to write 
encyclical letters, in which he would anathematise the Tome 
and the addition which was made at Chalcedon. For Paul 
the monk, who was a rhetorician and a sophist, drew them up. 
And it was he who, in a discussion with Acacius the patriarch, 

^ Evag. iii. 3. 2 I LI * Ci D"^- ^■^' iTTpaTTiyds, 

' ^o|J, MS., an evident mistake for ^Q-l—iV ' Evag. iii. 4. ^ Evag. iii. 4. 


was able to show that the heresies of Nestorius and Eutyches 
are one and the same ; though they are generally thought to 
be diametrically opposed to each other. For the one, indeed, 
making objection declares that it would be a degradation to 
God to be born of a woman, and to be made in all points like 
as we are, by becoming partaker of flesh and blood ; whereas 
He was only partaker by identity of name, and by power and 
indwelling, and by operation. But the other, indeed, for the 
purpose of liberating and exalting God, so that He should not 
suffer degradation and contempt by association with a human 
body, publishes the doctrine that He became incarnate from 
His own essence, and that He assumed a heavenly body; and 
that just as there is no part of the seal left upon the wax, nor 
of the golden signet upon the clay, so neither did there cleave 
to Christ any portion of humanity whatsoever. 

And when he spoke in this way, Acacius was astonished 
at the solidity of his reasoning, and he assented and agreed. 
And he went to Timothy and conversed with him, in a 
friendly manner, respecting the rights of his see. However, 
when he was requested by Timothy to sign the Encyclical, he 



" The king Basiliscus, the believing, victorious, all-virtuous 
ruler, Augustus,^ along with Marcus the most illustrious 
Csesar,^ to Timothy the reverend and God-loving archbishop of 
the great city Alexandria. Concerning all the laws justly and 
righteously enacted by the believing and memorable kings who 
have gone before us, for the salvation and good guidance of all 

^ Evag. iii. 4. 

2 Read ■ ' ''^1 for -..iJI, and omit i-i_ki|, aijd thus bring into harmony with 
the Greeli dfiir^jSacrTos (Brooks). 

3 -m o - mm ^m ^ g>i . <yi] for i-ncfiaviaTaToi KaXuap. 

io6 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

the world, and in defence of the true faith as taught by the 
apostles and holy fathers ; it is our will that all these laws should 
be ratified, and not lightly annulled. Rather do we agree to 
them, and hold them to be of equal validity with our own. 

" And earnestly desiring to honour the fear of God more 
than any affair of man, through zeal for the Lord Jesus Christ 
our God, to Whom we owe our creation, exaltation, and glory ; 
moreover also, being fully persuaded that the unity of His 
flock is the salvation of ourselves and our people, and is the sure 
and immovable foundation, and the lofty bulwark of our king- 
dom ; we now, moved by a wise impulse, are bringing union and 
unity to the 'Church of Christ in every part of our dominion, 
namely, the faith of the three hundred and eighteen bishops, 
who being previously prepared by the Holy Ghost, assembled 
at Nicea, the security and well-being of human life, the faith 
which we hold, like all who have been before us, and in 
which we believe and are baptized, that it may hold and rule ^ 
all the Churches with their chosen canons : the faith which is 
complete and perfect in all piety and true belief, and which 
rejects and exposes all heresies, and thrusts them out of the 
Church : the faith which the one hundred and fifty bishops, 
being assembled here to oppose and condemn the fighters 
against the Spirit, the Holy Lord confirmed, and with which 
they concurred and agreed : the faith which was also confirmed 
by the transactions of the two Councils at Ephesus, along with 
the chief priests of Rome and Alexandria, Celestine and Cyril, 
and Dioscorus, in condemnation of the heretic Nestorius, and 
all who after him have held similar opinions, and have con- 
founded the order of the Church, and disturbed the peace of 
the world, and cleft asunder the unity ; we mean the Tome of 
Leo, and the decrees of Chalcedon, whether by way of definition 
of the faith, or doctrine, or interpretation,^ or addition, or what- 
soever other innovation was said or done contrary to the faith 
and the definition of the three hundred and eighteen. 

" And therefore we command that wherever, here or else- 
where, such written doctrine be found, it shall be anathematised 
and burnt in the fire. For in accordance with this order, our 
^ tiSjJ, MS., not r^QJ, as L. " Read ]ni m no\ for ]zL»<lSi. 


blessed predecessors in the kingdom, Constantine the Great 
and Theodosius, in like manner, commanded and ordained. 
And also, the three subsequent Synods, that of the one hun- 
dred and fifty bishops ' here, and the two of Ephesus, ratified 
only the faith of Nicea, and agreed to the true definition there 

" Moreover, we anathematise everyone who does not con- 
fess that the only-begotten Son of God truly became incarnate 
by the Holy Ghost from the Virgin Mary; not taking a 
body from heaven, in mere semblance or phantasy. And 
also we anathematise all the false teaching of all those heresies 
which are contrary to the true faith of the fathers," and so on 
with the rest of the Encyclical. 

To 1 this document Timothy agreed and subscribed ; as 
did also Peter of Antioch and Paul of Ephesus, who were 
recalled from banishment, and the bishops of Asia and the 
East, and Anastasius of Jerusalem, and those of his jurisdiction ; 
so that the number of bishops who subscribed to the Encyclical 
is found to be about seven hundred, less or more. And 
they anathematised the Tome of Leo and the Synod ; and 
they sent a petition ^ to Basiliscus and Marcus, which was as 
follows : — 



" To ^ the believing, and Christ-loving, victorious kings 
Basiliscus and Marcus the Augusti — Paul and Pergamius, and 
Gennadius, and Zenodotus, and Zoticus, and Gennadius, and 
Theophilus, and the other bishops assembled at Ephesus: — 

' Evag. iii. 5 ; Liberal. 16. ^ . m 1 ffl i>, i.e. M-qaii. 

^ Evag. iii. 5. 

io8 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

In all things ye have shown yourselves to be believing and 
Christ-loving beings ; so that when the true faith suffered 
persecution by the malice of men, ye also were persecuted 
along with it. For there are rebellious and vainglorious men, 
of a corrupt mind, foolish and void of the faith of the Son 
of God, Who humbled Himself for our sake and became 
incarnate, and rendered us meet for the adoption of sons. 
Be glad, then, and rejoice, and exult, and glory that ye have 
been counted worthy to suffer persecution with the faith. For 
theire is reserved for these men the everlasting judgment of 
fire which devours the persecutors, and also the threat of your 
punishment which is upon them ; because they have despised 
us, and slandered and belied us, and forced us with violence 
to agree to their doctrine. 

" But now that the light of the true faith has arisen upon us, 
and the dark cloud of error been rolled away from us, we make 
known by this declaration^ our true faith to your Majesties^ and 
to all the world. And we say that freely and with willing con- 
sent, by the aid of John the Evangelist as our teacher, we have 
signed this Encyclical ; and we agree to it and to everything 
in it, without compulsion, or fear, or favour of man. And if at 
any future time violence shall meet us from man, we are pre- 
pared to despise fire and sword and banishment and the spoiling 
of our goods, and to treat all bodily suffering with contempt ; 
so that we may adhere to the true faith. We have anathe- 
matised and we do anathematise the Tome of Leo and the 
decrees of Chalcedon ; which have been the cause of much 
blood-shedding, and confusion, and tumult, and trouble, and 
divisions, and strifes in all the world. For we are satisfied 
with the doctrine and faith of the apostles and of the holy 
fathers, the three hundred and eighteen bishops ; to which also 
the illustrious Council of the one hundred and fifty in the Royal 
City, and the two other holy Synods at Ephesus adhered, and 
which they confirmed. And we join with them in anathema- 
tising Nestorius, and everyone who does not confess that the 
only-begotten Son of God was incarnate by the Holy Ghost, 

1 |j.aj], ue. i,m(j>opd. 

2 ^^nn7nn\Vi MS., not ^00lZn^\!iO, as L. 


of the Virgin Mary ; He becoming perfect man, while yet He 
remained, without change and the same, perfect God ; and 
that He was not incarnate from Heaven in seniblance or 
phantasy. And we further anathematise all other heresies." 
But they wrote down some other things. And they applauded 
with loud voice 1 and approved. 

But the other bishops also of the various districts wrote 
another declaration, the beginning of which was to this 
effect : 

" With the consent of our heart, we hold your Majesties to 
be in such accord with our fathers, the three hundred and 
eighteen bishops, as to make the three hundred and nine- 
teenth : for you are very zealous ^ for their true faith, that it 
may prosper and be preached among all nations in your 



When ^ the purport of the king's Encyclical letters became 
generally known, certain monks holding opinions similar to 
those of Eutyches, who happened to be in the Royal City, 
came in a body to Timothy, supposing him to be of their 
way of thinking, and disputed with him about the terms 
of the Encyclical ; because it anathematised everyone who 
affirmed that Christ was incarnate in semblance. But when 
he said to them, " What then is your opinion respecting the 
Incarnation ? " then they brought up to him the illustration of 
the signet-ring which, after the impression, leaves no part of 
its substance upon the wax or the clay. 

And having discovered their sentiments, he admonished 
and instructed them, that the Scriptures teach us that Christ 

J Read -mi n g^«-l for .mJC120, <j>avi.s. 

2 ^0A4.21-»jZ'j, MS., not ^O^^LkiZ], as L. ^ Evag. iii. 5. 

no THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

was made in all points , like unto us, and took our nature 
perfectly, yet without the motions of sin. And although He 
was born supernaturally ^ without copulation, nevertheless He 
became perfect Man, having been conceived in the Virgin 
Mary, and from her born, through the Holy Ghost. And 
being incarnate He yet remained the same and without 
change in His Godhead. 

Then Timothy, having learned by the whole tenor of the 
conversation of those who ' came to him what their mind was, 
made a written statement, declaring that Christ was like unto 
us in everything belonging to humanity. Whereupon the 
monks of the place separated themselves from him, saying, 
" We will have no communion with the Alexandrians.'' 

But the others, having discovered that he had no tendency 
to the Eutychian doctrine, attached themselves to him. 

Then the Eutychianists, joining with their fellows, advised 
Zenona, the wife of King Basiliscus, a professor of their creed, 
that Timothy should be banished again. However, Theoctistus, 
the master of the offices, having heard what was likely to befall 
him, urged him to leave the city and to proceed without delay 
to Alexandria. And ^ he left ; and having, on his journey, 
arrived at Ephesus, he convened a Synod, and he reinstated 
Paul who had formerly been the bishop there, but was in 
exile at that time for not accepting the decrees of Chalcedon. 
To him Timothy canonically restored the rights of his see, 
which the Council of Chalcedon had snatched from it, and had 
given by partiality to the throne of the royal city. 

And Timothy arrived at Alexandria, and he was received 
with great state, with torches, and also songs of praise by the 
various people and languages there, and even by the members 
of the Proterian party, who beheld the affection for him dis- 
played by the citizens. But the band of the priests, and 
the monks, and the sisters in Christ, and all the people in a 
body, chanting their hymns, and saying, " Blessed is he that 
cometh in the name of the Lord," conducted him into the 
great church. For Timothy Salophaciolus had by the king's 
command gone out before him. 

^ ^'^^j MS., not ^^Sl^, as L. = Evag. iii. 6. 


And inasmuch as he was a peaceable and kind man, and 
also gentle in his words, and by no means passionate, he 
remitted to the members of the Proterian party the term of 
repentance, which he had written and appointed for the peni- 
tents when he was in banishment. 

And even Prolatius (?) himself, who had taken and dragged 
him- from the font of the Baptistery, he received just as kindly 
and peaceably as the others, weeping and comforting him 
as to his former rebellious and insolent conduct towards 

For, such is the rule of the leaders of the Church, which 
Timothy truly showed towards the many, that brotherly 
charity which seeks not her own, and is not easily provoked. 

But certain persons, who were ignorant of the rights of 
divine love, severed themselves from him on account of his 
gentleness and mildness towards the penitents, in that he 
required nothing else from them except that they should 
anathematise the Synod and the Tome, and confess the true 
faith ; and because he did not hold them aloof, even for a 
little while, from the communion which they had made 

But at the head of these persons was Theodoret^ the 
bishop of Joppa, who had been consecrated by Theodosius 
some time before. And he was then filled with envy because 
he had not also been received back again to his see. And, 
lo ! the illustrious Peter the Iberian did not return to Gaza ; 
and he did not at all agree with this faction, but he was 
warmly attached to Timothy, and he proved that his conduct 
and actions were in conformity with the will of God. But the 
Separatists who sided with Theodotus fell into such error 
that they even practised reanointing, and they were called 

But the affection of the people for Timothy being great 
was increased the more because, by the king's command, he 
brought the bones of Dioscorus and of Anatolius his brother, 
along with him, in a silver coffin, and he buried him with great 
state, laying him in the place of the bishops, and honouring 
'' Evidently a mistake for Theodotus ; see below, and Evag. iii. 6. 

1 1 2 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

him as a confessor. But his charity was so profuse that of his 
own free will he appointed that one denarius a day should be 
given by the Church, for expenditure and use, to Timothy, 
who was deposed, and who had been since then supporting 
himself by the work of his hands, by weaving baskets and 
selling them. 

And he gave to the great men and rulers of the city a gift, 
assigning to ^ each of them three paxamatia ^ apiece. And to 
King Basiliscus and to the patricians he only sent the same. 
And at one time the tax-gatherer^ came to him with a royal 
letter, and he gave him just the same ; and he answered and 
said, " I want a gift of denarii." And he said, " It is the duty 
of the Church to expend them upon the widows and orphans." 

But the people heard that the prefect there, Boetius by 
name, was an Eutychian ; and they cried out in the church, 
" Pope ! * pronounce an anathema upon Nestorius and Eutyches." 
And he at once anathematised them- by word of mouth in the 
presence of the prefect. And thereby he was cleared from the 
suspicion of associating with the prefect as an Eutychian. 

Such were the transactions at Alexandria. 



But^ Acacius of Constantinople, having heard respecting 
Paul of Ephesus that the rightful authority of his see, according 

^ Reading ^1^ for ^\ll^. 

^ I • ^Vnn m-ioi ; it seems to represent Traiovii&na, {ira^a/iiTia), but the mean- 
ing can hardly be " little cakes." 

^ ; ' Q*"*' "^^ ^•^- "■/'"'"■'if- ^ I-SIS, i.e. ?rainrfis. " Evag. iii. 7. 


to its former constitution, had been restored to him by Timothy ; 
and further, that Peter had returned to Antioch ; and that they 
were preparing to hold a Synod against him at Jerusalem with 
the intention of deposing himself and appointing Theopompus, 
brother of the master of the offices, in his stead : he, having 
heard all this, stirred up the monks and urged them on, and 
brought down Daniel from the pillar, and took possession of 
the churches, and raised an insurrection against Basiliscus, 
declaring that he was a heretic. Whereupon Basiliscus, for 
the report reached him at the same time that Zeno was 
returning with a great army, was compelled to make the 
" Antencyclicals," by which he cancelled his former letter. 

Then Zeno, upon his return, and the ejection of Basiliscus, 
passed a law whereby all the proceedings of Basiliscus were to 
be cancelled. He also deposed Peter of Antioch and Paul of 
Ephesus ; ^ and he uttered severe threats against Timothy. 
However, the latter died, departing to be with his Lord ; and he 
was buried with great state, the obsequies being performed by 
Peter, who was canonically consecrated as his successor by the 
bishops of the country. 

But the bishops of Asia made a libel to Acacius, finding 
fault with the " Encyclicals " ; and they subscribed to the 
Antencyclicals. In like manner also, the Eastern bishops 
made a libel to Calandion, Peter's successor, whereby they, 
too, anathematised the " Encyclicals." 

But Anastasius of Jerusalem persevered in his integrity, 
holding with him the three provinces of Palestine ; and he 
would not give himself over to this party, nor would he deny 
the Encyclicals ; although he freely associated with the bishops 
who came together to him. 

In like manner also Epiphanius of Magdolum ^ of Pam- 
phylia, impelled by the greatness of his soul, departed to 
Alexandria, and was sojourning in the monasteries there, and 
was honoured by Timothy and by his successor Peter. 

But King Zeno was greatly enraged when he heard about 
Peter ; and he sent threats of which Peter had previous intima- 

^ The text has, " Paul of Antioch and Peter of Ephesus," an evident mistake. 
2 I.e. Magyda. 

114 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

tion, and he hid himself in the city by moving about from one 
house to another. But, by the command of King Zeno, 
Timothy Salophaciolus, who had been ejected, returned and 
took possession of the great church, and a tumult and slaughter 
ensued upon his entry there. 

And Theoctistus, the prefect of the city, was searching 
for Peter to apprehend him, when a Voice was heard, saying, 
" I will hide him, and I will protect him, because he has known 
My Name ; he shall call upon Me, and I will answer him ; in 
the day of trouble I will sustain him, and I will honour him." ^ 

But Timothy exerted himself by all ways and means to 
keep the people on his side. He preached the faith of Nicea 
and of the one hundred and fifty; he confessed and agreed 
to the transactions of Ephesus ; he anathematised Nestorius ; 
and he wrote in the diptych the names of Cyril and Dioscorus, 
and read them out; and he did more besides, and yet he was 
unable to draw the people to himself. 



And Martyrius of Jerusalem was also one of those who, 
following Anastasius his predecessor, separated himself from 
the Antencyclical, and exerted himself greatly to unite the 
people. And he gained over Marcianus, an excellent monk ; 
and this man received him, and admonished the other monks 
to do the same. But those who did not receive him he 
expelled. And they say that, after his death, one of his 
disciples, who was quite blind, prayed to God, saying, " If the 
doctrine of our master be indeed the right one, when I lay 
mine eyes upon his corpse, let them receive their sight " ; and 
he received his sight. 

^ Ps. xci. 14, 15. 


The Public Address^ of Martyrius 

" Christ is our peace, Who hath made both one, and has 
taken down the middle wall of partition, and has destroyed 
the enmity by His flesh. For, behold, the Church is receiving 
back her sons, who never, indeed, of their own accord, departed 
far from her ! And now they have shown ^ this to us by deed, 
and it is time for us to say, ' Glory to God in the highest, and 
peace upon earth.' 

" Wherefore, to their face we the God-loving bishops have 
blamed * these chaste archimandrites and the excellent clergy, 
in order in your presence to convince the rest of our brethren 
that we have no other true definition of the faith but that into 
which we have been and are being baptized. For thus have 
they been baptized, and believe as we do. 

" Whosoever, then, holds or has held or learned doctrine 
contrary to this definition of the faith which was framed by 
the three hundred and eighteen holy fathers, the bishops 
assembled at Nicea ; to which definition the one hundred and 
fifty believing and true bishops, assembled in the royal city, 
adhered, ratifying and confirming the same, as did also the 
Synod held in Ephesus : whosoever (I say) holds or has held 
or learned what is contrary to this definition, let him be 
accursed, if he have any other teaching or doctrine defined 
elsewhere, whether in Rimini, or in Sardica, or in Chalcedon, 
or in any other place whatsoever, according to the saying of 
the apostle, '■ If any man preaches to you more than what we 
have preached to you, let him be accursed.' " * 

And again, the same Martyrius spoke in the following 
terms : " If any man teaches, or brings in as new, or thinks 
or ^ interprets, or holds any other definition or faith contrary to 
this approved and orthodox doctrine of faith of the three 
hundred and eighteen holy bishops and the one hundred and 
fifty, and them of Ephesus, he is an alien to the holy Church. 

2 Q_,Q_w, MS., OjOOI, L. 3 ^j^., MS., Pa, L- 

■* Gal. i. 8, 9. ° o], MS., not OOI, as L. prints. 

Ii6 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

" And, behold, I adjure you in the sight of God and His 
Christ, and the Holy Spirit, and the elect angels, that you do 
not suffer any man to lead you astray from this faith! But 
the confession, signed with your own signatures, lo, it is 
recorded in Heaven above! And you shall give account 
before the fearful and righteous Judgment-Seat, if you accept ' 
anything more or less than the true faith. I am clear from 
your blood ; I have not desisted from speaking unto you." 

By using language such as this, the bishops were admon- 
ishing those who separated from them. 

But in Alexandria not one believer would consent to hold 
communion with Timothy and his followers. 

Then the monks and certain learned and wise men took 
counsel together^ and they made a supplication ^ to the chiefs 
of the cities, begging of them that, in the event of the death 
of Timothy, they would not accept as bishop any other mem- 
ber of his party ; but that they would only be satisfied with 
Peter the believer, who was the lawfully - appointed bishop, 
although he was then hidden in retirement. And ^ the parti- 
sans of Timothy having heard of this, drew up a petition 
and sent it to the king by John, a presbyter of the Martyr 
Church of St. John the Baptist, a monk, and also one of 
the Tabennesiots.^ And in it they besought the king 
that, in the event of the death of Timothy, none but a 
member of his party should be made bishop, and that the 
people of Alexandria should not receive Peter. 

And when John was admitted into the presence of the 
king, the latter said to him, for the purpose of trying him, 
" We think it well that you should yourself be the bishop 
there." For the king had previously learned that he was in 
league with Julius * the general,^ who, on account of his com- 
mand over the king's army, was preparing an insurrection 
against the king, in conjunction with Leontius and Euprepius. 

1 .nn . rpi'in ^ 1 1 hrev^is. 2 gvag. iii. 12 ; Liberat. 16. 

3 l^n » mO-L-i i'~i 1 ^, MS. ; but in Das Leben des Severus (ed. Spanuth), 
p. 6, it is written | ^n . m 1 (il^, and said to be the name of a monastery situ- 
ated in Canopus. — " Presbyter Tabennesiotis " (Lib.). 

^ I.e. Illus. ^ I II ' L'.h"^- '•''• "■•'■/'''''■'fTiSs. 


And John disclosed this to Julius ; and he said to the king, 
" I am not worthy." Then he told him to take counsel upon 
it. And when Julius heard it he said to him, " Conceal your 
feelings, and be careful not to disclose them before the king." 
Then he took an oath in the presence of Acacius and the 
senators that he would never be the bishop. 

And the king issued an order, and gave it to John, to the 
effect that any brother ^ whom the clergy and the people of 
the city might choose, should be the successor of Timothy. 

But when he returned to the city, he delivered a letter 
from Julius to Theognostus the prefect there, who was one of 
the conspirators with Julius, and he promised that if he should 
become bishop he would give the royal vessels which Arcadius 
the king devoted to the sanctuary, and presented to Theo- 
philus, who was the bishop at that time, and he built a church 
there and called it after his name. 



After ^ a few more days of life only, Timothy died. Then 
John belied his own sworn promises, and gave a bribe to 
Theognostus, and obtained the bishopric for, himself 

But he drew over to his side Cyrus a presbyter, one of 
those who had formerly been in association with Dioscorus, 
and had afterwards forsaken him. This man also coveting 
the primacy, at one time^ would attach himself to Acacius of 
Constantinople, and at another time to that Timothy who 
died ; and again, he would mock * and revile Timothy the 
Great and Peter his successor. So that the Alexandrians 

' For ]m\ read P_>|, "whomsoever" (Brooks). 

^ Evag. ii. 12 ; Liberat. 17. ^ Omit O before »_i£iD]. 

* Reading ]V)\V? for ]1 \V>V), p. 42, note 5. , 

Ii8 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

used to ridicule him on account of his tergiversations, holding 
up unripe dates before him in the public street, and charging 
him with vile conduct in connexion with a married woman. 
The blessed Dioscorus cursed this man, asying, " As God is 
true, Cyrus will die a layman." And so, indeed, it happened 
to him, as is written below. 

But the king, when he heard about John, was very indig- 
nant, because the latter had belied his sworn promises, and 
obtained the bishopric for himself 

But there were in Constantinople at that time some chosen 
monks who were pleading for Peter. And they showed him, 
by written documents respecting them, the sad afflictions which, 
time after time, had occurred in Alexandrfa, and in Egypt, 
and in the other adjacent districts, on account of the Synod. 
And the king acceded to their request, and he issued an order 
that John should be ejected from the see as a liar, and that 
Peter 1 should be restored to the Church, upon the condition 
of his subscribing to the Henotikon which Zeno wrote and 
sent there, and to Egypt, and to Pentapolis, and of his receiving 
and holding communion with all the other bishops who would 
agree to the Henotikon ; and, moreover, with those in Alex- 
andria called Proterians, as many of them as would confess 
that they agreed to the doctrines of the Henotikon, which 
indeed was framed by the counsel of Acacius the bishop, and 
. was sent to Alexandria in the charge of Pergamius, the newly- 
appointed prefect there in the room of Theognostus. 

This Pergamius,^ upon his arrival at the city, managed the 
matter prudently. For having discovered that John had 
escaped by flight, he sought out Peter, and informed him of 
the king's order. And he showed him the Henotikon, saying, 
" You must, after having carefully studied it, subscribe and 
agree to it ; and further, you must receive the bishops and the 
other members of the Proterian party without any animosity 
whatsoever, if only they agree to all that the king has laid 
down in the same Henotikon." 

And Peter, having considered the contents of this docu- 
ment, found that its provisions were framed faithfully and with 
^ Liberal. i8. ^ Evag. iii. 13., 


all righteousness. But he hesitated somewhat, because there 
was no clear and express anathema of the Synod and the 
Tome in it, and consequently he feared that it might prove a 
stumbling-block to the people. However, he decided to accept 
it, inasmuch as it proclaimed the definition of the faith laid 
down by the three hundred and eighteen ; and it confessed the 
truth of the one hundred and fifty bishops ; and it also agreed 
to the twelve Heads of Cyril ; and it anathematised Nestorius 
and Eutyches ; and it also confessed that the body of Christ, 
derived from the Virgin, was of the same nature as our body. 
Accordingly he subscribed to it. And he also promised that, 
if the others would repent and accept all the provisions of the 
Henotikon, and persuade the people to that effect, he would 
receive them into communion with himself from all orders. 

Then the prefect, and the duke, and the chief men, and 
the clergy, and the monks, and the sisters, and the believing 
people assembled together at the place where he was ; and they 
set him upon a chariot, and with pomp ^ and praise as 
one who kept the true faith, and doing homage before him, 
they brought him to the great church. And Pergamius urged 
him to receive the other ^ members of the Proterian party. 
But he first declared to the people the interpretation of the 
meaning of the Henotikon, and explained it, saying, " It is 
well and faithfully written, inasmuch as it accepts the twelve 
Heads of Cyril, and it anathematises Nestorius and Eutyche^, 
and it confesses the body of Christ, derived from the Virgin, 
to be of the same nature as our body, and that the sufferings 
which He endured in the flesh, and the miracles which He 
wrought, belong to the same God Christ. And this document 
further cancels and condemns the whole doctrine of Chalcedon 
and the Tome, because Dioscorus and Timothy the Great 
also thought and expounded similarly.'' 

And he delivered a further address ^ to the people, to the 
following effect : " It is right for all of us, men, women, and 
children, to offer with the open mouth of thanksgiving, prayer, 

' oj.jJliD, MS., not _jua>l!iD, as L. 
2 ]Oi^, MS., not ]^-r^, as L. 

120 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

and supplication to our Lord and God, on behalf of the faithful 
reign of the victorious King Zeno, whose noble actions and 
virtuous morals are urging the prudent in every place to this. 
For when our fathers, the chaste monks, presented a petition 
to him concerning the reformation of the faith, and informed 
him of the occurrences here, and of the tumults from which 
our people had suffered time after time ; then he wept, and he 
looked up to heaven, and called God to help him, and to piit 
it into his heart to command whatever would be in conformity 
with the divine will, and would conduce to the welfare of men 
and the unity of the people, by exerting himself to abolish 
the stumbling-blocks which were in all the Churches,^ on 
account of all the rash innovations and additions which were 
made at Chalcedon.^ 

" And now, beloved children, we have the light of the 
true faith of the holy fathers in this written statement of 
his Orthodoxy, which will now be read aloud in your 
presence, and heard by your ears. For by confessing herein 
the true faith, and accepting the twelve Heads of the blessed 
Cyril, and anathematising Nestorius and Eutyches, and pro- 
claiming that God the Word, Who became incarnate, is one 
nature, sufferings and miracles ; by all this he rejects the 
whole teaching of the Diphysites. For their doctrine and 
that of the Tome is quite the opposite of this ; and against 
them our holy fathers, Dioscorus and Timothy, true witnesses 
of Christ, earnestly contended. 

" But pray for him, that the Lord may keep him in the 
true proportion of his love and faith. For we trust, by the 
mercy of Christ our God, that when your praises and prayers are 
heard, we shall not fail to obtain any of those other petitions 
which we are rightly asking of Him ; but that He may freely 
receive your supplication and grant your requests." ^ 

" Hear this honourable document, the Henotikon, which 

1 ^ii^iD, MS., not V^_, as L. 

2 The rendering of this passage is somewhat conjectural, owing to defects in 
the MS. 

^ Or, " when the report of your praises and prayers reaches him, he will not 
fail us in any of the other things which we justly ask from him, but will readily 
receive your petition and grant your requests." 


he faithfully ordained, and which will now be read in your 



" Imperial ^ Caesar, Zeno the king, believing, victorious, 
triumphant, mighty, ever-worshipful, Augustus, to the bishops 
and the people in Alexandria, and in Egypt, and in Libya, 
and also in Pentapolis. Since we know that the origin and 
stability and invincible might ^ of our empire is the only right 
and true faith, which, by Divine Inspiration the three hundred 
and eighteen holy fathers in Council at Nicea declared, and 
which in like manner the one hundred and fifty holy fathers 
gathered at Constantinople, attested : We, by night and by 
day, employ constant prayers, and diligence, and enactments, 
that thereby the Holy Catholic and Apostolic Church in every 
place, which is the incorruptible and imperishable mother of 
the sceptre of our kingdom, may be increased. That thus the 
believing people, being kept in godly peace and concord, may 
offer up, in conjunction with the pious and holy bishops, and 
the God-fearing clergy, and the archimandrites and monks, 
acceptable prayers on behalf of our empire. For if the great 
'God and our Saviour Jesus Christ, Who became incarnate from 
Mary the holy Virgin and Theotokos, shall approve and readily 
receive our unanimous praise and service, the race of enemies 
shall be destroyed and obliterated ; and all men will bow the 
neck to our sway, which is next ^ to that of God ; and then 
peace,* and its consequent blessings, and genial temperature, 
and abundance of fruits, and all those things which are 
adapted ^ for man's good, shall be Hberally granted. This 
unblemished faith, then, being thus the preserver of ourselves 
and of the Roman affairs, petitions have been presented to us 

1 Evag. iii. 14; Liberal. 17. ^ || , ^j, MS., not |J-kkJ, as L. 

3 5Ai2, MS., not Aj.^, as L. < ] 1 ■ «, MS., not oj_», as L. 

^ For _->r^^ rea-d - ^> e^os = XwireXoOyT-a (Brooks). 

122 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

by God-loving archimandrites and other hermits entreating us 
with tears that there may be unity to the Holy Churches ; and 
that the limbs may be joined together which the haters of 
good have for a long time been striving to separate ; because 
they knew that when one makes war with the whole and perfect 
body of the Church he is defeated. 

" For it has happened that of the generations without 
number which Time, during these many years of life, has 
removed ; some, deprived of the Laver of Regeneration, have 
passed away ; and others, without participation in the divine 
Communion, have been carried off by the inevitable journey 
of mankind. And they have been wasted by myriads of 
murders; and through the profuse blood-shedding, not the 
earth alone, but even the very air itself has been defiled. Who 
would not pray ^ that this state of things may be exchanged 
for a good one ? For which reason, then, we desired you to 
know that both we and the holy Churches of the orthodox 
everywhere, and the God-loving priests who rule them, neither 
hold, nor have held, nor know any man holding, any other 
symbol, or doctrine, or seal of the faith, or creed, than 
that which we have mentioned above, the holy symbol of the 
three hundred and eighteen holy fathers, which was also attested 
by the one hundred and fifty holy fathers who met in Council 
here. And if there be any man holding such, we accoupt him 
an alien. For, as we have already said, we are confident that 
this only preserves our kingdom ; and also all people who 
are counted worthy of life-giving Baptism are baptized upon 
the simple reception of this creed alone. And, moreover, all 
the holy fathers, who met in Council at Ephesus, and deposed 
the wicked Nestorius and all his successors in doctrine, followed 
the same faith. 

" This Nestorius, together with Eutyches, inasmuch as they 
held doctrines contrary to what have been here declared, 
we anathematise. And we also receive the twelve Heads 
delivered by the ever-memorable, God-loving Cyril, formerly 
archbishop of the Catholic Church of Alexandria. But we 
confess that the only -begotten Son of God, Himself God, 
1 Reading U*2D for V^SD. 


our Lord Jesus Christ, Who truly became man ; He Who 
is of the same nature with the Father in the Godhead ; He 
Who is also of the same nature with us in the manhood ; He 
Who came down and assumed flesh, through the Holy- 
Ghost, and from Mary the Virgin and Theotokos, — is one 
Son and not two. For we affirm that the miracles which 
He wrought, and the sufferings which He freely endured in the 
flesh, belong to one Son of God alone. Moreover, we alto^ 
gather reject those who either divide or confound, or introduce 
Xhe phantasy. For the true and sinless Incarnation from the 
Theotokos did not cause the addition of a Son. For the 
Trinity remained even though God the Word, Who is one 
of the Trinity, became incarnate. 

" Since, then, you know that both the Holy Orthodox 
Churches everywhere and the God-loving priests who rule 
them, and our own Royalty, neither have received nor do 
receive any other symbol or definition of the faith than the 
holy doctrine which has been declared above ; be united 
together without doubting. For we have written this, not to 
make any innovation in the faith, but to assure you. 

" And here we anathematise all who have held, or hold, 
now or at any time, whether in Chalcedon or in any other 
Synod whatsoever, any different belief; but chiefly those 
already mentioned, Nestorius and Eutyches and all their 
followers in the doctrine. 

" Be joined, then, to your spiritual mother, the Church, and 
delight in her, together with us, in divine fellowship, according 
to that one definition of the faith alone which was framed by 
the holy fathers, as we have declared above. For our all-holy 
mother, the Church, longs for you, that she may embrace you 
as beloved children. And, for a considerable time, she has 
been eager to hear your sweet ^ voice. 

" Hasten, therefore ! For by so doing you will attract to 
yourselves the goodwill of our God and Saviour Christ ; and 
you will also be commended by our own Royalty." 

^ For I ■ ^ - read |J_kj, sweet ; Evag. yXvKelas ; Liberal, dulcem. The word is 
written over an erasure in the MS. (Brooks). 

124 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 



These matters having been thus transacted, some of the 
more ardent spirits were very indignant ; because in the 
king's document, the Henotikon, there was no express 
anathema of the additions imposed at Chalcedon. However, 
they all remained in communion with Peter because he 
defended himself before them ; and especially as he said, 
" The king will not fail us in any of the requests that we 
shall make to him." 

Then the rest of the Proterians, seeing how matters were, 
went off to a suburb of the city, called Canopus, and they 
kept crying out evil words.^ However, they were feeble and 
few, and at their head were some readers,^ and Cyrus the 
presbyter, concerning whom we have already stated * that he 
was at one time a follower of Dioscorus, but he afterwards 
deserted him. Pergamius, hearing of this secession, sent for 
Cyrus to have a conversation with him. And the latter 
agreed to do what he was asked. So when he returned to 
them, he pleaded earnestly with his companions at Canopus, 
saying, " It is right for us to join in fellowship with the others, 
and to obey the king's command." But the zealous and 
believing priests who were on Peter's side, hearing about it, 
were greatly distressed. And they refused ^ to hold communion 
with Cyrus. And although they received a large number of 
his associates upon their subscribing to the Henotikon, and 
anathematising everyone who thought differently from what 
was in it ; yet they refused Cyrus himself And even when 
he subscribed they would not have him. For they said to 

1 I I ^ni''l5fin'' "^1 for I 5"^ ■ ^"^°^|. i.e. dToa-xlffrai.. 

2 ,£Qja^, i.e. ^divas. ^ | j\ rr\n i ^ i] 2.£. AmyvCicrTai,. 
' Reading ^•^] for ^^Ld]. ^ 

= ^jAI/ulIo, MS., not ^ ■ \] . Vn as L. 


Pergamius that the very sight of him would be enough to 
bring his deeds into the remembrance of the people, and to 
put a stumbling-block in the way of many. So Cyrus re- 
mained a layman ; and thus he died, according to the curse of 
the holy Dioscorus. 

Then they were all associated in fellowship with Peter 
and Peter the Iberian, wonderfully celebrated, and the able ^ 
monk Isaiah, and the other Palestinians, certain blessed monks 
of the monasteries of Romanus and Theodore. 

And Peter, the bishop of Alexandria, sent Paul, surnamed 
Arcadius, to the king about certain matters of one kind and 
another that required correction. 

But John,2 who had been bishop, went off to Rome ; and 
there, with tears, he told Simplidus the patriarch what had 
befallen him ; alleging that he continued in danger ^ for the 
sake of the Synod and the Tome. Whereupon the king, 
hearing of it, wrote a letter and sent it to the same Simplicius 
by the hand of Uranius the tax-gatherer,* in which he set forth 
to him all the wickedness and lying treachery of John, and 
declared that by his own command Peter had been appointed 
bishop there in Alexandria, with the object of bringing the 
people into one communion. 

But Calandion ^ of Antioch, having heard about the Alex- 
andrian affairs, was much distressed, and wrote letters to 
Acacius, and to Zeno the king, and to Simplicius of Rome, 
in which he called Peter a false teacher,^ and he praised the 
Tome and the Synod. But he was closely attached to 
Nestorius, because in his letter he called Cyril a fooD 

However, as he took the side of Julius, and Leontius, and 
Euprepius, in the rebellion which they eventually raised against 
Zeno the king in the East, he was ejected from his place. 
And by the king's commands,^ Peter, who had once and 

1 ,CDClQ_»_^i.0^3, i.e. irpa.KTi.Kiit. ^ Evag. iii. 15 ; Liberal. 18. 

3 .m i n_ 1 ■ o i,e. kIpSwos. ^ j.a_^.D^S, i.e. TrpaKT^p. 

^ Evag. iii. 16 ; Liberal. 18. 

" Literally, "an adulterer" ; perhaps it is intended to express illegal occupation 
of the see. 

' See Mansi, vol. iv. p. 893. 

8 m ■ lonc^ MS., C7U, no <=^, L. 


126 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

twice contended and suffered on behalf of the true faith, was 
restored to his see. And the people of Antioch received him 
with great pomp and glory as Simon Peter. Then he con- 
vened the Synod of his province, and he healed and closed 
the divisions, and set matters right. The Synod also, which 
he convened, drew up a letter of fellowship in canonical fashion, 
and sent it to Peter of Alexandria. It was to the following 
effect : — 



" To our Father, the God-loving, holy. Archbishop Peter, 
from the Synod now convened at Antioch. 

" Just as Joshua the son of Nun, the leader of the host,^ 
and invested with the mysteries of Jesus Christ our God, 
showed care and solicitude for the possession and rights of the 
tribes of Reuben, and Gad, and Manasseh ; when, according 
to the command of Moses, who delivered to him the leader- 
ship, they in conjunction with their brethren crossed the Jordan 
armed, and entered the land of promise to possess it ; and 
continued to help in the war until God caused their brethren, 
like themselves, to rest in peace there : in like manner we 
judge ^ it to be the endeavour of thine Excellency, O bishop, 
that we also, being the bishops from Arabia and Libanus of 
Phoenice, and Syria Secunda, and Euphratesia, and Cilicia, 
should come to Antioch armed,^ until our Eastern brethren 
shall possess the inheritance of their Churches from God. But 
how, after the troubles and conflicts that have befallen us, 

^ t-ifc.j-4i ^rn, i.e. arparriyds. 

^ ,_L-«_l--i?, MS., not ^J_«.:i5, as.L. 
' ,_»AjliD, L., ^^i^ViO, MS. 


we are earnestly desirous of peace ; and how, by the letters 
of the indulgent king, we have been now called to meet at 
Antioch ; thy son the beloved and illustrious Uranius the tax- 
gatherer will tell thee. For he, in the execution of the king's 
will and command, communicated and showed to us the letter 
sent by him to thy Holiness, and to the chaste monks, and to 
the believing people. 

" But we, having met together and been received with the 
rights of divine love by our believing father Peter the 
patriarch, who showed us kindness and meekness with 
prudence, were in concord with him in all matters and he 
with us ; and we joined in fellowship one with the other in 
spiritual ministration. We were honoured also by the citizens, 
who met and welcomed him with joy and gladness, and with 
ministering praise ; and extolled him as Peter Kepho our 
leader the Apostle. And, moreover, we heard about the 
transactions in the royal city, how, from the jurisdiction of 
the holy Archbishop Acacius, they had met together by the 
king's command ; and about their unity with him and with one 
another ; and how he wrote to thy Blessedness, showing and 
explaining the will of the believing king; and that the 
contents of his excellent document the Henotikon were in 
complete accord with the faith of the holy fathers of Nicea ; 
in which also the one hundred and fifty assembled in the 
royal city concurred ; and which was confirmed by the 
Council of Ephesus in the days of Celestine and Cyril ; the 
latter of whom also in the twelve Heads exposed and 
anathematised all the false doctrine of Nestorius and Eutyches, 
and the other heresies. 

" These things, indeed, brought the Egyptians ^ into full 
accord with the Easterns, or rather, we should say, with all 
who in every place are devoted to peace, and who love unity 
and the true faith. 

" And we believe and are confident that the diligence and 

prayers of Thy Holiness have tended to bring about this 

happy result for the believing people everywhere, by the will 

of our Lord and Brother Jesus Christ, Whom we beseech to 

1 Reading '|.j'^..kLO for (, 1 . V) . 

128 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

preserve for us the life of thy Chastity, prospering in all virtue, 
and rejoicing in the Lord at what was done here upon 
the return of thine honourable brother our chaste father, 
through the diligence of this thy son Uranius, whom we 
commend to thy godly love, that thou mayest write and send 
thanks to the believing king. For he is indeed serving him 
with all his might, by carrying out his command, and earnestly 
endeavouring to promote the unity of the Churches of Christ, 
and to impart peace to His beloved sons." 



Acacius, indeed, desisting from his former mind, which 
was in favour of the Synod, and connecting himself in loving 
agreement with the principles of the Henotikon, also wrote a 
letter to Peter of Alexandria in the following terms : — 

" To our pious and God-loving fellow-minister and brother 
Peter, Acacius sends greeting. The very name of peace, 
indeed, is delightful ; but its effect is very sweet. For when, 
in accordance with the unity and the faith of the Church, it is 
perfected, it imparts the more abundant grace to the prudent, 
and works in them joy, for it announces great things. 

" Now we were blest with such joy as this in the congre- 
gations of our own city, when reports reached us respecting 
thy faith, which troubled us. And, moreover, they produced 
agitation and distress among many of the chaste monks 
here, and the people, and our excellent clergy. However, 
thine honoured letter, having been conveyed and delivered 
to us and to the illustrious chiefs here, exposed the entire 
falsehood of the rumour respecting thee, and rolled away the 
darkness of the cloud, and displayed the brilliancy and the 
purity of thy godly virtues. So that it is now time for us to 

1 Cf. Evag. iii. i6. 


say, ' Glory to God in the highest.' For it is producing and 
manifesting the peace, which is in the land of our faith, and 
the goodwill amongst the men of our great God and Saviour 
the Lord Jesus Christ. And, therefore, that glory of which 
the angels from heaven in their companies were the first to 
sing in the ears of the shepherds over the earth, at Bethlehem, 
that same glory the shepherds and leaders of the sheep. His 
people, being joined together hand in hand in their union and 
concord, now ascribe in their song of praise to our Lord God, 
Who is the true Head and Shepherd of the flock. 

" But also the triumphant Star of Christ from the East is 
now the believing and God-fearing king. 

" And just as that star guided those of old to Christ our 
God, that they might repair to the cave and offer gifts for the 
honour of His worship ; so he also now has manifested and 
caused to shine forth the splendour of the true faith to the 
whole cave of his dominion. And he has also taken down 
the middle wall of partition that divided^ and cleft asunder 
the unity of the members of the holy Church ; thereby 
making them grow into a perfect man of complete stature. 
So that he has displayed the body in one Person and figure, 
and he has made of two one. For we understand also 
from the thankful letter of thy Holiness that he too like 
David, in prophesying and in reigning, has now slain Goliath 
in the field ^ with the Cross alone ; and having smitten the 
evil one as with a sling, he has overthrown and destroyed ^ 
him by his faithful letter which he wrote ; and by the true 
sword of the Spirit which he displayed, he has cut off and 
taken away those heresies and stumbling-blocks which are the 
very heads of the Dragon ; whom also having overthrown, he 
has thrust into outer darkness, and has bound and imprisoned 
him in the lower parts of the earth. 

" Accordingly Jerusalem above, the mother of the first- 
born, shall rejoice, and also in her daughters the Churches 
she shall exult and sing, giving praise to God, with prayer for 

1 wJ^^liD, MS., not »Q..2i1d, as L. 

^ For |;.2pO perhaps we should read \-t;^iSli, Barbarian. 

3 ^SImSd', MS., not ig^ 1 1 m, as L. 


I30 THE CHRONICLE OF [book v. 

the triumph of the king, and saying, ' Glory be to the Most 
High Lord, Who is greatly to be praised.' For we also were 
amazed at the triumph of God, when we learned from thy 
letter that the Henotikon, which in our own presence was 
despatched to thy Holiness by the hands of Pergamius, had 
reached thee, and that thou hast agreed to it. And we 
exult in thy faith, and we pray that the Lord may preserve ^ 
for us the life of this believing king who has united us to the 
truth. And now I, and those who are with me, sending 
greetings to thy Chastity, and to the excellent clergy, and 
to the chaste monks, and to the believing people, have 
written this letter of reply." ^ 

The end of the letter of Acacius of Constantinople. 



" Martyrius of Jerusalem — to the pious and Christ- 
loving chief priest, my lord, and brother, and fellow- minister 

"It is time for us now to say, like the prophet, ' I praise 
Thee, O Lord God ; and I glorify Thy Name: for Thou hast 
done marvellous things ; for Thy will is true of old. Amen, 
O Lord ! ' * For our mouth is filled with gladness and our 
tongue with praise ; because we have certainly seen the heart 
of the king in the Hand of the Lord, fulfilling His will 
in truth continually ; and he has united again the severed 
members. . 

" And now that we have received thine Affection's reply, 
our people join with this prophet in crying aloud, ' Lift 

1 ^.fejJ, MS., not i_^, as L. ^ Read Akl*3 for ALQjX 

'^ Cf. Evag. iii. i6. * Isa. xxv. i. 


up thine eyes round about thee, and behold thy children 
gathering together unto thee.' ^ For which blessing, as is 
right, we exult ; and we greet thy Holiness in the Lord. 
And, singing psalms with the prophet David, we say, ' May 
the Lord increase you more and more, you and your children ; 
blessed are ye of the Lord, Who made heaven and earth.' ^ 
I and those who are with me, send our best respects in the 
Lord also to the priests who are with thy Chastity, and to the 
believing people, and to the pious monks." 

The end of this letter of Martyrius of Jerusalem. 

^ Isa. Ix. 4. ^ Ps. cxv. 14, 15. 


The sixth Book taken from the work of Zachariah, containing 
seven chapters. 

The first tells about the Separatists i from the communion 
of Peter, because he received the Henotikon. 

The second tells of Cosmas the Spatharius who was sent 
by Zeno ; and the transactions which took place in Alexandria 
with the seceding monks. 

In the third there is an account of Peter and Isaiah the 

In the fourth we are told about Arsenius the prefect, who 
was sent to Alexandria ; and how he acted towards the 

Then the fifth tells of the letter of Fravitta, who was 
bishop in Constantinople, to Peter. 

The sixth contains a record of the letter of Peter to 

The seventh gives information respecting the chief priests 
who were in the days of Zeno ; and also concerning the length 
of Zeno's life. 

^ I 5"^ • ••^'yig^] i.e. a.T!0!Sxi.iyTai.. 




Matters having been thus arranged by the king's Henotikon, 
and three or four of the chief priests, namely, the bishops of 
Ephesus, and of Jerusalem, and of Alexandria, and of Antioch, 
together with the bishops in their jurisdictions, being united 
and agreed together according to the purport of this Henoti- 
kon of Zeno, and having received and subscribed to it ; then 
Julian and John, presbyters of Alexandria, and Helladius and 
Serapion, deacons, venerable men belonging to the Church 
there, and Theodore the bishop of Antinoe, and John and 
another Egyptian, and Andrew the great archimandrite,^ 
and Paul the Sophist, and other illustrious monks, seceded 
from the communion of Peter of Alexandria. But they took 
this course because there was no clear and decided anathema 
of the Synod and the Tome, either in the Henotikon or in 
the letters of the chief priests to Peter. And gradually the 
number of these Separatists was increased, and they received 
a considerable accession to their numbers in the monastery. 
And Acacius of the royal city, having heard it, wrote to urge 
them to be reunited. 

But Peter in his public address,^ and the other apologies 
which he made before the people, continued to revile the 
Synod. And, at length, Acacius heard this also, and he sent 
his presbyter to inquire into the freedom and the faith of Peter. 
And there ensued an investigation ^ before the judge * of the 

1 1}^pa_>5, MS., not ]}_._,-»?, as L. 

^ -rr\ . m . in c^ m. e^ j'.^, Trpoirtpibvqffis. 
3 .on . mn. o\ i,e, 7r/)ofts. 

1 34 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vi. 

city on this point, that the Synod had not been expressly 
anathematised by Peter, and the report of this reached the 
ears of many and proved a stumbling-block to them. And 
many demands were made of him by the seceding archiman- 
drite and bishop. Then Peter the Iberian, the bishop of 
Gaza, who was sojourning there, and Elijah the monk, sur- 
named the potter, were appointed to consider and examine 
into these matters. And having examined into them, together 
with the council of the monks, they selected four of Peter's 
discourses concerning the faith, and they said to him, " If 
thou dost agree to these, sign them " ; and he signed them. 
Whereupon several of them entered into communion with 
him, because he thereby anathematised the Synod and the 
Tome, when he delivered those discourses in the ears of the 
people. However, the others remained unwilling to hold 
communion with Peter. And the latter, seeing this, took 
away the monastery of Bishop Theodore, and thrust out that 
wonderful man, who had opened the eyes of a blind man by 
the aspersion of water from the baptismal font. Upon which 
there arose a great agitation among the monks, and they sent 
Nephalius, who was one of those that had been ejected by 
Peter, and was also a disturber of the people, to Zeno the king. 



Nephalius,! a monk,^ and by his disposition and habits a 
disturber of the people, made preparations and went up to 
Zeno the king, bringing with him a letter from his fellow 

' Evag. iii. 22. 

"^ A similar account of him is given in das Leben des Severus (ed. Spanuth), 
pp. 26 and 27. 


Separatists ; in which they testified against Peter that he had 
plundered ^ them, and ejected them, and taken away their 

And the king, when he heard it, was very angry with Peter, 
and sent Cosmas his Spatharius with a letter containing threats 
against Peter, and declaring that his Majesty had been so 
indulgent as to appoint him the bishop of Alexandria, with the 
object of uniting the people together, and not keeping them 
divided into two parts. 

And Cosmas having arrived, in company with Nephalius, 
and the letter having been delivered to Peter : then the monks 
assembled at the Martyr Church of St. Euphemia, to the 
number of about thirty thousand, and ten bishops with them. 
But a message was sent to them, that they should not enter 
the city lest the people should be excited, and a tumult ^ 
should ensue. However, Theodore the bishop, and John, and 
Julian and John the presbyters, and Palladius ^ and Serapion 
the deacons, and Andrew the Great, and Paul the Sophist, with 
about two hundred archimandrites, were selected as represen- 
tatives ; and they entered the great church to have an interview 
with Peter. Then they had a long conversation with Cosmas 
the Spatharius and the prefect of the city. And the king's 
letter was read aloud. 

Then Peter delivered an apologetic address to them, 
anathematising, in their ears, the Synod and the Tome. And 
he further wrote in his own hand to the following effect : 
" I, Peter, the bishop of Alexandria, do now, as I have 
often before, anathematise all that was said and devised in 
Chalcedon against the true faith of the holy fathers, the three 
hundred and eighteen bishops; and also the Tome of Leo. 
And I confess that these are my own works, and that anyone 
not agreeing with them, whether bishop, or presbyter, or 
deacon, or monk, or layman, is an alien. And if I (or any 
other person) shall ever write in agreement with the trans- 
actions of the Synod and the contents of the Tome, I shall 
become thereby a castaway from the Holy Trinity." 

' ]^, MS., not ^, as L. ^ .{Tl 1 m ^£P|, i-^- o-riitrts. 

8 For I'^g^ we should probably read ^], Helladius, 

136 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vi. 

However, the monks would not accept this confession, for 
they said that Peter associated in communion with the chief 
priests, who had uttered no express anathema against the 
Synod and the Tome, as he had done. 

And Peter replied, " My reason for holding communion 
with them is that they have accepted the king's Henotikon, 
which cancels all additions, and the transactions of every 
place, except the three holy Synods, I mean those of Nicea, 
Ephesus, and Constantinople. And in my public address I 
explained the Henotikon, and showed you how it nullified the 
Synod of Chalcedon, by accepting the twelve Heads of the 
blessed Cyril, and by anathematising Nestorius, and Eutyches, 
and every other who would assert the duality of the Natures 
in Christ, and would ascribe the miracles to one and the 
sufferings to the other, and would divide the Persons in 
properties and in operations. 

But after all this discussion, even then only a few of the 
monks consorted with Peter. And the others presented a 
libel against him to Cosmas. And they took their monasteries 
and dwelt in them, assembling by themselves. But they 
endeavoured to appoint a bishop instead of Peter. However, 
Theodore the bishop, being an orderly man, restrained them, 
saying, " It is not fitting treatment for one who believes as 
we do, and anathematises the Synod and the Tome (even 
though he may hold communion with those that have received 
and signed the Henotikon), lest we be blamed for rejecting 
him, and be accounted as disorderly persons." But they say 
that Theodore took this course because he was one of the 
bishops who laid hands upon Peter. 

The people, however, since they received Peter without 
dispute when he anathematised the Synod, were greatly in- 
censed against the monks. But they were restrained by the 
chiefs and by Peter, so that there was no public tumult. 




But Cosmas on his return passed through Palestine, and 
sought for Peter the Illustrious and Isaiah the able^ monk. 
However, he could not find Peter, because the latter had 
previous intimation of his coming, and had departed from 
before him. 

But Isaiah prayed to God that a sickness might overtake 
him ; lest, if he were to go up to the royal city, he might 
show himself a flatterer of the rich men there. And so it 
befell him. 

And when Cosmas reached him and gave him the king's 
letter, he showed him his sickness and infirmity, saying, " As 
I am a sick man, I cannot possibly endure to embark upon 
the sea, lest I die at once. And then I could not appear 
before the king; and you would be censured both by God 
and the king if you were to carry a corpse round the world." 
And in this way he succeeded in escaping. And shortly 
afterwards he recovered. And he persevered in the exercise 
of his habits, and of his conflicts all the days of his life. 
This man was indeed a seer, a sharer (as we may say) in 
the name and in the actions of the prophet Isaiah. 

1 .mo m ^ f"!; g^, i.e. TpaKTi.K6s. 

138 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vi. 



When Cosmas ^ the Spatharius returned to the king, and 
presented a written communication informing him of the affairs 
in Alexandria, and about the Separatist monks, and their 
leaders, and the bishops ; then he sent Arsenius there as 
prefect, and also gave him authority over the Romans. And 
he ordered that Theodore and John the bishops, and Agathon, 
and Julian, and John the presbyters, and Helladius and Serapion 
the deacons, and Paul and Andrew the archimandrites, and 
all the others should be called to unity, according to the terms 
of the faith laid down in the Henotikon, once or twice, by 
Peter the bishop of Alexandria ; and that, in the event of their 
refusing to join in communion with him, they should be ejected 
from their monasteries. 

And upon the arrival of Arsenius, this Nephalius, the 
disturber of the people, again attached himself to him. Then 
he brought together the bishops and the presbyters and the 
archimandrites ; and he showed them the king's command, 
which he read aloud in their hearing. And Peter also readily 
repeated to them his explanation and anathema, at the same 
time entreating them to join in communion with himself 
However, they would neither accept nor be satisfied with this. 
But Theodore the bishop said to him, " If you make a written 
statement abjuring the communion of the other chief priests 
and sign it,^ then we will enter into communion with you." 
And Peter, in reply, made the same defence as before, saying, 
" It is right for me to associate with those who receive the 
Henotikon, which teaches the true faith." 

1 Evag. iii. 22. 

2 iQ£D, L. The MS. is indistinct, probably we should read C7LC). 


Whereupon these men were compelled by Arsenius to go 
to the king, and personally to lay their petitions and wishes 
before him ; so that then his command might be fully carried 
out. And they all went, with the exception of Theodore, 
who withdrew himself. And when they appeared before the 
king, he was astonished both at their chastity and at their 
reasoning with him about everything which was displeasing 
to them in his transactions. 

But while they were there, Acacius ^ the bishop of Con- 
stantinople died. And Fravitta was appointed as his successor ; 
a gentle and believing man, who wrote a letter, after the 
canonical manner, and sent it by some clergy, to Peter of 
Alexandria. And Peter received it gladly ; and he also wrote 
a reply, in which he expressly anathematised the Synod and 
the Tome of Leo. And while this was on its way, Fravitta 
died. And Euphemius, a man of Apamea, who was educated 
at Alexandria, was appointed as his successor. However, he 
was tainted with the Nestorian heresy. 

And when he received the letter he was very indignant. 
And he was even angry with Longinus the presbyter and 
Andrew the deacon, the clergy who conveyed this letter ; and 
he brought an accusation against them. But they deprecated 
his accusation by showing the zeal of the people of Alexandria. 
And Euphemius severed himself from Peter's communion ; and 
he sought to bring about the deprivation of Peter, intending 
for that purpose to convene a separate Synod. But Archelaus 
the bishop of Cffisarea, a man of wonderful learning, restrained 
him, saying, " It is not possible for the great bishop of Alex- 
andria to be accused and ejected by a Synod of one province ; 
only a General Council could do that." But when Peter heard 
it, he also uttered threats against Euphemius ; that, just as 
the blessed Cyril had sent Nestorius to Oasis, so he would in 
like manner eject Euphemius from his see. However, Peter 
also departed this life. But his letter was seen ^ in Constantin- 
ople, and it convinced many that he was a believer. And 
John and Julian the Alexandrians, and the rest of their 
associates who happened to be there, the Separatists, on seeing 
' Evag. iii. 23. " The MS. has ,3 before ^j_iV»J^|- 

140 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vi. 

his letter to Fravitta, changed their minds; and they were 
ready on their return to Alexandria to join in communion 
with him. But while they were returning, he died. And his 
successor ^ was Athanasius, an eloquent, believing, and peace- 
loving man. He, desiring and exerting himself to bring the 
Separatist monks into communion with the Church, in the 
course of his address to the people mentioned the names of 
Dioscorus and Timothy, but he purposely omitted to mention 
the name of Peter in order to try them. Whereupon they 
became greatly excited (and they would not be quiet) until 
he named Peter also in his discourse. 



" To our holy father, and God - loving fellow - minister, 
Peter, from Fravitta, who sends greetings in the Lord. When 
I weigh mine own . natural weakness, and I wonder at the 
merciful acts of God towards me, I truly perceive that it is 
absolutely (?) that ' He raises up the poor from the dunghill to 
set him with the princes of the people.' ^ And it is well known 
that this mercy of God is not the consequence of any meri- 
torious deeds on man's part; but that it results from the 
divine grace which arises, time after time, upon the sons of 
the Church, through the love of the Father. So that it is not 
the wise, nor the disputers, nor the eloquent of this world 
whom grace raises up as leaders by the election. 

" Now, before the Law, Abel, though not learned,^ was 
acceptable to God ; as were also the righteous fathers who 
came after him. But under the Law, grace marked out 
shepherds and herdsmen, and gatherers of sycamore fruit,* and 
raised them up as prophets. And after the Law, the same 

' Evag. iii. 23. ^ Ps. cxiii. 7, 8. 

' So MS. ]; ' <7^rn not (j.j_a_», as L. * Amos vii. 14 (Syriac). 


grace appointed fishermen, and a tent-maker, to be the 
preachers of the Hving word from heaven. That thus the 
power of God might be truly known to be made manifest 
and perfect in the weak. And such are the mysteries of 
Christians who hold fast the Incarnation of Christ ; according 
to His own word in the Gospel, ' I thank Thee, O Father, 
Lord of heaven and earth, that Thou hast hidden these things 
from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto 
babes : even so. Father, for such is Thine own will.' ^ 

" For Jesus Christ our God is the foundation and the 
corner-stone of the Holy Church. And therefore these 
blessings, which we have received, are not a strange display 
of His mercy. But we hope^ that from them we shall under- 
stand His equal mercy towards other men ; and we shall show 
ourselves gentle and kind to our brethren in the flesh and in 
the faith, and to the priests who are our fellow-ministers and 
Christ-loving brothers. Thus we shall endeavour ^ to rule the 
Holy Church everywhere in the same right faith, and in perfect 
love. And by the events which are taking place (the Lord 
helping us) we shall show the rational flock which has been 
intrusted to our care in all places to be one ; that of the Great 
Shepherd, Who has appointed us to be the leaders of His 
flock. And we shall drive out those grievous wolves, the 
accursed heresies, more especially of Nestorius and Eutyches, 
by preaching and holding the faith of the holy fathers, who 
maintained the truth and preserved the order of the Church, 
and in our day teaching the right faith to the people and to 
mankind, as well as they. 

" But, using brotherly love and concord in my salutation, 
I now present to thy Holiness the pledge of my affection, 
by the hands of Longinus the presbyter and Andrew the 
deacon. And to complete what is right, I send my greetings 
to all the pastors, and the honourable priests, and the chaste 
monks, and the believing people of thy jurisdiction. We, 

^ Luke X. 21. 

= For P— I read ]!], and for ;'-M'n«~i I read jnm 1. The whole passage is 
difficult to translate, owing to defects in the MS. 
3 .^^IjoAj, MS., not .^SxruL}, as L. 

142 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vi. 

moreover, entreat thy Holiness to pray along with us, that 
we may show ourselves wise men and rulers in all matters, 
like Solomon, and like Paul and Peter and the rest of the 
apostles, in preaching the truth to the sons of the Church ; 
and that in everything about which you refer to us, we may 
be able, to the best of our ability, to render fitting aid to 
the other Churches ; and also in those matters taking place 
in the Christ - loving city, through the enactment of the 
Christ - loving and indulgent king, who is watchful and 
studious and desirous to bring about the peace of the 
Churches, and the concord of the priests, and the unity of 
the people. 

" I and the brethren with me send our best respects to thy 
Chastity, and to the brethren with thee." 



" To my pious and God-loving brother and fellow-minister, 
my lord Fravitta, from Peter, who sends greetings in the 

" In consequence of the election of thine Eminence, it is 
time now for us to say, ' Ye heavens above be glad, and let 
the earth with her fulness rejoice, and let her sing with ^ joy,' 
according to the word of the prophet.^ 

" For also, our Lord Jesus Christ, Who is the one only- 
begotten Son of God the Father, has not redeemed ^ us with 
corruptible things, as silver and gold ; but He rather laid 
down His life for us, as a lamb without blemish; and He 
offered a sacrifice of sweet savour to God His Father; and 

1 For ■^]L I read •^]L 

^ It seems to be a free quotation from Isa. xliv. 23 or xlix. 13. 

' Reading _O10 for r-^O- 


gave His body as a substitute for the life of the whole 
human race. He Who is honoured by all creation, and is 
equal to the Father, God the Word, became incarnate ; yet 
He suffered thereby no variation nor change; but He as 
man remains the same, and He is in truth alive for ever, the 
Word of His Father, and of the same nature. Come then, 
as with one tongue and one believing, Christ-loving mind, let 
us offer to Him thanksgiving, and say with the blessed Baruch, 
' This is our God, there is none other beside Him. He found 
out the whole way of wisdom, and gave it to Jacob His ser- 
vant, and to Israel His beloved. And afterwards. He appeared 
upon the earth, and had converse with men.' ^ For there was 
not indeed One the Son of God, Who existed before the times 
and ages, through Whom all things were made ; and another 
who, in the last time, was born in the flesh from the Theotokos ; 
according to the notion of Nestorius. But rather He, being 
the same, took the seed of Abraham, according to the word of 
the blessed Paul ; ^ and also He was partaker of our flesh and 
blood, and was made like us in all points, sin only excepted. 
For neither do we say that the body of our Lord Jesus Christ 
is from heaven, as Eutyches in his folly affirms ; nor that He 
became incarnate in semblance or imagination ; on the con- 
trary, we anathematise all such teachers. But we confess one 
only - begotten Son of God the Father, Who is our Lord 
Jesus Christ. And we know that He, God the Word of 
the Father, Who became incarnate for our redemption, in 
His divine nature took the likeness of a servant, by the 

" This is the faith of the Church of Alexandria, by which 
we are all adorned, both we, and the God-fearing bishops and 
clergy, and the monks, and all the people of God. And the 
congregation of the people grows and multiplies exceedingly 
in the Churches, while we are obedient to the apostle, who 
says, " If any man shall preach to you any other gospel than 
what we have preached, let him be accursed.' ^ 

" But the cause of all these blessings so dear and accept- 
able to us, was the election of thy Piety's Eminence, which 
^ Bar. iii. 35-37. ^ Heb. ii. 16. ^ Gal. i. 8 and 9. 

144 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vi. 

has been mentioned above ; and also the goodwill of the be- 
lieving and Christ-loving King Zeno, who consented to thine 
election. And he also, for the sake of the unity of the 
people, and that we might be established in power and in the 
truth, by what he wrote so faithfully in the Henotikon, anathe- 
matised all the rash thoughts and words of Chalcedon and 
the Tome of Leo. 

" And we consent to this same document ; and we preach 
it, by word of mouth and by writing, to the believing nations ; 
as also our ever-memorable and holy brother and fellow- 
minister Acacius was seen to hold and teach until his death, 
when the Alexandrians testified to us his true faith, as thy 
Holiness is also persuaded. For it is right for the Christ- 
loving king, not only to subdue enemies, and to set the 
Barbarian races beneath his feet ; but also to expose the 
snares of these intellectual enemies, and to cause the true 
faith to shine upon the believing people. For thy Holiness 
has risen up and bloomed forth for us like the plant of peace. 
And this is the gift of the believing king to us, by the 
will of God, Who chose him before, as we have already said. 
And, therefore, we are delighted at this, that such a good 
priest should arise and appear for the believing nations. 
May God keep him, and may He adorn him with the 
heavenly crown by His own rich Hand, as we hope and 
pray that he may be found walking in the whole way of 
the truth, in the footsteps of the holy fathers, a believing 
chosen priest, by the mercy of our Saviour Christ, through 
Whom, to the Father, with the Holy Spirit, be glory for ever- 

" But we welcomed affectionately the bearers of the letter 
of thy Righteousness the excellent Longinus the presbyter and 
Andrew the deacon; and we now send them back in peace 
to thy Holiness." 

But Athanasius ^ also wrote in the same strain, two years 
afterwards, to Palladius, who was Peter's successor in Antioch, 
expressly anathematising the Synod, and quoting freely from 
the Henotikon.^ 

^ Evag. iii. 23. ^ Or using more freedom of speech than the Henotikon. 


And John ^ was appointed as the successor of Athanasius ; 
and when anyone would ask ^ him to give an anathema of the 
Synod and the Tome in writing, he would give it cheerfully 
and without fear. Now Flavian, who was the successor of 
Palladius in Antioch, sent Solomon, a presbyter of his Church, 
to this John of Alexandria. And Solomon asked John for a 
letter to Flavian, concerning the concord in the faith. But 
John would not consent to do this for him, until he should 
receive from him a sworn statement that he would send him 
a letter from Flavian in which there would be an anathema of 
the Synod and the Tome. And John, his namesake and 
successor, was believing and acting in like manner. 

Now after Zeno had reigned seventeen years, and matters 
had been thus carried on in the Church ; and also the tyrants 
Basiliscus and Marcus had risen up against him, and been 
driven out, as we have related above ; and again, Illus and 
Leontius and Euprepius had rebelled against him and been 
slain in the East; and again, in his days, one Theodoric a 
tyrant had taken captives from Thrace and many other places, 
and had gone to Rome and subdued it, because Odoacer^ the 
Anti-Csesar there iled before him to Ravehna a city of Italy ; 
Zeno died in the year eight hundred and two, according to 
the Greek mode of reckoning. 

And Anastasius, his successor, received the kingdom on 
the fourth day of the Great Week ; when Euphemius was the 
bishop of Constantinople ; and Flavian of Antioch ; and 
Athanasius of Alexandria ; and Sallustius, the successor of 
Martyrius, of Jerusalem ; and Felix, the successor of Simplicius, 
of Rome. 



But the following were the chief priests in the days of 
Zeno. In Rome, after Hilarus, Simplicius, the author of the 

1 Liberal. 18. ' U^, MS., for A:iJ=>, L. 

' Text, " Arcadius," from the confusion between 3 and J. 


letter to Zeno respecting John the liar, who was ejected from 
Alexandria ; and after him Felix, who was still living when 
Anastasius became the emperor. 

In Alexandria, Timothy the Great, who was recalled 
from banishment; and Timothy Salophiaciolus ; and John, 
who was forthwith ejected ; and Peter ; and his successor, 

In Jerusalem, Anastasius ; and Martyrius ; and Sallustius. 

In Antioch, Martyrius, who was ejected ; and Julian ; and 
Stephen ; and the other Stephen ; and Peter the Believer ; 
and Calandion, who was ejected ; and Palladius ; and Flavian, 
his successor, who was ejected in the days of Anastasius. 

In Constantinople, after Gennadius,i Acacius ; and 
Fravitta, his successor ; and Euphemius, his successor, who 
was ejected in the days of Anastasius. 

But in this sixth Book and in the fifth Book preceding it, 
which have been translated concisely and briefly (so to speak) 
in contracted style, for the information of the Syriac reader, 
from the Greek History of Zachariah the Rhetorician ; which 
he wrote thus far, in protracted style, after the manner of 
Greek amplification ; ^ there is a period of seventeen years, 
comprising only the life of the Emperor Zeno. 

' For r->--ti read j-l-*l- ^ .onn 5^o> i.e. irXdros. 


This seventh Book, in the fifteen chapters which are contained 
in it as given below, tells about the events that occurred in the 
reign of Anastasius ; in the first chapter, about the beginning 
of his reign, and how Epiphanius the bishop was ejected ; and 
in the second chapter, about the Isaurians who rebelled and 
were subdued, and the tyrants at the head of them were 
killed; and in the third chapter, about Theodosiopolis and 
Amida, the cities which were subdued ; and in the fourth, 
about the manner in which the city of Amida was subdued ; 
and the fifth, about the famine that was in it, and how the 
Persians departed from it ; the sixth, about Dara, how the 
city was built ; the seventh, about the expulsion of Macedonius, 
who was ejected from Constantinople ; the eighth, containing 
the letter of Simeon the presbyter, giving information con- 
cerning his expulsion ; the ninth, about his successor Timothy, 
and how the expression, " Who was crucified for us," was 
proclaimed in Constantinople in his days ; the tenth, about the 
Synod which was held in Sidon in the days of Flavian and 
Akhs'noyo the bishops, in the fifth year,i the eight hundred 
and twenty-third year of the Greeks ; the eleventh, about the 
petition which was framed by the monks of the East and 
Cosmas of Antioch, and presented to the Synod ; the twelfth 
chapter, about the Synod that was held in Tyre in the days of 
Severus and Akhs'noyo, which anathematised the Council of 
Chalcedon and the Tome of Leo with great freedom of speech ; 
the thirteenth chapter, about Ariadne the queen, who died, and 
about Vitalian the tyrant, who took Hypatius prisoner in war ; 
the fourteenth chapter, about Timothy, who died, and his 

^/.«. of the Indiction = A.D. 512. 

148 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

successor was John ; and about demons that entered into the 
Egyptians, and Alexandrians, and Arabians who came to the 
dedication festival at Jerusalem, and barked at the Cross and 
then ceased ; ^ the fifteenth, telling who were chief priests 
in the days of Anastasius the king. Anastasius, then, died in 
the eight hundred and twenty-ninth year of the Greeks, in the 
three hundred and twenty-fourth Olympiad. 



Zeno,^ having reigned seventeen years, as is recorded above 
in the sixth Book and its chapters, died in the three hundred 
and seventeenth Olympiad, in the eight hundred and second 
year by the reckoning of the Greeks, the fourteenth Indiction, 
on the fourth day of the Great Week. And Anastasius, who 
was silentiary decurion, received the kingdom. This man was 
from the city of Dyrrhachium, and was powerful in aspect, 
vigorous in mind, and a believer. When he was a soldier he 
had confidential friendship with Ariadne the queen, who desired 
and agreed to make him king.* To this man a few days 
before he became king [it happened as follows].^ There was 
a certain person named John the Scholastic, brother of Dith, a 
native of Amida, a valiant man, and just and upright, fearing 
God and forsaking evil ; but by his own accord and freewill 

^ The text has ,^ ■ k> > *'^, which cannot be translated ; for it I read . ^^ . } 
which is almost identical in meaning with the word ■ \ » See ch. 14, where 
the full expression is _j_Q.2l30 OOCTI - ^ » __i,_»C710, "and then were 
silent and went out." 

' Called Epiphanius in the Introduction to this Book. 

^ Here begins an extract in Cod. Rom. 

■1 aiZ nn\VlV)\ ; the reading of the Cod. Rom. is m7 nn\Vn _ which may 
be rendered "his accession." 

° The words in brackets are not in the Syriac, but they must be understood. 


he was constant in the ministry, being a scholastic of the 
Church. And when he was in Constantinople on a con- 
fidential mission ^ on behalf of his city, he saw a vision 
once, and again a second time, showing that Anastasius the 
silentiary should be made king. And he called him, and said 
to him, " In accordance with the rectitude and the virtues and 
the honour of thy soul, that thou mayest fulfil the goodwill 
of God, do thou be peaceable and gentle and modest and 
upright, and show thyself towards everyone quiet and kind 
for the benefit of all men, who are thy kindred. It is not 
because I want anything from thee, or because I would flatter 
thee, that I reveal to thee that thou shalt be made king very 
soon." And because this John was celebrated and honoured 
for his merits, and was known also to many, and, moreover, 
because he was a learned man,^ Anastasius believed him, and 
took it as true ; and he was constant with him there in the 
vigil of the church. But it happened that when he received 
the kingdom, and he was desirous of rewarding his friend 
with gifts of gratitude such as are sought after by ^ and visible 
to men, this John would not take anything at all from him ; 
but he soon left the city and returned to his own country : being 
content with the documents * which Zeno had drawn up, he only 
took assurance from Anastasius that they should be received. 

But Euphemius the bishop there had been threatening 
Peter of Alexandria that he would decree his deprivation, 
because he wrote expressly a reply to Fravitta the predecessor 
of Euphemius, and also because in his synodical letter which 
was sent by some clergy, Longinus the presbyter and Andrew 
the deacon, he had anathematised the Synod of Chalcedon 
and the Tome. But at that time Euphemius was prevented 
from doing this by the advice of Archelaus, bishop of Caesarea, 

; 1 Or, " with liberty to treat on behalf of his city" ; the Syriac is X^SDCTli-Sl^, 
i.e. iv ira^pTjffLa- 

2 ]1 ■ \Vn "skilled in dialectics." 

^ —^.j-^fi, MS., not w.^^)u.u|7, as L. 

* ]fy • l """^ i.e. X(i/)r:;s, perhaps the Henotikon. Cod. Rom. has p. 1 ^fD r^, 
and Mai translates, "quae Zeno pro Christianis constituerat. " Here the extract in 
Cod. Rom. ends. 


a wise man who happened to be there. And when Peter died, 
Euphemius maintained the same hatred against Athanasius, 
Peter's successor in the bishopric of Alexandria, who more 
openly and authoritatively anathematised the Synod and the 
Tome; against him Euphemius was making preparations to 
depose him, and called in Felix of Rome to his aid. And 
when his niachination became known to Athanasius through 
his Apokrisiarioi there, who wrote and also sent to him a 
copy of the letter which had been sent by him^ to Felix, 
then Athanasius made preparation, and wrote to Sallust of 
Jerusalem, and received a reply from him concerning the 
agreement of the faith. And they both informed Anastasius 
the king respecting Euphemius that he was a heretic, and 
showed a copy of his letter in confirmation (of their charge). 
And when his deeds were examined by certain bishops who 
happened to be in Constantinople, and also by believing 
monks from Alexandria and the East, he was banished and 
ejected from his see ; and Macedonius, who also was ejected 
fifteen years later, as is recorded below, became bishop in his 



Now the Isaurians prospered in the days of Zeno (who 
withdrew before Basiliscus and Marcus the tyrants, and dwelt ^ 
as a refugee in the strongholds there called Salmon); and 
they also had free intercourse ^ in the kingdom in his days, 
and he was their rewarder, and he counted them worthy to 
receive good things of all kinds from him ; and on that 
account they could not bear their good fortune, but were 
proud* and insolent when Anastasius became king. And 
they raised a rebellion against him, and they appointed a 

1 I.e. by Euphemius. » -^^^ ^j^k), MS., ^jfiO, L., read !_ijiDO. 

= Or, " great influence '' ; the word is ] i fflOl^a, i.e. Tra,i^i;(rla. 
^ ^ ■ "^ ' ?l^ ; see p. 199, note 4. 


tyrant for themselves, and they refused the gifts which were 
sent to them by Anastasius, and they would not consent to 
give him tribute, but they even raided the provinces ^ round 
about them. And when an outcry ^ and accusation ^ against 
them was brought to the king, he sent an army and made 
preparations against them. And the Isaurians were defeated 
in battle ; and they showed themselves to be weak, and were 
subdued, and the tyrants were killed. 

But an earthquake occurred. And locusts invaded 'Arab* 
of Mesopotamia. And there was a famine in the year nine,^ 
of which James the doctor of Batnas wrote an account, in 
the eleventh (year) of the reign of Anastasius. And many of 
the Arabs died, both in Amida, whither they retired, and in 
various other places. 



When^ Piroz, king of the Persians, was reigning in his 
own country, in the thirteenth (year) of Anastasius, the 
Huns issued forth from the gates that were guarded by the 
Persians, and from the mountainous region there, and in- 
vaded the territory of the Persians. And Piroz became 
alarmed, and he gathered an army and went to meet them. 
And when he inquired from them the reason of their prepara- 
tion and invasion of his country, they said to him, " What 
the kingdom of the Persians gives to us by way of tribute is 

1 .fnn . '•^•eMirn i,e. iirapxias (meaning iTrapxtas). 

3 XD^2L]1 {1^.2U1), i.e. iva<l,opd. 

* "'Arab," a name applied to certain districts in Mesopotamia. 


^ This and the three following chapters are contained in Cod. Rom. 

T Mich. fol. isez/ff. ; Greg. p. 75 ff. 

152 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

not sufficient for us Barbarians, who, like rapacious wild beasts, 
reject God in the North- West region ; and we live by our 
weapons, our bow and our sword ; and we support ourselves 
by flesh-food of all kinds ; and the king of the Romans has 
promised by his ambassadors to give us twice as much tribute 
whenever we shall dissolve our friendship with you Persians ; and 
accordingly we made our preparations,^ and we have come here, 
that either you shall give us as much as the Romans, and we 
will ratify our treaty with you, or else if you do not give it to 
us, take war." And when Piroz perceived the determination 
of the Huns, although they were much fewer in number than 
his own army, he thought it well to play them false and deceive 
them ; and he promised them to give it. And four hundred 
of the chief men of the Huns assembled, and they had with 
them Eustace, a merchant of Apamea, a clever man, by 
whose advice they were guided. But Piroz also and four 
hundred men with him met together. And they went up 
into a mountain ; and they made a treaty, and they ate 
together, and they swore, lifting up their hands to heaven. 
And when few remained along with the four hundred men 
who were to receive^ the tribute money which was being 
collected, and the rest of the Huns had dispersed to return 
to their own country ; after ten days Piroz broke faith with 
them, and prepared war, both against the Huns who had dis- 
persed, and against the four hundred who remained and those 
with them. But Eustace the merchant encouraged the Huns 
that they should not be alarmed even though they were very 
much fewer. And ^ in the place where the oaths were made, 
they cast musk and spices upon coals of fire, and made an 
offering to God according to the advice of Eustace, that he 
might overthrow the liars. And they joined battle with Piroz, 
and killed him and a great number of his army ; and they 
pillaged the Persian territory, and returned to their own 
country. And the body of Piroz was not found ; and in 
his country they call him the liar. 

But Kawad, who succeeded him in the kingdom, and his 

' ^jAi.Zl, MS., not ^jAi.Zl, as L. = Cod. Rom. has ^OCimjJ. 

» There is a O before ^ADOfiS in the MS., which L. does not print. 


nobles cherished hatred against the Romans, saying that they 
had caused the incursion of the Huns, and the pillage and the 
devastation of their country. And Kawad gathered an army, 
and went out against Theodosiopolis in Armenia of the 
Romans, and subdued the city ; and he treated its inhabitants 
mercifully, because he had not been insulted by them ; but 
he took Constantine, the ruler of their city, prisoner. 

And in the month of October ^ he reached Amida of 
Mesopotamia. (But though he assailed it) with fierce assaults 
of sharp arrows and with battering-rams,^ which thrust the 
wall to overthrow it, and pent-houses,^ which protected those 
who brought together the materials for the besiegers' mound * 
and raised it up and made it equal in height with the wall, 
for three months, day after day, yet he could not take the city 
by storm ; while his own people were suffering much hard- 
ship through work and fighting, and he was constantly hearing 
in his ears the insults of disorderly men on the wall, and their 
ridicule and mockery, and he was reduced to great straits. 
And indignation ^ and regret took possession of him, because 
the winter came upon him in its severity, and because the 
Persians, being clad in their loose garments,^ showed them- 
selves inefificient ; and their bows were greatly relaxed by the 
moisture of the atmosphere ; and their battering-rams did not 
hurt the wall or make any breaches in it, for (the defenders) 
were binding bundles ^ of rushes ^ from the beds ^ with chains, 
and receiving upon them the violence of the battering-rams, 
and thus preventing them from breaking the wall. But they 
themselves made a breach in the wall from inside, and 
they carried the material of the mound from without into 

1 The text has merely <_>^Z, not stating whether it was the first or the second 
Theshri ; but from Josh. Styl. 50 we know that it was the first, i.e. October. 

2 1'^? . . m .\ rams' heads. ^ '.'■^.1 « 1 V) • , roofs of skin, testudines. 
^lAjJOa, lit. "mule." 

•" Read IAJo] for IZojoI, with Cod. Rom. 

6 . Vo" a Vn pprhapc from |1q^-» (ffapd^aXKa), "loose trousers''; but see 

p. 229, note I. 1 .1 1 .I 

7 IjjCLa, i.e. KdSpa, quadra. ^ H-^'(, not i-i»^J|) as L. 
' iC1AjJSQ-01, 2.«. iKKoipiTov, accubitum. 

1 54 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

the fortress within, and they gradually propped up the cavity 
with beams from beneath. And when chosen Persian warriors 
ascended the mound and laid beams upon the wall to 
effect an entrance (now they were clad in armour, and the 
king was near with his army outside, and was supporting 
them with display of strength ^ and shooting of arrows, and 
encouraging them with shouting, and stimulating them and 
urging them forward by his presence and appearance, they 
being about five hundred men), the defenders threw strings of 
skin just flayed from an ox, and soaked vetch mixed with 
myrrh-oil from the wall upon the beams, and poured the 
liquid from the vetch upon the skins to make them slippery, 
and they placed fire among the props which were beneath the 
mound. And when they had engaged in a conflict with each 
other for about six hours, and (the besiegers) had failed to 
effect an entrance, the fire blazed up and consumed the wood 
of the props, and immediately also the rest of the material ^ 
was reduced to ashes by the violence of the fire, and^ the 
mound was destroyed and fell.* And the Persians who were 
on the top of it were burned, and they were also bruised, being 
struck with stones by those on the wall. And the king 
retired with shame and grief, being more than ever mocked 
and insulted by those daring, proud, and boastful men. For 
there was no bishop in that city to be their teacher and 
to keep them in order. For John the bishop, a chaste and 
noble man of honoured character, had died a few days 
before. This man was called from the monastery of 
Karthamin, and he, having been elected, came, and he 
became their bishop. However, he did not change his 
asceticism and self - mortification and habit of life, but 
was constant (in them)^ by day and by night. And he 

1 jjjOl, "pomp." Cod. Rom. has \ll}, " arms." 

2 So Cod. Rom. ]lo(J\ for loCTl of MS. and L.'s text. 
^ Cod. Rom. has O before Ajo^J. 

^ There appears to be some confusion in both texts ; by a few slight alterations it 
might be made to yield this meaning, "and consumed the wood of the props, and 
immediately it was reduced to ashes ; and the rest of the mound which escaped the 
violence of the fire was loosened and fell. " 

" Cod. Rom. has ]A 1 VljAs, " in the service." 


warned ^ and rebuked the rich men of the city at the time of 
the famine and the incursion of the Arabs ^ and the pestilence, 
saying that they should not keep back the corn in the time of 
distress, but should sell it and give to the poor ; lest if they 
kept it back, they might be only hoarding it for the enemy, 
according to the word of Scripture. And so, in fact, it 
happened. To him an angel appeared openly, standing 
beside the altars-table, and he foretold to him the incursion 
of the enemy, and that he should be taken away as a righteous 
man from the face of the enemy ; and he revealed the saying, 
and published it in the presence of the people of the city, that 
they might turn and be saved from the wrath. 



When Kawad and his army had been defeated in the 
various assaults which they made upon the city, and a large 
number of his soldiers had perished, his hands were weakened ; 
and he asked that a small gift of silver should be given to 
him, and he would withdraw from the city. But Leontius, the 
son of Pappus, the chief councillor, and Cyrus the governor,* 
and Paul Bar Zainab the steward, by the messengers whom 
they sent to Kawad, demanded from him the price of the 
garden vegetables which his army had eaten, as well as for 
the corn and wine which they gathered and brought away 
from the villages. And when he was greatly grieved at this, 
and was preparing to withdraw in disgrace, Christ appeared 
to him in a vision of the night, as he himself after- 

^ Reading 5<n)iiD, with Cod. Rom. 

2 So the text ; but it may be corrupt, and the reference be to the invasion of 
"'Arab" by locusts (see ch. 2). 

s ^j,>JD,iD, MS., not ]jjJj10 (east), as L. prints it. 
4 I inV) .m i.e. riye/xiiv. 

156 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

wards i related it, and said to him, that within three days He 
would deliver up to him the inhabitants of the city, because 
they had sinned against Him; and this took place as follows: — 
On the western side of the city by the Tripyrgion was a guard 
of monks who were told off from the monastery of John of 
Anzetene,^ and their archimandrite was a Persian. And on the 
outside, right opposite this watch-tower, a certain Marzban,^ 
named Kanarak the Lame, was encamped. And day after day, 
vigilantly watching by night and by day, he was diligent and 
clever in devising plans for the subjugation of the city. For 
there was one whom they called in the city Kutrigo,* a turbulent 
and thievish fellow; this man was very daring in all kinds of 
attacks upon the Persians, and he used to make raids and 
snatch away from them cattle and goods ; so that they also, 
being accustomed to hear the men on the wall crying out, used 
to call him Kutrigo. Kanarak observed this man, and perceived 
that he went out by the aqueducts adjoining the Tripyrgion, 
and snatched up spoil, and went in again. And for a time the 
Persians let him accomplish his will, marking and examining 
his actions, and they ran after him and saw the place from 
which he came out and where he went in. 

But it happened on that night on which the city was 
subdued, that there was darkness, and a dense cloud sending 
down soft rain ; and a certain man gave a friendly entertain- 
ment to the monks who guarded the Tripyrgion, and he gave 
them wine to drink late in the night, and consequently sleep 
overtook them, and they did not watch diligently upon their 
guard, according to their usual custom. And when^ Kanarak 
and a few soldiers came up, pursuing Kutrigo, and drew near 

^ So Cod. Rom. The other text has (ZI-kk^ for ]Z}.k>^, meaning, "as he 
himself related the sight." 

^ ]->_^3o|. Mr. Broolis points out that in Jo. Eph., de Beat. Orient, 58 (Land, 
Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 279), this word is definitely identified with " Anzetenian." 

' 1 1 *~)1 ^LD. See Payne ^rcA&dJohn of Ephesus, 121, note. 

* I.e. "the accused," from Karriyopiu ; after Kutrigo Cod. Rom. has the words 
1: '^ • ^" |001 li'^W '^^^ meaning of 1: ^ ' ^"^ is uncertain; Dean 
Payne Smith suggests \rinrpiK6i. 

» For ^, MS., Cod. Rom. has ^. 


to the wall, the monks did not cry out nor cast stones ; and the 
man perceived that they were asleep, and he sent for scaling- 
ladders and for his troops ; and his followers went in by the 
aqueducts, and climbed the tower of the monks, and killed them. 
And they took the tower and also the battlement ^ ; and they 
set up the scaling-ladders against the wall, and sent to the king. 

But when those who were in charge of another tower, their 
neighbours, heard it, they cried out, and tried to come to the 
monks who were being killed, and were not able ; but some 
of them were wounded by arrows from the Persians, and died. 
And when the report reached Cyrus the governor, and he 
came up and ^ torches were held close to him, he was easily 
struck by an arrow from the Persians, who stood in the dark- 
ness and were themselves unhurt by the archers ; and he 
withdrew wounded. But when it was morning, and the king 
and his army reached the place, they set scaling-ladders 
against the wall ; and he ordered his troops to go up ; and 
many of those who went up perished, being ^ wounded by 
arrows and by stones, and* driven back by spears. And those 
who through fear turned and fled down the scaling-ladders 
were killed by the king's command, as cowards and fugitives 
from the battle. Whereupon the Persians took courage and set 
themselves either to gain the victory by conquering and 
subduing the city, or being smitten in the actual conflict to 
escape reproach and slaughter from their king ; for he was 
near, and was a spectator of their struggle. But the citizens 
tried to loose from beneath the keystone of the arch of the 
tower in which the Persians were, and they were engaged in 
loosening the supports ; and while this was taking place, 
another tower was subdued, and another and another in 
succession, and the guards of the wall were killed. 

But Peter, a man of huge stature, a native of 'Amkhoro,^ 

1 p O 1, 1'^, i'l- TredaToOpd, the walking space in a fortification. 

2 Cod. Rom. has O before ■■'=^■01. ^ Inserting ^D with Cod. Rom. 
^ The MS. has O before -..i_io>ALd, which L. omits. 

^ This translation is conjectural. From the text it would rather seem as if |;'"iViv 
was an adjective qualifying 1Z.Vjo, and meaning "formidable"; but the Lexicons give 
no such word. 

158 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

being clad in an iron coat of mail, held the battlement of one 
side alone by himself; and did not allow the Persians to pass, 
and repelled and hurled back with a spear those who assailed 
him from without and within, holding his ground and standing 
like a hero : until at length, when five or six towers on another 
side were subdued, he also fled and was not killed. And the 
Persians first got possession of the whole wall and held it ; 
and they spent a night and a day and the following night 
in killing and driving back the guards. And at last they 
descended and opened the gates, and the army entered, having 
received the king's command to destroy the men and women 
of all classes and ages for three days and three nights. But 
a certain Christian prince of the country of Arran pleaded 
with the king on behalf of a church called the Great Church 
of the Forty Martyrs ; and he spared it, being full of 
people. And after three days and three nights the slaughter 
ceased by the king's command. And men went in to guard 
the treasures of the Church and of the great men of the city, 
that the king might have whatever was found in them. But 
the order also was given that the corpses of those who were 
slain in the streets and of those whom they had crucified 
should be collected and brought round to the northern side of 
the city, so that the king, who was on the south side, might 
enter in. And they were collected, and they were numbered 
as they were brought out, eighty thousand ; besides those that 
were heaped up in the taverns, and were thrown into the 
aqueducts, and were left in the houses. And then the king 
entered the treasury of the Church, and seeing there an image 
of the Lord Jesus, depicted in the likeness of a Galilean, he 
asked who it was. And they answered him, " It is God " ; ^ and 
he bowed his head before it, and said, " He it was Who said to 
me, ' Stay, and receive from Me the city and its inhabitants, for 
they have sinned against Me.' " But he took away a quantity of 
silver and gold of the holy vessels, and costly garments formerly 
belonging to Isaac Bar Bar'ai, a consul ^ and a rich man of the 
city, which came to the Church by inheritance a few years before. 
But he found there also good wine dried into its dregs, which 

^ Cod. Rom. and Mich, add "of the Nazarenes." ^ .(Tin ^OMim i,e_ {jiraros. 


used to be brought out and placed in the sun for seven years 
together, and at last it became dry ; from this the stewards, 
when on their journeys, were accustomed to take some, ground 
to dust, in clean ^ linen pouches. And they would put a little of 
it into water so as to make a mixture, which, when they drank 
it, afforded the sweetness and flavour of wine. And they told 
the ignorant that it was " h'nono." ^ And the king admired it 
greatly, and took it away. And the art of making this agreeable 
beverage was lost to the sons of the Church from that time. 

But the gold and silver belonging to the great men's 
houses, and the beautiful garments, were collected together 
and given to the king's treasurers. But they also took down 
all the statues of the city, and the sun-dials, and the marble ; 
and they collected the bronze and everything that pleased 
them, and they placed them upon wooden rafts that they made, 
and sent them by the river Tigris, which flows past the east 
of the city and penetrates into their country. But the king 
sought for the chiefs and great men of the city ; and Leontius, 
and Cyrus the governor, who was wounded by the arrow, and 
the rest of the great men, were brought to him ; but the 
Persians had killed Paul Bar Zainab the steward, lest he 
should make known to the king that they had found a 
quantity of gold in his possession. But they clothed Leontius 
and Cyrus in filthy garments, and put swine-ropes on their 
necks, and made them carry pigs, and led them about pro- 
claiming and exposing them, and saying, " Rulers who do not 
rule their city well nor restrain its people from insulting the 
king, deserve such insult as this." But at last the great men, 
and all the chief craftsmen,^ were bound and brought together, 
and set apart as the king's captives ; and they were sent to his 
country with the military escort which brought them down. 
But influential men of the king's army drew near and said to 
him, " Our kinsmen and brethren were killed in battle by the 
inhabitants of the city," and they asked him that one-tenth 

1 'jriij, MS., not ];n ■, as L. ^ P-1-*J, "mercy." 

5 For |jlSDo"|o - ■ "^i*-!^ ^OO, which cannot be translated, I adopt Mr. 
Brooks' suggestion, and read "UiDol »_».I3J ^Q20. 

l6o THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

of the men should be given to them for the exaction of 
vengeance. And they brought them together and counted 
them, and gave to them in proportion from the men ; and they 
put them to death, kilHng them in all sorts of ways. 

But the king bathed himself in the bath of Paul Bar Zainab, 
and after winter he departed from the city. And he left in it 
Glon the general as governor, and two Marzbans, and about three 
thousand soldiers to guard the city, and John Bar Habloho, one 
of the rich men, and Sergius Bar Zabduni, to rule the people. 

And then in the summer the Romans came, and their leaders 
were Patrick the commander-in-chief, an old man, upright and 
a believer, but deficient in mental power, and Hypatius, and 
Celer the master of the offices, and at length also Areobindus ; 
moreover. Count Justin, who received the kingdom after Ana- 
stasius, accompanied them. And they met together, and they 
attacked ^ the city with wooden towers and excavations, and all 
kinds of engines ; and they set fire also to the gate of the city, 
which was called the gate of Mar Z"uro, to effect an entrance 
upon the Persians ; however, they were hindered because 
they were resting, and they did not rush in, for the Persians 
shut the gate. And the Romans did not subdue it nor take it 
from them by assault ; although the inhabitants were reduced 
to misery from famine, day after day, until at last the people 
there were eating one another. But how this happened, 
although the story is horrible and wretched, yet because it is 
true, I shall relate how^ in the following fifth chapter of this 
seventh Book. 



King Kawad, as stated above, on his departure with his 
army from Amida to his own country, left in it Glon, a 

1 For JjQi,, MS., I read ^, with Cod. Rom. 

2 Read VJ-^-"!?, with Cod. Rom., for ]i2j]o. 


general, and two Marzbans, and about three thousand soldiers 
to guard the city ; and also two or three rich men and some 
private inhabitants. These the Roman generals did not over- 
come, nor did they subdue and take the city. But at last 
Patrick went down to Arzanene ^ of the Persians, and carried 
off captives, and subdued fortresses there. And Areobindus 
and Hypatius went down to Nisibis and did not subdue it, 
although the citizens were favourably inclined towards the 
Romans, and showed themselves lazy^ in the iight. However, 
the king of the Persians hearing of it, came with an army 
against the Romans ; and they fled before him, and they left 
their tents and the heavy baggage which they had with them. 
Areobindus fled from Arzamena and Aphphadana,^ and 
Hypatius and Patrick and others from Thelkatsro. And they 
lost many horses and their riders, who fell from the cliffs of the 
mountains, and were bruised, and perished, and were mangled. 

But * Farzman alone, a warlike man, prospered in battle 
several times ; and he was celebrated and dreaded amongst 
the Persians, and his very name terrified them, and his exploits 
wasted and weakened them ; and they proved themselves to 
be cowards in his presence, and fell before him. This man at 
last came to Amida with five hundred horsemen, and he watched 
the Persians who went out to the villages, and he killed some 
of them, and he took the animals ^ which they had with them, 
and also their horses. 

Now a certain crafty fellow, Gadono by name, of the town 
of Akhore, whom I myself know, introduced himself to him, 
and made a compact with him, that he would beguile and 
bring out to him, on some pretext, Glon, the Persian general, 
and three or four hundred horsemen. And because this afore- 
said Gadono was a hunter of wild animals, and partridge, and 
fish,^ he used to go in freely to Glon, carrying in his hands a 

^ Cod. Rom. has ^pOl5Z(, i.e. "the country of the Persians." 

2 For IjoAkJ of L.'s text (]jLjA1d, MS.) read IojAIsDO, with Cod. Rom. 

3 For \i-2i, MS., Cod. Rom. has Ij^S)"). ^ Mich. fol. 158 v. 

5 The MS. has IZoIjj, " butter " ; for it I read "jZoj-w. 

« For ]jQJ Cod. Rom. has (jQj, "pigeons." 

1 62 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

present of game for him ; and he ate bread in his presence, 
and received from him out of the property of the city what 
was equal in value to the game. 

And at last he told him that there were about one hundred 
Romans and five hundred horses nearly seven miles away from 
the city, at a place called 'Afotho Ro"en;^ and as a friend he 
advised him to go out and take possession of the beasts, to 
kill the Romans, and make a name for himself 

And he sent scouts, who saw a few Romans and the 
horses, and returned and gave him the information. Then 
he made preparation and took with him four hundred horse- 
men, and this Gadono upon a mule ; and he led him and set 
him in the midst of the ambush of the Romans, who were on 
the watch for him. So the Romans cut the Persians to pieces, 
and they brought away the head of Glon to Constantia.^ 

Upon this, distress and rage seized the son of Glon and 
the Marzbans, who used to allow ^ the inhabitants who happened 
to be shut up in the city to go out to the market, which was 
held beside the wall by peasants from the villages. These 
peasants brought wine and wheat and other produce, and sold 
them both to the Persians and to the citizens, while horsemen 
were stationed close to them, and escorted them, a certain 
number at a time, and conducted them in. And by an 
excellent law of the • Persians, no one dared to take anything 
from the villagers, who sold what they liked and received the 
price in money and kind from the city; consequently they 
attended the market diligently. However, in consequence of 
the slaughter of Glon and the horsemen, the market was held 
no more. And the great men who were left in the city, and 
about ten thousand persons besides, were arrested and shut up 
in the Stadium, and they were kept there without food; and 
they ate their shoes, and they also ate and drank their excre- 
ments. And at last they attacked one another ; and now when 
they were almost perishing, those who were left in the Stadium 

' ^.>-L5 (A.£li» perhaps means "the fold of Ihe shepherds." 
2 ]JZ, MS. and Cod. Rom., not A^Z, as L. prints. 

^ After p.^Vn^ Cod. Rom. inserts the words ]]o 12.0^(711 Vi 7< "the 
Marzbans who were there became cautious, and would not allow. " 


were let loose like the dead from their graves in the midst of the 
city. And famishing women, who were found there in troops, 
laid hold of some of the men by means of blandishments and 
guile and artifices, and overcame them, and killed and ate them ; 
and more than five hundred men were eaten by women. And 
the famine which was in this city being so grievous, the distress 
surpassed the blockade of Samaria and the destruction of 
Jerusalem, which is recorded in Scripture and Josephus relates. 

But at last Farzman came to the city, and he made a 
treaty with the Persians there, for they, too, were weak. And 
the chiefs of the Romans and the Persians sat by the gate of 
the city, while the Persians went out carrying as much as they 
could, and they were not searched.^ And if any of the citizens 
accompanied them they were asked whether they desired to 
remain or would like to go with the Persians. So the evacua- 
tion of the city took place. 

But eleven hundred pounds of gold were given to Kawad 
by Celer, the master of the offices, for the ransom of the city 
and for peace.^ And when the documents were drawn up they 
brought the drafts^ to the king for his signature. And the 
king fell asleep, and it was told him in a vision that he should 
not make peace; and when he awoke he tore up the paper, 
and departed to his own country, taking the gold with him. 

But Farzman remained in the city to govern its inhabitants 
and the country. (Now a remission of tribute was granted by 
the king for seven years.) And he dealt kindly with the inhab- 
itants of the city. And he bestowed gifts lavishly on those who 
returned from captivity, and he received them peaceably, every 
man according to his rank. And the city was at peace and 
was inhabited.* And building was added to the wall. And, 
by the advice of Dith, a merciful bishop was sent again to the 
city, a quiet and affable man, a monk, and a councillor,^ Thomas 

1 For —j^ALD Cod. Rom. has ^Ao^SD, "decorated" or "armed." 

2 For OTJ_«-» read ] ' - » with Cod. Rom. 

3 -pne^ . 1- tAnm i.e. iToypa^ds for d,iroypa(pds. 

« AisAjZ], MS., not A^CTLiZl, as L. prints it. 
5 I /n\n »~i i.e. ^oi/Xeur^s. 

1 64 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

by name. And, besides, the providence of God summoned and 
conveyed thither Samuel the Just, from the monastery of the 
Katharoi, a miracle-worker and a " dissolver of doubts " ; ^ 
and he also sustained the city by his prayers, and aided its 



Anastasius ^ the king brought severe censures ^ against the 
Roman generals * and commanders who betook themselves to 
the royal city after the conflict with the Persians, because 
they did not, according to his will, under the Lord, prosper 
and succeed in the war, and conquer the Persians or drive 
them out from Amida, except by the gifts and the gold that 
were sent from him. And they alleged in their defence to 
him, that it was hard for generals to contend with a king 
who according to the word of God, although he was an 
Assyrian and an enemy, was sent by the Lord to the country 
of the Romans for the punishment of sins, and, moreover, 
on account of the greatness of the army which he had with 
him ; and that it was no easy matter for them in his absence 
also to subdue Nisibis ; because they had no engines ready, 
nor any refuge in which to rest. For the fortresses were far 
away and were too small to receive the army, and neither the 
supply of water in them nor the vegetables were sufficient. 
And they begged of him that a city should be built by his 
command beside the mountain, as a refuge for the army in 
which they might rest, and for the preparation of weapons, 
and to guard the country of the Arabs from the inroads of the 

1 Dan. V. 12. ' Mich. fol. 158 r. s IJli^j^, Cod. Rom., not ]Li_A, MS. 
* l-y— fer^Xo], i.e. arpaTriyhi. 


Persians and Saracens. And some of them spoke to him in 
favour of Dara, and some in favour of Ammodis. Then he 
sent a message to Thomas the bishop of Amida, and he de- 
spatched engineers ^ who drew up a plan/ and this holy Thomas 
brought it up with him to the king. And the king and 
the great men agreed that Dara should be built as a city. 
And at that time Felicissimus was commander,^ an energetic 
and wise man ; and he was not at all covetous, but was 
upright, and a friend of the peasants 'and the poor. Now 
King Kawad was fighting with the Tamuroye and other 
enemies of his country. And the king gave gold to Thomas 
the bishop as the price of the village which belonged to the 
Church ; and he bought * it for the treasury. And he liberated 
all the serfs who were in it, and granted to each of them his 
land and his house. And for the building of the church of 
the city he gave several hundred pounds of gold. And he 
promised with an oath that he would give with liberal hand 
whatever the bishop might expend, and that he would not 
disown the obligation. And at last he issued a royal decree,^ 
and in full detail,* providing that the work of building the 
city should be carried out according to the direction of the 
bishop without delay, gain and profit thereby accruing to the 
craftsmen and slaves and peasants who were required for the 
collection of material there.^ And he sent a number of stone- 
cutters and masons ; and he commanded that no man should 
be deprived of the wages he earned, because he rightly per- 
ceived and cleverly understood that by that means a city 
could quickly be built upon the frontier. And when they 
began by the help of the Lord and commenced the work, 
there were there as overseers and commissaries over it Cyrus 
'Adon and Eutychian the presbyters, and Paphnout and 
Sergius and John the deacons, and others from the clergy of 
Amida. And the bishop himself paid frequent personal visits 

1 .mni-i . 1 n . Vi i,e. fi.-iYxavi.KO<>%. ^ .m<=^ 1; nm, i.e. a-xdpitpos. 

3 .COOOJ, i.e. dux. ^ Cod. Rom. has OU-Ql for OliO. 

^ |.i_l.^-^0| I; <^f^ i.e. u&Kpa, el/j,apiJ,hri. 

6 .rr, . m c^ mm ^Jj^ without synopsis. 

' ]]oaiJ CTl.»aiO, Cod. Rom. for OiriJ }j_«QJJ. 

1 66 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

to the place.^ And gold was given in abundance without any 
stint to the craftsmen and for work of every kind, at the fol- 
lowing rate, the regular sum of four keratin ^ a day for each 
workman, and if he had an ass with him, of eight. And con- 
sequently many grew rich and wealthy. And since the report 
was published abroad that the work was honest and that the 
wages were given, from the East to the West workmen and 
craftsmen flocked together. And the overseers who were 
over the work also received a liberal allowance,^ and their 
wallets were filled ; for they found the man generous, gentle, 
and kind ; and, moreover, he believed in the just king, and in 
his promises which he made to him. And in two or three 
years the city was built, and, as we may say, suddenly sprang 
up on the frontier. And when Kawad heard of it, and sought 
to put a stop to the work, he was unable, for the wall was 
raised, and built high enough to be a protection for those who 
took refuge behind it. And a large public bath* and a 
spacious storehouse were built. And a conduit was con- 
structed which passed along the lower part of the mountain, 
and wonderful cisterns within the city to receive the water. 
And persons to hasten the work were frequently sent from 
the king to the bishop, and they all brought back excellent 
reports of his integrity and justice to the king ; and he was 
greatly pleased with the man, and sent gold in answer to the 
man's requests, and fulfilled them without delay. And at last 
the number of hundred pounds which he sent was counted, 
and the bishop forwarded a written statement to the king, 
that, speaking in the presence of God, the money had been 
expended upon the work, and that no part of it remained in 
his hand or had been given to his Church. And he readily 
sent him a royal decree containing a receipt of the exchequer ^ 

' So Cod. Roni. The MS. has /li|£Q-»-£1CD (see p. 13, note 6), "showed 
himself diligent in attendance there." 

' I J oMs. 

2 For QJ_ilZZ] Cod. Rom. has aijlZZ|, which might perhaps be rendered 
"were very active." 

^ . mVn .J i.e, STjiiSinoy. 

5 So the MS. yTl I V)(^, not ^0 1 n (^, as L. prints. 


to the effect that all the gold which had been sent by him 
had been expended upon the building in the city. And Dara 
was completed, and it was named Anastasiopolis, after the 
name of the just king. And he swore by his crown that no 
statement of accounts ^ should be required from Thomas or 
from his Church, either by himself or by any of his successors 
in the kingdom. And he^ appointed there and consecrated 
as first bishop Eutychian the presbyter, a zealous man, and 
accustomed to the transaction of business ; and he gave the 
privilege of certain rights to his Church, taken from the juris- 
diction of the Church of Amida. And attached to him was 
John, one of the Roman soldiers from Amida. Him Eutychian 
tonsured, and made him a presbyter and master of the 
hostelry ; ^ and when he went up to the royal city this John 
accompanied him. And the king, upon his being presented to 
him, gave him an endowment * for his church. But Abraham 
Bar Kili of Thel-mide was notary at that time, who was the 
son of Ephraim of Constantia, and he also attached himself to 
Eutychian the bishop, who made him a presbyter. And he 
was sent as overseer of the work and the building of the bath ; 
and at last he became steward of the Church. 

But the king gave Eutychian gifts of holy vessels and 
gold for the building ^ of the great church,^ and sent him away. 
And the bishop having lived but a little longer, died. And 
his successor there was Thomas Bar 'Abdiyo of Resaina, who 
had been a Roman soldier, and had been appointed steward of 
the Church of Amida ; and he also was vigilant and well 
versed in business. And John the master of the hostelry, 
being an honourable and chaste man, was faithful to him and 
beloved by him. And when this holy Thomas withdrew from 
his see on account of his zeal for the faith, this believing John 

I > mA ,| \^ i^e. \oyo6eaiai. 

2 Thomas, bishop of Amida, seems to be the subject of this sentence, not the king. 

3 jji,_]_DD.D|, i.e. ^evoSox&pi-os. * Jj.iOO], i.e. oia-ia. 
5 Reading ]j_^XI3 for ] 1 ■ 1 V). 

^ Here Cod. Rom. inserts the words ]Aj,iQ£5 ]j.sZZj, " which was to be 
built in the city." 

1 68 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

joined him, and he appointed him as his suffragan ; ^ and for 
about seventeen years he lived in exile in different places. 
And he sent him (John) to Berroea,^ where he died in the year 
three ^ (when Khosrun went up to Antioch), having joined the 
monks who had withdrawn from Marde before the enemy; 
and he was buried in the monastery of Beth-Thiri ; and he 
was laid beside his bishop, who entered into rest before him. 



Macedonius, who was bishop of Constantinople, omitted 
no intrigue of heart to conceal his opinions. But, like the 
fruit which bursts open in its day, according to the saying 
of Job,* and " what is covered shall be revealed, and what 
is done in the secret chamber shall be proclaimed upon the 
house-tops," ^ as is said, again, in the Gospel. This man (was 
attached) to the monks of the monastery of the Akoimetoi, 
of whom there were about one thousand, and who lived 
luxuriously in baths and in other bodily indulgences, and 
outwardly appeared to men honourable, and were adorned 
with the semblance of chastity, but were inwardly like whited 
sepulchres, full of all uncleanness. And they agreed to the 
mind of Macedonius ; and he used to celebrate the memory 
of Nestorius every year, and they used to celebrate it with 
him in their monastery and in the other monastic dwellings 
where the same opinions were held. And consequently 
they had great freedom of intercourse with this Macedonius. 
And they were continually reading the writings of the school 
of Diodorus and Theodore; and Macedonius himself com- 

I ]<yiornCTpon j.j_ x^peTrfo-KOTros. ^ 540. 

^ I read wdA*j for «.£^^Jsi|. However, as both MSS. have the latter, it may 
be that we should render it " Ahlaf." 

* Job xxxii. 19 (Syr.). ^ St. Luke xii. 2, 3. 


piled a book of quotations from them, and from the work 
which was drawn up by Theodoret concerning the Acts of 
the Synod (not the one that is translated into the Syriac 
language) ; and he ornamented it with gold ; and he said, 
" It is from the holy fathers and the doctors of the Church." 
And when he showed it ^ to the king, he would not receive it ; 
and he said to him, " You have no need of such things, go 
rather and burn this." And when he saw the mind of the 
king he formed a plan ^ for actually raising a rebellion against 
him ; and he was in the habit of calling him a heretic and a 
Manichaean. And the Master of the Offices, because he was 
lavishly supplied with gifts by him, was favourably inclined 
towards him. And the report was brought to the king by 
some true men who were no framers of flattering words. And 
he held a Council ; ^ and in the presence of his patricians he 
told of the insult which had been offered to him by Macedonius ; 
and he was distressed, and wept, and adjured them not to be 
influenced by fear ; but if, in truth, their king was displeasing to 
them, or if they knew that he was infected with the deceit of 
heresy, they should take his dominion from him, and he should 
be cast out as an unbeliever. And they fell upon their faces 
before him, weeping.* And they inveighed against the 
audacity of Macedonius, crying out and reviling him ; and 
they praised the king; and they decreed the bishop's banish- 
ment. And in order that the Master of the Offices,^ who aided 
him, might be humiliated, he was commanded to expel him, so 
that he should be sent to Oasis. And also Pascasius the 
deacon, who was attached to and beloved by Macedonius, was 
arrested (and he wrote, in the presence of the prefect, in the 
records ^ of the Acts,'' all his deeds), he and certain monks and 
others who caused a tumult in the city to prevent the words, 
" God Who was crucified for us," being proclaimed there, as 
they had been proclaimed in the whole jurisdiction of Antioch 
from the days of Eustace the bishop. 

1 CTIjQjj, MS., not OIQ—w, as L. ^ See p. 245, note 5. 

3 ] . (^^\m i.e. ffCKivnov. ^ ^ i O^ , MS., not ^J-i^S, as L. 

5 Text, "Magisterian." " )-fc. V) 1 VT^ OCTI, i.e. i/wofiviuMTa. 
7 .m . mn;<7i i.e. irpa^is. 

lyo , THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

And to show when and how these things were done, behold 
I have written down accurately, for the instruction of the readers, 
the letter of Simeon the presbyter and his brethren the monks 
who were with him, who happened to be at that time in the 
royal city having come from the East, and who wrote to 
Samuel their archimandrite concerning the expulsion of 
Macedonius, as follows : — 



" To the virtuous, elect, and God - loving presbyter and 
archimandrite Samuel, and to the presbyters and deacons, 
together with all the qther brethren, from Simeon the 
presbyter, in the royal city, and the brethren who are with 
him, greeting. After we wrote the former letter to your 
Holiness concerning all that Macedonius did in the monastery 
of Dalmatus against the whole truth, God stirred up the 
spirit of the believing king like a lion to the prey, and he 
roared, and made the whole faction of the enemies of the 
truth to tremble ; for it is said, ' As a watercourse in the 
hands of the gardener, so is the heart of the king in the hands 
of the Lord.' ^ May He Who has not turned away from the 
prayer of His elect, and Who has not suffered the desire of 
those who worship man instead of God to come to pass, grant 
that the matter may receive a righteous fulfilment through 
your prayers ; yea and amen ! We testify to you that after 
Macedonius did that of which we sent^ information to your 
Piety, and anathematised those reprobate persons and the 
accursed Council on the 20th of July, there was on the 
22nd (the sixth day of the week) ^ a dedication festival at 

' Prov. xxi. I. The words 1 1 1 .. t-ipjio are not in the Peshitto. 
' ^J_KK^^, MS., not —.i-KiJl^, as L. 
' lArSO^i., "the preparation." 


the Martyr Church in the Hebdomon ; and the king himself 
was present. And neither he nor the queen would receive the 
oblation from him ; on the contrary, he even addressed him in 
severe terms. But on the 24th (the first day of the week) the 
monks of this place went in and communicated in the church 
with Macedonius, and the king was vexed with them for 
going in. And on the 25th (the second day of the week) a 
few brethren, who seceded from these monks, entered in and 
went to M^r Patrick the general,^ and gave him a libel to 
present to the king, saying, ' We declare that he celebrated 
the memory of Nestorius, and that he used to send orders to 
us, and we also did the same in our monasteries every year.' 
And they wrote other things against him, tfestifying that trans- 
actions such as these took place in their monasteries. On that 
same day the king commanded, and the water which supplied 
the baths was cut off from their monasteries, and only that 
which they drank was left to them. And also he took 
away the denarii^ which they used to receive from the 
treasury .3 And on the 26th, one of the senators called 
Romanus went in to the king and gave him a written 
statement of all the things which were done at the bishop's 
house ; and he said to the king that Pascasius the deacon, 
along with Macedonius, was the author of all the mischief; 
and he said besides, ' They have made a certain large book 
containing extracts from all the heresies, and it is overlaid 
with gold.' And the king sent for it, and took it to him- 
self, that he might see all its blasphemies. But on the 27th 
the king convened a Council; and when the patricians went 
in the king said to them, ' Have you not seen what this 
Jew who is amongst us did, for in my presence and that of 
your excellencies he did what he did, and he anathematised 
the accursed Synod and those reprobate persons ; and when, 
to avoid great trouble, we accepted his act, he then went off, 
and in the monastery of Dalmatus reversed everything which 

1 T" - (}^ i; t"^h '■^- <'Tpa.T-n\i.Tt)i. 

" The word ^i->? in the text is manifestly wrong ; it should be written ^yj—i), 
i,e. dtjvdpiov. 

3 . Vn^ i.e. Titfueiov. 

172 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

he himself had done, and he contradicted the whole truth, and 
lied unto God and before me and unto you. Is this a fair state- 
ment ? ' And at once Clementinus the patrician said before 
them all, ' May God Himself cast him out from his priesthood 
who has lied unto God ! ' And forthwith the king commanded 
the great prefect to go out into the city and bring together all 
the orthodox who were wounded when they cried out, ' Who 
was crucified for us,' ^ that he might learn who their assailants 
were. And the prefect went out and did as he was commanded. 
And on the 28th he took the names of all the Nestorians who 
were the life of Macedonius, and brought them in to the king ; 
and the king commanded that they should be arrested. 

" And on the 29th the king assembled all the commanders 
of the forces and all the officers of the Scholarians ^ and the 
patricians, and he said to them, ' According to my regular custom 
I wish to give a donative! * For so it had been his practice to 
give it once in five years ever since he became king, at the same 
time requiring oaths from all the Romans to the effect that 
they would not act treacherously against the kingdom. But 
on this occasion he required them to take the oath in the 
following manner : A copy of the gospel being placed for them, 
they went in and received five denarii each, and they swore as 
follows, ' By this law of God and by the words which are 
written in it, we will contend * with all our might for the true 
faith and for the kingdom, and we will not act treacherously 
either against the truth or the king.' In this manner, indeed, 
he required them to take the oath, because he heard that 
Macedonius was trying to raise a rebellion against him. 

" On the 30th of July the king gave a largess ^ to the 
whole army. On the same day the presbyters and deacons, 
who separated from his clergy lest they should be implicated 

2 1 AJ2£D c.«_. J ,0(71 \n\ o, MS., for O L. has ». ^jNnm, i.e. o-xoXd/jios. 
' J£1j_4J0(j, i.e. donativum. Payne Smith's /o.4« of Ephesus, p. 185, note. 
* For w3 AsAkJ I read ^_i_» AsALD, which is most probably the reading of the 
MS., here somewhat rubbed. 
6 .CDCl^O, i.e. I)6yas. 


in his wickedness, presented a libel ^ against Macedonius to 
the king, charging him, in addition to all his other wicked- 
ness, with calling his Majesty a Manichasan and a Euty- 
chianist. And on the 31st of July (the first day of the week) 
they went in to the king's presence with great fear, and found 
him filled with rage and agitation. And when they had 
waited a long time, and everyone was watching in fear to see 
what commands would issue from him, he opened his mouth 
and began to speak thus, ' Do you not know that from my 
childhood I have been brought up in the faith; have any of 
you ever seen in me any departure from thd truth ? ' And 
they said, ' Far be it from us, lord.' And at once he rejoined 
to them, ' Since Macedonius calls me a Manichsan and a 
Eutychianist, behold 1 before God the Judge of all I make my 
defence, affirming that I neither have held nor do hold any 
opinion foreign to the faith of the three hundred and eighteen 
holy fathers, and of the one hundred and fifty ; and I confess 
that One of the Persons of the Trinity, God the Word, came 
down from heaven, and became incarnate from Mary the 
Theotokos and ever virgin ; and He was crucified for us, and 
He suffered and died ; and He rose again in three days, 
according to His own will ; and He is the Judge of the dead 
and of the living. I adjure you by the Holy Trinity, that if 
you know anything else in me, or if you are not persuaded 
of the truth of what I have said, you take this robe ^ and 
crown off me and burn them in the midst of this city.' And 
when he said this there was great weeping; and all the 
patricians cast themselves down before him, and Patrick the 
general ^ said, ' God will not forgive, nor will your Majesty 
and the canons of the Church have mercy on him who has 
done this.' And the king said, ' Everyone, then, who goes 
to confer with * Macedonius or to hold communion with him, 
is thereby alienated from me.' And while they stood before 
him, he spoke against the Master of the Offices, saying, ' The 
riches and the honour which God gave us were not sufficient, 

' ^ ^«-^ . \ here is an evident mistake for ^ O >'~l 1 N , i.e. M^eWov. 

2 1 _ . V)\ ^; i.e. xXa/iiis. ^ .m 1 ^N ' (^^fe^P|' '■^- "rparTiXdrr;!. 

^ Ij.^AjQrD, i.e. ffvvTvxia,. 

174 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

but we must needs take a bribe in a matter of the life of all 
men, and we shall lose our own life.' And while he was 
speaking he looked at the Master of the Offices, who had 
inflicted many evils upon the believers ; and the Lord, foras- 
much as He is the Judge of the dead and the living, rewarded 
him according to his works. And on the same day the king 
set guards of Romans at the gates of the city and the harbours, 
lest any of those monks here should come in to the city. 
And on the first of August Pascasius the deacon was arrested, 
and he went in before the prefect and confessed everything 
which was done in the bishop's house, saying that Macedonius 
was even trying to raise a rebellion against the king. And on 
the day after some Nestorians were arrested, and they affirmed 
that they had some forged ^ books of this heresy ; and the 
prefect sent and brought them to the Praetorium, and he 
showed them to the king and to the Senate. 

" And on the sixth day of the month there was a General 
Council,^ and the orthodox and the Nestorians who undertook 
the defence of Macedonius came in before them. And they 
found the king standing, because some bishops belonging to 
our party had entered. And the king said to these clergy of 
Macedonius, ' Why have you come ? ' and they replied, ' If 
your Majesty commands, your servant will come to your 
Clemency.' And he said, ' Let him go to those before whom 
he proclaimed his wickedness, and who obeyed him ; for, at 
one time, he had a certain ornamented book, and he affirmed 
it was taken from the fathers, and that they taught two 
Natures after the Incarnation ; and I said to him, ' There is 
no need for you to use this, go and burn it.' And he said to 
the clergy, ' What are the two Natures and the Synod of 
Chalcedon which God has overturned from its very founda- 
tions ? Ye are accursed Jews, I declare to you that there is 
not one God-fearing man among you who is grieved for what 
has been done in His Church.' And they went out from his 
presence in great fear and distress. And the orthodox were 

'l^iaXa, i.e. TrXaarA. 

2 ^ ^ 1 '~iV)n n ) I (^1 \m, i.e. ixCKhnov Koii.^ivTov. 


loud in his praises. And when the clergy returned to Mace- 
donius they said to him, ' The lord of the world has, in the 
presence of the Senate, anathematised the Synod of Chalcedon 
and everyone who says two Natures.' And he replied to 
them, ' I, in my turn, anathematise everyone who does not 
receive the Synod, and say two Natures.' And his archdeacon 
cried out, ' Far be it from us, then, ever to have any more 
part or communion with you.' 

" And on the first day of the week, which was the seventh 
of the month, the believers came and entered the church, 
and it was filled from end to end. And when the passage 
from the apostle was read, all the people began to cry out 
together, ' Let not him who has taken away from the Trinity 
enter the church ; let not him who has blasphemed against 
the Son of God come in hither ; no one wants the Jewish 
bishop ; where Nestorius went, there let his disciples also go. 
Long live the king, the second Constantine, the upholder of the 
faith ; the gospel to the throne ! ' And at that instant the 
clergy took the gospel and placed it on the throne. And 
when the clergy saw the whole congregation of the church 
crying out together, they also showed themselves, and cried out, 
shaking their stoles,^ and saying, ' The victorious king has 
gained the victory for our Church.' And as soon as they 
ceased, the great prefect delivered an address ^ to them in the 
following terms : ' We accept your goodwill and your zeal on 
behalf of the truth ; and the lord of the world is, as you know, 
very solicitous for the preservation of orthodoxy and the peace 
of all the Churches ; and your acclamations on behalf of the 
true faith we will bring to his hearing.' And when the deacon 
made the proclamation and did not mention his name, and it 
was not read in the Diptych, the mysteries were celebrated : 
and as ^ our Lord willed that he should go out, the king com- 
manded, and his banishment was decreed. And, with the object 
of humiliating * the Master of the Offices, he sent him to expel 

^ •OOT-j350(, i.e. ibpdpia airutVj (bpdpioy =orartum. 

a |nn . i n g^rri; e^i^ i.e. ■!rpoa<p(i)vi:i<ns, 

3 Jo. Eph. ap. "Dion." 

^ So the MS. fTi o>m 1 ; there is a mistake in L.'s text. 

1/6 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

him ; and he found him in the church, whither he had fled, sitting 
down, with his head between his knees ; and he said to him, 
' The lord of the world has decreed your banishment ' ; and the 
other asked, ' Whither ? ' and he replied, ' Where your com- 
rade 1 went.' And the stewards of the Church interposed, 
saying to him, ' We entreat your Lordship, have pity on his 
old age, and let him not depart in the daytime, lest the people 
of the city strike him and stone him, but in the evening time 
let him go.' And when they swore that they would keep him, 
then he (the Master of the Offices) also left an auxiliary force ^ 
with them. And they said to him, ' The king has commanded 
you to give up that book of the Synod which you have with 
you ' ; and he replied, ' I will not give it.' But, being forced 
to do so, he laid it on the table ; and the clergy took it up 
and gave it to the Master's officer,^ and he brought it to the 
king. And in the evening of the seventh day of the month 
the Master of the Offices arrived with a military force* and 
expelled him, and gave him up to those who were appointed to 
carry him away. And all the orthodox were in great fear.^ 

" Now, my lord, we have truly informed ^ your Holiness 
of what has occurred,' and we shall declare to you hereafter 
whatever the Lord may bring to pass. Pray for us, O elect 
of God ! " 

But the former defence made by the king proves to us 
that Akhs'noyo, the believing doctor, the bishop of Hierapolis, 

' Probably Euphemius, who was also banished to Euchaita. 

2 ]-.Z]i3, i.e. p<yn8eia. "Dion." jlj-jj. 

^ " Magistrian," an attendant upon the Master of the Offices. The whole passage 
is a troublesome one, and I am much indebted to M. Nau, who has published 
an analysis of the unedited parts of the Chronicle attributed to Dionysius of 
Tellmahre, and who, through Mr. Brooks, kindly supplied a MS. extract from fol. 
147 of the account of the expulsion of Macedonius. 

^ The corresponding expression in the Chronicle of "Dionysius" is ] i/ o*"' 
I I • U '^- " ^ large auxiliary force." 

5 In Chron, "Dion." ]Z_A CTlN^'^) lAoJ (sic) 12.oV»Q-i»-« r=li.1o 
QXQOjZJ I J, "and it (or he) caused great trouble in the whole Church of the orthodox." 
« ,_li5o], MS., not ^.^ijo'j, as L. prints. 
' wjOCJI, MS., not ^OCJI, as L. 


who was a zealous man, having learned that Macedonius 
was a heretic, sent a written statement of the true faith to 
the king (as he had done also in the days of Zeno),i and it 
was read before the Senate ; and he showed that opinions 
in opposition to it were held by the school of Diodorus 
and Theodore, and by Nestorius, their disciple, who was 
ejected, and by Theodoret, and Hibo, and Andrew, and John, 
and ^theric — the men who set up the Synod of Chalcedon 
and received the Tome, and cleft asunder the unity of God the 
Word, Who became incarnate, dividing it into two natures with 
their properties, by what they taught concerning Christ after 
His Incarnation. And at the same time he (Akhs'noyo) urged 
the king, saying, " It is right that they should be anathematised 
by all who make a public boast of their own orthodoxy,^ and 
of agreeing to the faith of your Majesty." And when Mace- 
donius was required to do this, he anathematised them under 
compulsion ; but after that he used secretly to celebrate their 
memory in the monastery of Dalmatus, as has been written 



After* Macedonius, Timothy became bishop in Constan- 
tinople ; and he was a believing man, and his deeds were in 
conformity with his name, for it means " God-honouring." 
And in his days there was one Marinus of Apamea, a vigilant 
and clever man, well-versed in business, wise and learned, who 
was, moreover, true in the faith, the friend and confidant of the 
king, and a chartularius and his counsellor. And when he was 

1 Assem., B. 0. vol. ii. p. 34. 

2 The MS. has 5 before ]£a30»Zj], which L. omits. 

3 This chap, is in Cod. Rom. * Mich. fol. 156 r. 


178 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

walking in the street or sitting anywhere, he would tell his 
secretaries^ to commit in concise form whatever thought he 
had to writing. And at night also, he had a pen-and-ink 
stand ^ hanging by his bedside, and a lamp burning by his 
pillow, so that he could write down his thoughts on a 
roll ; and in the daytime he would tell them to the king, and 
advise him as to how he should act. And accordingly, as he 
was from the district of Antioch, all of which ever since the days 
of Eustace the bishop had been so full of zeal that it was the 
first to proclaim," Who was crucified for us," he also vehemently^ 
urged and advised' King Anastasius to do the same. And* 
when some heretics heard of his ardour, they went to him 
together, and said to him, " You desire and incite men on earth 
to go beyond the holy hymn of praise which the angels offer 
to the Trinity, saying, ' Holy, Holy, Holy, mighty Lord, of 
whose praises heaven and earth are full.' " Immediately, God 
the Word Himself, Who in the flesh was crucified for us men, 
prepared a defence in his mouth to this effect, " The angels, 
indeed, offer the hymn of praise, which contains their confession 
to the adorable and co-equal Trinity, rightly, and do not pro- 
claim that He was crucified for them ; but we, on the other 
hand, in the hymn of praise, which contains our confession, 
rightly say that He was crucified for us men, for He became 
incarnate from us, and did not invest Himself with the nature 
of angels." And so he put them to silence, and he instructed 
the king, who thereupon commanded that the words, " Who 
was crucified for us," should be proclaimed in the royal city as 
in the district of Antioch. And at the same time a wonderful 
sign occurred, proving to wise men that Christ, Who was 
crucified • in the flesh at Jerusalem, was God ; namely, an 
eclipse * of the sun, which took place in those days,® and pro- 
duced darkness from the sixth hour unto the ninth hour. 

^ |iQ_4j> ^•^- vordpios. Cod. Rom. has rn/<n (\ i \ "to preserve it." 

2 |;Vl > O, i.e. KaXa/iiptov. 

'■' L^\£D^i.2l £ D, see p. 13, note 6. 

" Greg. ff. E. i. p. 185. 

» For ^ m I mg^V)\ J we must read . m . Pr> ctn . \ ] ,>. ixKa^ni. 

" MS. -j^OiaO. Omit O with Cod. Rom. and L. 




Akhs'noyo,! a learned man and a Syriac doctor, and zealous 
in the faith, the bishop of Hierapolis, in the days of Zeno sent 
a written statement of the faith, and asked Zeno some questions 
about his faith, and received a reply. And it was he who 
exposed Calandion of Antioch, and ejected him from his See. 
But he had his suspicions also about Flavian, that he was a 
heretic ; and he sent a letter and urgent messengers to King 
Anastasius, begging that a Synod should be held at Sidon. 
And the king gave the order, and the Synod assembled in the 
five hundred and sixtieth year of the Antiochene era.^ And 
he urged the believing and zealous monks of the East, and 
Cosmas a learned man from the monastery of M^r 'Akiba at 
Chalcis, who was residing in Antioch, and they drew up a 
petition and presented it to Flavian and to the Council of 
bishops who were with him at Sidon. And they wrote, in an 
able and logical manner, a list of censures' in seventy-seven 
Heads, with many quotations from the holy doctors confirming 
the censure upon the Synod of Chalcedon and the Tome of 
Leo, and they presented this also to the Synod, at the same 
time begging and adjuring the priests to effect reforms, and 
take stumbling-blocks out of the way of the Church and purge 
it, by openly anathematising the Synod. But Flavian the 
chief priest and some of the priests who were with him deferred 
the matter, saying, " We are content with a document anathe- 
matising the school of Diodorus, the censures of certain persons 
upon the twelve Heads of Cyril, and Nestorius, lest we should 
arouse the sleeping dragon ^ and corrupt many with his poison." 
And so the Synod was dissolved. 

1 Midi. fol. 160 r ff. 2 J12. 

' The MS. has ( 1 1 ,lZ ; there is a mistake in L.'s text. 

l8o THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

But the zeal of Akhs'noyo urged the monks again, and they 
went up to Anastasius and informed him of what had occurred 
in the Synod, and concerning Flavian, that he was a heretic ; 
and having received an order for his ejection, and returned to 
the East, they assembled at Antioch against him. And some 
of them were wounded, and others were killed ; but neverthe- 
less Flavian was ejected from his See. And his successor was 
Severus, a learned and well-tried monk from the monastery of 
Theodore the ex-pleader ^ at Gaza, who was apokrisiarios at the 
royal city, and was a confidant and friend of Probus, and his 
kinsmen. This man had previously written the Philalethes, 
and also he had made a solution of the seven questions of the 
Diphysites. And he was ready in dispute with the heretics, 
and he was well known to the king by means of Probus ; and 
he was appointed chief priest of Antioch. And afterwards, 
when there was a Synod in Tyre, he joined with Akhs'noyo, 
and the priests of his district, and those of Phoenice Libani, and 
Arabia, and Euphratesia, and Mesopotamia in expounding the 
Henotikon of Zeno, showing that its effect was to abrogate the 
Council of Chalcedon. And the bishops assembled at Tyre 
openly anathematised the Synod of Chalcedon and the Tome. 
And they wrote to John of Alexandria and to Timothy of the 
royal city ; and received replies from them and from Elijah of 
Jerusalem, who was eventually ejected, and was succeeded by 
John. And because Sergius, a grammarian there, composed 
shortly afterwards a book of censure upon that Synod, and gave 
it to the monks from Palestine who were of his way of thinking, 
this holy Severus, hearing about it, wrote a refutation of it at 
great length, and by quotations and proofs derived from the 
true doctors of the Church he confirmed his doctrine in three 
volumes, entitled. Against the Grammarian. But the other 
treatises of this doctor Severus, and his commentaries, and his 
Catechism, and his work. Against Julian the Phantasiast, and 
his wonderful Dogmatic Letter, afford great profit and instruc- 
tion to the lovers of doctrine. 

^ ^ n i | n 1 n i ,"^ !. I have taken it as the Syriacised form of airh SiKaviKuv ; 
but I give this explanation with diffidence. The v^ord (i~i . ^ o -^ = SiKa,viK6s, is 
found in Leben des Severus, p. 3. 




" Before all things we give thanks to Christ, Who is God 
over all, and we also thank our merciful Christ-loving king, 
who has aroused you all to zeal for religion, and called this 
your- holy Council to one meeting place, in the name of one 
only Christ the Son of God, that in Him you may bring all 
men together to the one faith, which the Holy Scriptures 
have delivered and the fathers have ever kept, standing stead- 
fastly in one mind, and being united and agreeing together in 
one good man,^ and teaching all men the divine doctrine 
through the Holy Spirit, Who spoke by them. For our Lord 
has accounted you to be worthy,^ and chosen you at this 
time for the sake of the unity of his holy Churches, not that 
you should make a new faith for them ; because that written 
definition, which was made by the three hundred and eighteen 
holy fathers who assembled at Nicea, is sufficient for the 
affirmation of the Holy Scriptures ; but that you should build 
up^ the faith which has always existed, and which many 
persons have rashly sought to destroy, speaking ' not from 
the mouth of the Lord,' as the prophet * says, but ' from 
their own belly,' and by their wicked artifices they have 
severed from one another those who in the simplicity of their 
hearts kept the tradition of the holy fathers and were united 
together in the true faith. For Christ is He, O holy men ! 
Who is divided by them ; and, therefore, as long as He is 
denied, it is not possible for the Church ever to come to any 

1 ]; '~' .| Mich, has "in one good work," reading |,*~lS. 

2 MS. rr'^-*' ^°^ rr*°-^' ^^ L. ^ For ^OJ-IiZZ I read vOJ-iD^?. 
* Jer. xxiii. i6. 

1 82 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

agreement; seeing that it is rent asunder by these persons 
through the inventions of different words. For it is written, 
'No kingdom that is divided against itself shall stand' ;^ and 
again, ' If ye bite and devour one another, take heed lest ye be 
consumed one of another.'^ Since, then, we are one bodyin Christ, 
and we are members of His members, according to the word of 
the divine apostle,^ we draw near to your Holinesses with con- 
fidence as to pastors, entreating you to keep the true faith for 
the whole world, without spot, like the fair dove spoken of in the 
Song of Songs ; and that you separate it from all heresies which 
have the outward appearance of religion, and stand around it 
like queens and concubines and damsels, and ai-e anxious to 
associate and to be one and the same with it, and through it to 
be received as true. But by doing this you shall receive a 
reward, and you shall hear the Lord saying, ' Him that con- 
fesses Me before men, will I confess before My Father Who 
is in heaven.'* Separate, then, as stewards of the divine words, 
between the pure and the corrupt, as He says ; ^ and cast out 
those who mingle ^ the tares with the pure wheat, and their evil 
doctrine along with them, for He says, ' Put away the evil-doer 
from the congregation, and victory shall go forth with it.' "^ 

" Now, though what has been said is manifest and well 
known,^ it was necessary to explain it above and prove it 
clearly, even as the holy fathers agreeing in one true faith 
bound all men together in one concord. But the heretics 
have mingled lawless wranglings with the words of the holy 
fathers, and confound ^ with them schismatical i" impieties, and 
have separated the holy Churches ; whom the prophet rebuked, 
saying, ' Thy tavern-keepers " mingle water with wine.' " ^^ 

' St. Mark iii. 24. " Gal. v. 15. '^ Rom. xii. 5. 

* St. Matt. X. 32. = Mai. iii. 18. 

^ The MS. has QHCLki, not OOiUjo, as L. prints. 

'' This is probably a general reference to Josh. vii. rather than an exact quotation. 

8^5_.5_., MS.,notVXfj, asL. 

9 ^^ , nn Ktil?, MS., not ^^ I ■ n K>>Lo, as L. prints. 

^^ MS. "iZo-^j-jAa, not IZo-^jAa, as L. 

" . 1^1 lO 1 K>, MS., not . I n 1 ,iO i' Ki, as L. 

■■^ Isa. i. 22. The rendering in the Peshitto is remarkable, and no doubt suggested 

the above : it is ( 1 V) ,^ i,5N»-J ■ ■ '~i ■/" < ^> 


And so the petition goes on, and has many quotations from 
the fathers in proof of the seventy-seven censures upon the 
Council of Chalcedon. 



Now Severus, who succeeded Flavian in Antioch, was a 
learned man by reading the wisdom of the Greeks, and he 
was an ascetic and a well-tried monk, and he was also zealous 
for the true faith and well-versed in it, and he had read the 
Holy Scriptures with understanding and the expositions made 
by the ancient authors who were disciples of the apostles, 
namely, Hierotheus, and Dionysius, and Titus, and also 
Timothy ; and after them Ignatius, and Clement, and Irenaeus, 
and such writers as Gregory, and Basil, and Athanasius, and 
Julius, and the other chief priests and true doctors of the holy 
Church. And like a " scribe who is instructed for the kingdom 
of heaven, who brings from his treasures things old and new," ^ 
so also he had thoroughly studied many histories, and they 
were rooted in his mind clearly to be seen. 

And this Akhs'noyo, also, was a Syriac doctor, and he 
had diligently studied the works existing in that language, 
and besides these he was well-versed in the doctrine of the 
school of Diodorus and Theodore and the others ; but, never- 
theless, as his actions proved to the wise, this old and zealous 
man was truly a believer. 

These men gave full and clear information to King 
Anastasius, who rejected the Council of Chalcedon with all 
his heart ; and he commanded that, for the purpose of effecting 
needed reforms, a Synod of Orientals should be assembled at 

* Matt. xiii. 52. 

1 84 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

Tyre. And it was assembled, consisting of the bishops of 
the districts of Antioch, and Apamea, and Euphratesia, and 
Osrhoene, and Mesopotamia, and Arabia, and Phcenice Libani. 
And, making the true faith clear, he {i.e. Severus) 
expounded the Henotikon of Zeno as meaning the abroga- 
tion of the transactions of Chalcedon ; and he openly 
there anathematised the addition which it had made to 
the faith. And the bishops in Council assembled, along 
with Severus and Akhs'noyo the believers and doctors who 
zealously stood at their head, proclaimed the whole truth ; 
and they wrote letters of agreement both to John of Alex- 
andria, and to Timothy of the royal city, and also Elijah 
of Jerusalem at that time assented to the letters, although 
shortly after he was ejected, and was succeeded by John. 
Consequently the priests were again united in this concord 
of the faith, with the exception of the see of Rome. (And 
the reason of this exception was) that Alimeric^ was the 
anti-Ceesar there, and he had rebelled against Anastasius in 
the Western region, and he held the kingdom in Rome. And 
he was a warlike man ; and in his day he rendered great 
service to the people of Italy, by delivering them from the 
barbarians and Goths. And he also conferred many benefits 
upon his city, Rome, erecting buildings and granting privi- 
leges.^ However, he was a Diphysite, having been converted 
from the heresy of Arius. Consequently there could not be 
any assent on the part of Symmachus and his successor 
Hormisda, the chief priests of Rome, to what was done in 
the East. And zealous persons can gain information respect- 
ing these matters from the letter which Akhs'noyo wrote after 
his expulsion.^ 

^ "Theodoric, called 6 OiiaXa/iiJ/jou, hence the form above " (Brooks). 
2 [ I Vll; g^, i.e. irpovdiua. 
' Cf. p. 207, and note 4 there. 




Ariadne ^ the queen, the wife of Zeno, was allied to this 
Anastasius after the death of her husband, and she made him 
king ; and she held the kingdom for many years, as many as 
forty, in the state of first and second marriage ; and she died in 
the year eight hundred and twenty-four of the Greeks. And 
her husband remained on, keeping the holy truth ; even though 
he was advanced in years, and he was occupied with the 
business of his kingdom.^ And he had anxiety and trouble, 
because of one Vitalian a Goth, who was a general,* and warlike, 
and courageous and daring, and cunning in war. To this man 
many savage people attached themselves ; and he gave them 
gold with a liberal hand, and, besides, they enriched them- 
selves with the spoil which they took from the dominions of 
Anastasius. And when he had been for a long time at 
peace, Vitalian broke his word ; and he rebelled and injured 
the Roman dominions, and oppressed the kingdom, and treated 
it with contempt ; and he haughtily advanced to the very 
suburbs of Constantinople without any fear. And at one time 
troops, with Hypatius at their head, were sent against him by 
Anastasius ; and {hey were routed by him, and Hypatius was 
taken prisoner; and he treated him with great indignity, and 
to insult him he even shut him up in a pig-sty.^ And upon 
one occasion he put him to open shame, carrying him about 
through the army in the most humiliating fashion, because 
Hypatius once took the wife of this Vitalian prisoner and 
treated her insultingly. And in consequence of this Vitalian's 
indignation against him was very strong. For in the impetu- 
osity of his youth this Hypatius was carnal and wanton in 
lust after women. And at last he was ransomed by a large 

^ MS. 01p>j|, not 01r-*_»j|, as L. " Here begins an extract in Cod. Rom. 

^ Here an extract in Cod. Rom. ends. ^ Htt- ' bi b^U ^■^- <'"''pa7-»;76!. 

° For ]2^Q-K> read |l0a^. 

1 86 THE CHRONICLE OF [book vii. 

sum of gold that was sent for him, and he returned from 
captivity with Vitalian, possessing the wisdom that results from 



Timothy, having lived six or seven years, died ^ in the 
year eleven.* And John succeeded him. And in the year in 
which Anastasius the king died, there were some Egyptians , 
and Alexandrians and men from beyond the Jordan, Edomites 
and Arabians, who came to the festival of the dedication ^ which 
is the making of the Cross at Jerusalem, which was held on the 
fourteenth of September ; and demons took possession of many 
of them, and they barked at the Cross, and then ceased and 
went out. And this caused anxiety and distress to the 
prudent ; they did not, however, accurately ^ understand the 
reason, until the event occurred, and it signified the wrangling 
about the faith, and the stumbling-block afterwards caused 
thereby. This God made known beforehand, that we might 
consider the temptation ^ and be proved by it ; ^ and by our 
enduring it and persevering in the faith we might have joy ; 
as James the apostle says, " Let it be all joy to you, my 
brethren, when you enter into divers and many temptations ; 
for you know that the trial of faith procures patience for 
you. But let patience have its perfect work, that you may be 
complete and perfect, wanting nothing." * 

■" Or literally, " And punishment is wisdom." 
^ This chap, is in Cod. Rom. 

' Cod. Rom. has the word Aj^ ; it is omitted in the MS. 
" 518. ^ I I 1 m^, i.e. eyKaivla. 

" Cod. Rom. has Aj]AjAjv» here. The other reading, Aj^Z^JJ, "recently," 
could hardly be made to give sense. 

' So Cod. Rom. The MS. has " the event." 

8 So Cod. Rom. COO }jj.i3Aj. « Jas. i. 2-4. 


Now Anastasius died on the ninth day of July. And his 
successor was Justin, who went down with the army ^ in com- 
pany with the generals,^ at the time that Kawad, king of 
the Persians, came to Amida. And he was a handsome old 
man with white hair, but he was unlearned ; * and he shared * in 
the opinions of the people of Rome respecting the faith, 
because he belonged to that jurisdiction, being from the camp ^ 
called Mauriana,* the water '' of which is bad, and turns to blood 
when it is boiled. 

There is in this Book a period of twenty-seven years, three 
months and a half, the lifetime of Anastasius. 



Now the following were the chief priests in the d,ays of 
Anastasius. Of the Diphysites : — Of Rome — Felix, and 
Symmachus his successor, and Hormisda who is still living. 

Of Alexandria, the believers — Athanasius, and John his 
successor, and again another John, and Dioscorus who now 
occupies the See. 

In Antioch — Flavian who was ejected, and Severus the 

In Constantinople — Euphemius, and Macedonius who was 
ejected, and Timothy the believer, and John his successor, 
who received the Synod in the beginning of the reign of 
Justin and died shortly after, and Epiphanius was his successor. 

Of Jerusalem — Sallust, and Elijah his successor who was 
ejected, and John who received the Synod in the days of 
Justin, and Peter his successor. 

1 . n j\ Q .rri'-ij i,e. i^ipKerov, or exercitus. ^ L(l.^^.^Xd], i.e. aTfian-rpib's. 

^ Mai takes ; - g^m as part, from ; g^ff "to shave," and translates "prolixo 
capillo " ; but Jo. Mai. p. 410, has oXoTriXtos, etf/iop0os . . . dyptt/i/iaros (Brooks). 
* Cod. Rom. has ] 1 1 S5 v^ for ]l 1 S ^S of MS. 
5 ^ . ^m fi i,s, Kaffrpa. " Or Bederiana, as Mai writes here. 

' crLjib> MS., not (TLliD, as L. 


The eighth Book in the chapters, as given below,^ gives 
information, the first about the accession of Justin and about 
Amantius the provost, who was killed in the palace, and about 
Theocritus his domestic, and Andrew the chamberlain ; in the 
second it treats of Vitalian the tyrant, who was killed in the 
palace, he and Paul his notary and Celer his domestic ; in 
the third chapter it tells the story of the martyrs who were 
killed in Nagrin, in the royal city of the land of the Homerites, 
by the Jewish tyrant ; in the fourth chapter it describes the flood 
of water which entered Edessa, and how the flow of the waters 
of Shiluho in Jerusalem was stopped, and how Antioch was 
overthrown ^ by an earthquake, and the temple of Solomon in 
the city of Heliopolis was burnt ; * in the fifth chapter it gives 
an account of the negotiations which were held on the frontier, 
and of Mundhir, king of the Saracens, who invaded the Roman 
territory, and of the bishops who were banished ; the sixth 
chapter, stating who were chief priests in the days of this king 
Justin ; the seventh chapter, concerning the prologue of Moro 
the bishop. 

^ The MS. has AjjA!^, not AjjZ, as L. prints. 
2 M§. AnSJOlZI, not AliaOlZ, as L. 

' The word ..QjO has dropped out before j^*^ ■m. as appears from the heading 
of the chapter below. 






In ^ the year eight hundred and twenty-nine according 
to the reckoning of the Greeks,^ on the tenth of July, when 
the year eleven was already drawing to an end, on the death 
of Anastasius, Justin ^ became 'king after him ; and he was an 
old man of a handsome presence with white hair and was 
cura palati, and he was illiterate. This man Marinus of 
Apamea, an able man, who was chartulary,* depicted in 
the public baths,* as he had come from the fortress^ of 
Mauriana in Illyricum to Constantinople with all the history 
of his entry into Constantinople, and how he had been ad- 
vanced from step to step until he became king. And, when 
this same Marinus was accused on this ground and came 
into danger, trusting in his astuteness, he readily rendered an 
answer, saying, " I have represented these things in pictures 
for the consideration of the observant and the understanding 
of the discerning, in order that magnates and rich men and 
men of high family may not trust in their power and their 
riches and the greatness of their noble family, but in God, who 
raises the poor man out of the mire and places him as chief over 
the people, and rules in the kingdom of men to give it to whom 
He will, and to set the lowest among men over it, and chooses 
men of low birth in the world, and men that are rejected, and 
men that are not, that he may bring to naught men that are." 
And he was accepted, and escaped from the danger. 

Now '' Amantius the provost,^ he and Andrew the chamber- 

' vii, 14. '' S'S- 

2 vii. 14 ; Mich. fol. 161 r ; cf. Jo. Mai. p. 410. 

4 The MS. has l^XO-fe.^. not It^Q^^^.^, as L. prints. 

5 Srifidffiov. " Kdarpov. 

' Cf. Jo. Mai. pp. 410, 411. * rpaiir6(nTos, i.e. prapositus sacri cubicuU. 

I90 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

lain, his associate, favoured and cherished Theocritus his 
domestic ; and after the death of Anastasius he gave a large 
sum of gold to this old man, the cura palati Justin, for the 
purpose of making largesses ^ to the scholarians and the other 
soldiers, in order that they might make Theocritus king. But he 
by giving the gold to these men gained their favour, and they 
made him king, because the Lord willed it. And,^ because he 
shared the opinions of the inhabitants of Rome, he gave strict 
orders that the Synod and the Tome of Leo should be pro- 
claimed. And this Amantius tried to prevent it, saying, " The 
signature of the three patriarchs and the principal bishops of 
your dominions, who have written and anathematised the Synod, 
is not yet dry." And,^ because he spoke with freedom, this 
same Amantius the provost was immediately put to death, and 
so were Theocritus his domestic and Andrew the chamberlain. 
Now a year afterwards John,* the bishop of the city, died, 
and Epiphanius succeeded him. And, since Severus withdrew 
from Antioch for fear of the threats of the king, who ^ had 
ordered his tongue to be cut out, Paul succeeded him, who was 
called " the Jew." And, because he celebrated the memory of 
Nestorius, he was driven out, and Euphrasius succeeded him, 
who was burnt in a cauldron blazing with aromatic wax during 
the earthquake of Antioch. 



Vitalian ^ the tyrant was general ^ in the days of 
Anastasius ; and he was a Goth and a stout-hearted warrior, 
and barbarians ^ followed him. Of him it was said that he 

1 P670S. - Mich. loc. cit. 3 cf. Jo. Mai. loc. cit. 

•* Cf. Theoph. A.M. 6012. ' Cf. Evag. iv. 4. 

^ vii. 13. ' (TTpaTTjyds. 

* There is no O before ^^ 1 "'^ > O 1, as L. , but the letter must be inserted. 


wished to raise a rebellion against Anastasius ; and he 
exacted an oath from him, and he did not keep it, but 
rebelled and induced barbarian tribes to follow him, and 
made an attack upon the dominions of Anastasius, and took 
cities and their villages ; and he marched forward as far as 
the royal city, and blockaded it,^ and he annoyed the king in 
many ways ; and he caused him anxiety, because he had taken 
Hypatius, who had gone out against him, prisoner and routed 
his army, and carried him abput with him, treating him with 
indignity and insult, and exposing him to contumely ; but for a 
large sum of gold which he received for him he sent him back. 
And, when Anastasius was dead, a letter was written to 
him by this old man Justin, entreating him and appeasing 
him,^ in order that he might not again act unjustly and 
rebel in his days, as he was accustomed to do. And then 
various tribes also followed him, and the Goth came con- 
fidently ; ^ and the king went out to the Martyr's Chapel of 
Euphemia at Chalcedon, and they swore oaths to one 
another and entered the city ; and he became one of the 
generals *-in-chief; and in the fulness of power he went in 
and out of the palace, and presided over the conduct of affairs. 
And he was united by a spiritual relationship ^ to Flavian of 
Antioch, who was driven out ; and he nursed great resent- 
ment against the holy Severus, who succeeded Flavian, but 
he was not able to injure him in the days of Anastasius. 
However, at the beginning of the reign of this old man 
Justin an order was issued that, wherever he was caught, his 
tongue ^ should be cut out, they say, by the advice of Vitalian. 

1 01r*J (. The usual meaning of this word is " take,'' which is here impossible. 
The word sometimes, however, means "shut," and the rendering in the text seems 
justified by the use in vii. 5 (p. 212, 1. 23, L.). 

2 Cf. Jo. Mai. p. 412 ; Evag. iv. 3. 

' It is very probable that we should insert ,2 before ^j_21j_QJ, translating, 
"various tribes also and Goths following him, he came confidently.'' 

^ (TTpaTTiyos. 

^ In bk. 3, ch. 4 this word means "godfather" ; but, since this meaning seems to 
be here out of place, I have given it the indefinite rendering above. The relation meant 
is that of the ffivreKvos, which we can hardly express in English (Smith, Thesaurus, 
col. 4342). 

« Cf. Evag. iv. 4. 

192 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

Now it happened some days afterwards that, while 
Vitalian was bathing in the royal city, he received a com- 
mand from the king to come to a banquet, he and Justinian 
the general,^ his colleague ; and he was coming from the baths, 
he and Paul his notary and Celer his domestic, and, men 
having been posted ready to stab him as he was going from 
one house to the other, he was killed, he and his notary and his 
domestic ; and God requited him for the evil which he did in 
the days of Anastasius and the violation of his oaths ; and 
his army did no injury. 



, "We* inform your affection that on the twentieth of 
January in this year eight hundred and thirty - five of 

^ There is probably some mistake in the heading, as a bishop could not be an 
afokrisiarios. Jo. Eph. (ap. "Dion.") omits the word, while Mart. Areth. speaks 
of a "SiVfixavlTov Tpeff^vripov Kai diroKpuriapLov. ■ 

^ This chapter is contained in Cod. Rom. Mai's text is, however, not taken from 
the MS. but is a copy of that of Assemani {B. O. vol. i. p. 364 ff.), taken not from our 
author, but from John of Ephesus (ap. "Dion."). The letter also exists in a much 
longer form in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. l4>65o, fol. 155, and in a MS. in the Museum 
Borgianum at Rome, which has been edited by Prof. Guidi [AtH delV Accadetnia de' 
Lincei, Ser. 3, Tom. 7, 1881). It exists also in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 14,641, fol. 
157, where the text is not a copy of 14,650, as Guidi states on the authority of 
Wright, but is similar to that in our author and in Jo. Eph., and, being followed by 
the later history of the little boy, as in Jo. Eph. , is plainly derived from that author. 
A Greek account of the same events, derived in part from this letter, is contained in 
the Martyrium Arethcs (Boissonade, Anecd. Grcec. vol. v.), and a slightly different 
one in Simeon Metaphrastes (Migne, Pair. Grac. 115, p. 1249 ff.). 

"Jo. Eph. ap. "Dion." (Assem., B. O. p. 364 ff.) ; Mich. fol. 166 ff. 


the Greeks^ we left the camp of Nu'man in company 
with Abraham the presbyter, the son of Euphrasius, who had 
been sent to Mundhir by Justin the king to make peace, of 
which we wrote also in our former epistle ; and here we, 
even all the believers, express our thanks to him for his 
assistance to our side ; and he knows what we wrote formerly 
and what we are writing now. For we travelled ten days' 
journey through the desert towards the south - east, and we 
came upon Mundhir over against the hills called ' the hills 
of sand,' ^ and in the Saracen language ' Ramlah.' ^ And, as 
we were entering the encampment of Mundhir, some Saracens, 
heathens and Mddoye^ met us, and said to us, ' What can 
you do ? for, behold ! your Christ has been expelled by the 
Romans and the Persians and the Homerites.' And when 
we were insulted by the Saracens it distressed us ; and in 
addition to the distress sorrow also fell upon us, because, while 
we were present, there came an envoy, who had been sent by 
the king of the Homerites to Mundhir, and gave him an 
epistle full of boasting ; and in it he had written to him as 
follows : ' The king whom the Ethiopians set up in our 
country died ; and, because the winter season had begun, 
they were not able to march out into our country and appoint 
a Christian king, as they generally do. Accordingly, I be- 
came king over the whole country of the Homerites, and I 
resolved first to slay all the Christians who confessed Christ, 
unless they became Jews like us. And I killed two hundred 
and eighty men, the priests who were found, and besides them 
also the Ethiopians who were guarding the church. And I 
made their church into a synagogue for us. And then with 
a force of 120,000 men I went to Nagrin, their royal city. 
And, when I had sat down before it^ for some days and was 
not able to take it, I swore oaths to them, and their chiefs 

1 524. ^ Read l^-KJ for |_l..>.jo, with Cod. Rom. 

3 Read Oll^SO J for aT^k5J, with Cod. Rom. (marg.), Jo. Eph., 14,650, and 
Cod. Borg. 

* I.e. emigrants ornomads, a name applied to certain Arab tribes : Ar. Ma'addiyya. 

5 Read OT-i^i for ^LoZ, with Cod. Rom., "Dion.," 14,650, and Cod. Borg. 
14,641 agrees with 17,202. 

194 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

came out to me ; but I judged it right not to keep my word 
to the Christians, my enemies. And I arrested them, and 
required them to bring their gold and their silver and their 
possessions ; and they brought them to me, and I took 
them. And I asked for Paul their bishop ; and, when they 
told me that he was dead, I did not believe them, until they 
showed me his grave : and I dug up his bones and burnt 
them,i as well as their church and their priests and everyone 
who was found seeking, refuge there. And the rest I urged 
to deny Christ and the Cross, and become Jews ; and they 
would not, but, confessing that He is God and the Son of 
the Blessed, they even chose to die for His sake. And their 
chief said many things against us,^ and insulted us. And I 
ordered all their magnates^ to be put to death. And we 
fetched their wives, and told * them, now that they had seen 
their husbands put to death for Christ, to deny, and have 
mercy on their sons and on their daughters. And we urged 
them, and they would not ; but the nuns strove hard to be put 
to death first; and the wives of the magnates were angry with 
them, and said,^ " We ought to die after our husbands." And 
they were all put to death by our order except Rhumi, the 
wife of the king who was to have reigned there, whom we 
would not permit to die ; but we kept requiring her to deny 
Christ and live, having mercy upon her daughters, and retain- 
ing everything which she possessed by becoming a Jew. And 
we bade her go and take counsel, attended by guards from our 
army. And she went out, going round the streets and squares 
of the city with her head uncovered, a woman whose person no 
one had seen in the street since she grew up. And she cried 
and said, " Women of Nagrin, my Christian companions, and 
the rest of you also who are Jews and heathens, listen ! * My 

1 The MS. has vQjI, not ^— l], as L. prints. 

2 The MS. has ^\nnn\ , not ...NnnnN, as L. prints. So Cod. Rom., 
which, however, has >..a_]0^ • instead of . ^ . . 

' The MS. has ^CTl—tSJOJ, not ^OOlOXiDJOJ, as L. prints. 

^ The MS. has ^jiol, not ^f^Dl, as L. prints. 

« The MS. has <|iDl, not ^ i V)], as L. prints. 

« The MS. has ,^^i SVl», not ,^ SVl «, as L. prints. 


birth and my family, and whose Christian daughter I am, you 
know ; and that I have gold and silver and slaves, male and 
female, and ^ many lands and revenues ; and, now that my 
husband has been put to death for Christ's sake, if I wish to 
be married to a husband, I have 40,000 denarii, and gold 
ornaments, and much silver "and pearls and raiment, splendid 
and magnificent, besides the treasures of my husband ; and that 
these things have not been falsely spoken by me you know of 
yourselves ; and that to a woman there are no days of joy like 
the days of her marriage ; for from that time forward there are 
distresses and lamentation, at the birth of children, and when ^ 
she is deprived of them, and when she buries them ; but I from 
this day forward am free from them all. And on the days of 
my first marriage I was full of joy, and now, behold ! it is in 
the gladness of my heart that I have adorned my five virgin 
daughters for Christ. Look^ upon me, my companions, for, 
lo ! you have twice seen me,* at my first marriage, and at 
this second one ; for it was with my face exposed before you 
all that I went to my former bridegroom ; and now it is with 
my face exposed that I am going to Christ, my Lord and my 
God, and the Lord and God of my daughters, even as He in 
His love humbled Himself and came to us and suffered for 
our sake. 

" ' " Imitate * me and my daughters, and consider that I 
am not inferior to you in beauty ; and, behold ! I am going to 
Christ my Lord resplendent in that beauty, undefiled, as it is, 
by Jewish denial, that my beauty may be a witness before my 
Lord that it could not lead me astray to commit the sin of 
denial, and my gold and silver and all that I have may be 
witnesses that I did not love them as I loved my God. And 

1 Omit iS], with Cod. Rom., "Dion.," 14,650, and Cod. Borg. 14,641 agrees 
with 17,202. 

2 Insert O before ^2, with Cod. Rora., "Dion,," 14,650, and Cod. Borg. 14,641 
agrees with 17,202. 

^ Read -_i3q.u for ,iQ-»o, with Cod. Rom. 

* Insert - » ^ after —jAj], with Jo. Eph. 14,650 and Cod. Borg. have 
■ . ■yin.jg^O. "my face." 

" Read ■ ■'^ J'^l for .-jJsDjZIo, with Cod. Rom. and Jo. Eph, 

196 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

that rebellious king permitted me to deny and live. Far be it 
from me, my companions, far be it from me to deny Christ 
my God in whom I have believed ! and I and my daughters 
have been baptized in the name of the Trinity, and I worship 
His cross, and for His sake I and my daughters joyfully die, 
even as ^ He suffered in the fles'h for our sake. Behold ! I 
resign everything that is pleasant to the eyes and to the 
bodily senses on the earth and passes away, that I may go and 
receive from my Lord that which does not pass away. 
Blessed are you, my companions, if you will hear my words 
and know the truth and love Christ, for whose sake I and my 
daughters die. Then shall there be rest and peace to the 
people of God. The blood of my brothers and my sisters who 
have been slain for Christ shall be a wall to this city, if it 
hold fast to Christ my Lord. Behold,^ with my face exposed 
I pass away from this city, in which I have been as in a 
temporary tabernacle, that I may go with my daughters 
to an everlasting city, for it is there that I have betrothed 
them. Pray for me, my companions, that Christ my Lord 
may receive me and may pardon rne for having remained 
alive these three days after my husband."^ 

" ' And, when we heard a cry of lamentation from thie city, 
and those who had been sent came back and, when * asked, 
told us that, as we have written above, Rhumi had gone round 
the city, speaking to the women her companions and en- 
couraging them, and a cry of woe was being raised ^ in the 
city, then we were enraged with the guards, so much so that, 
had we not been persuaded not to do so, we would have put 
them to death for allowing her to act in this manner. But at 
last she came out from the city like a madwoman, with her 
head uncovered, accompanied by her daughters ; and she 
came and stood before me without shame, and holding 

' Omit O before ^|i with Cod. Rom., 14,650, Cod. Borg., and " Dion." 
2 Insert JOI before yO, with Cod. Rom., " Dion.,'' 14,650, and Cod. Borg. 
= The MS. has .-i;.^:!^!, not Ir^^it as L. prints. 

* Insert before ^O, with Cod. Rom., Jo. Eph., 14,650, and Cod.' Borg. 
^ Insert O before ZoOl, with Cod, Rom. and Jo. Eph. 


her daughters, who were attired as for marriage, by the hand. 
And she loosened the bands of her hair and turned them round 
with her hands, and stretched out her neck, and bowed her 
head, crying, " I am a Christian, and so are my daughters ; for 
Christ's sake we die. Cut off our heads, that we may go and 
find our brothers and our sisters and the father of my 
daughters." But after all this madness I exhorted her to 
deny Christ, and only to say that He was a man ; and she 
would not, but one of her daughters insulted us for saying 
this. And, since I saw ^ that it was not possible to induce her 
to deny Christ, for the sake of striking terror into the other 
Christians I gave orders, and they threw her to the ground, 
and her daughters' throats were cut, and their blood ran down 
into her mouth, and afterwards her head was cut off. And 
by Adonai I swear that I was much distressed because of her 
beauty and that of her daughters. Now the chief priests and 
I thought that in accordance with the purport of the laws chil- 
dren ought not to die because of parents; and I distributed them, 
both the boys and the girls, among the army to bring them up ; 
and, as soon as they are grown up, if they become Jews, they 
shall live ; and, if they confess Christ, they shall die. And these 
things ^ I have described and related to your Majesty, and I 
beg you not to suffer a Christian among your people, unless 
he denies and stands on your side. Now, as for the Jews also, 
my brethren, who are in your dominions, treat them kindly, 
my brother, and write and send me word what you wish me 
to send you in return for this.' 

"All these things were written to him after we had reached ^ 
the place : * and he assembled his army, and the epistle was 
read before him, and the envoy related how the Christians had 
been put to death and banished from the land of the 
Homerites. And Mundhir said to the Christians in his army, 
' Behold ! you have heard what has happened. Deny Christ ; 

' The MS. has O before' Aj].»j), which L. does not print. 

^ Insert O befor? ,^ 1 Ncjl, with Cod. Rom., Jo. Eph., 14,650, and Cod. Borg. 

3 The MS. has ,^ 1 S 1 VlZ], not ^^ 1 SI V)!], as L. prints. 

'' The MS. has ^i^AX, not ^ iVnA\ as L. prints. 

198 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

for I am no better than the other kings who have persecuted 
the Christians.' And a certain man of high position in his 
army, who was a Christian, was moved with zeal, and boldly 
said to the king, ' It was not in your time that we became 
Christians, that we should deny Christ.' And Mundhir was 
enraged, and said, ' Do you dare to speak in my presence ? ' 
And he said, ' Because of the fear of God I speak without 
fear, and no one shall stop me ; for my sword is no shorter 
than the swords of others, and I will not shrink ^ from fighting 
unto death.' And because of his birth, and because he was 
a great and distinguished man and valiant in war,^ Mundhir 
was silent. 

" And, when we returned to the camp of Nu'man in the 
first week of the fast, we found a Christian envoy,* who had 
been sent by the king of the Homerites before he died. 
This man, when he heard about the people who had been 
slaughtered by this Jewish tyrant, immediately hired a man 
from the camp of Nu'man, and sent him to Nagrin to bring 
him intelligence of what he saw and learned as to the events 
which had happened there. And, when he returned, he also in 
our presence related to the former Christian envoy the things 
which are recorded above, and that three hundred and forty of 
the magnates had been put to death,* who had come out to him 
from the city, and he swore to them, and perjured himself to 
them ; and as to their chief, Harith the son of Khanab, the 
husband of Rhumi, that the Jew insulted him, and said to him, 
' Trusting ° in Christ, you have rebelled against me ; but have 
mercy upon your old age and deny Him, or else you shall 
die with your companions.' And he answered and said to 
him, ' Truly I am distressed for all my companions and my 
brothers, because they would not listen to me when I told 

1 The MS. has i^-J-O, not ^j.^, as L. prints. 

' After U^r" '^^^"^ liS^nrD ]n I n\o, with Cod. Rom. and Jo. Eph. 

^ Read |j-.i1->] for lr^^^i> with Cod. Rom., Jo. Eph., 14,650, and Cod. Borg. 

* The MS. has before o\(^Z]>, which L. does not print. 
= Read A2ii2i.Zl for A^^^ZI, with Cod. Rom. 


them that you were lying, and said that we should not ^ go out 
to you nor trust your words, but fight with you. And I 
trusted in Christ that I should have overcome you, and the city 
would not have been taken, for there was nothing lacking in it. 
And you are not a king, but a perjurer: and I have myself 
seen many kings who are truthful and do not lie. And I will 
not deny Christ my God to become a Jew like you, and a liar. 
And now I know that He loves me ; and I have lived ^ long in 
the world, and have had children and grandchildren, and I 
have daughters ^ and many kinsmen, and I have won renown 
in wars by the power of Christ. And I am sure that, even as 
a vine which is pruned and gives forth much fruit, so shall our 
Christian people be multiplied in this city ; and the church, 
which has been burnt by you, shall increase and be built up, 
and Christianity shall have dominion and give commands to 
kings, and shall reign, and your Judaism shall be blotted out, 
and your kingdom shall pass away, and your dominion shall 
come to an end. Boast not that you have done anything, nor 
be puffed up * with glorying.' ^ 

" And, when the great Harith the son of Khanab, the 
venerable old man, had said these things, he turned round and 
said in a loud voice to his believing companions who sur- 
rounded him, ' Did you hear, my brothers, what I said to this 
Jew ? ' And they said, ' We heard everything which you 
said, father ours.' And again he said, ' Is it true or not ? ' 
And they cried, ' It is true.' And he said, ' If any man 
fears the sword and denies Christ, let him be separated from 
among us.' And they cried, ' Far be it from us ! Be of 

' Insert O before j_lJ, with Cod. Rom. and 14,641. "Dion." has jXo. 
2 The IVTS. has Aj_i_K», not Aj_k»-3, as L. prints. 

2 Read "j AiO for ] . 1 '"i, with Cod. Rom. and Jo. Eph. 

* _2_»JlZ. This word occurs again in i. 7 (p. 73, 1. 7, L.) and 9. 3 (p. 257, 
1. 14), where the meaning seems to be as above, not " vafer fuit," as Payne Smith. 
Cf. also 3. I (p. 123, 1. 12) and 3. 10 (p. 130, I. 22). In 7. 2 (p. 203, 1. 3) 
j_a_,j]iO, from the cognate i^Li>l|, seems to bear the same meaning. 

5 Read AjlOpjAiD for ZLi]j_.1jaAiD, with Cod. Rom. Jo. Eph. has 
Aj10)|LO, which gives the same sense. 

200 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

good cheer, father ours : we are all like you,^ and with you 
will we die for Christ's sake, and no one amongst us will 
remain after you.' And he cried and said, ' Ye Christian 
people ^ who surround me, and ye heathens and Jews, hear. If 
any man of my family and my relations and of my kin denies 
Christ and joins this Jew, he has no part with me, and he 
shall not inherit anything that is mine, but all that belongs to 
me shall go to the expenses of the church that shall be built. 
But, if any man of my kin does not deny Christ and survives 
me, he shall inherit my property ; but three fields, whichever 
the Church shall choose^ in my estate,* shall go to the 
expenses of the Church.'- And, when he had said these things, 
he turned to the king and said, ' You and everyone who 
denies Christ I deny. Behold 1 we stand before you.' And 
his companions were emboldened, and said, ' Behold ! Abraham 
the patriarch will look upon you and us with you ; but every- 
one who denies Christ and remains alive after you we deny.' 
And he ordered them to be taken to the gully called Wadiya, 
and their heads to be cut off and their bodies thrown into it. 
And they stretched out their hands to heaven and said, 
' Christ, our God, come to our aid, and put strength within us, 
and receive our souls. And may the blood of Thy bond- 
servants, which is shed for Thy sake, smell sweet unto Thee ; 
and make us worthy of Thy sight ; and confess us before Thy 
Father, as Thou promisedst. And may the church be built, 
and may a bishop be appointed in the stead of Paul, Thy 
bond-servant, whose bones they burnt.' And they bade one 
another farewell ; and the old man Harith made the sign 
over them, and he bowed his head and received the sword. 
And his companions rushed forward and crowded together 
and smeared themselves with his blood ; and they were all 

" And a child of three years old, whose mother was coming 

1 Read »^Zao1 for v^as], with Cod. Rom. 

^ Omit.^ before |VlV)S, and read w.i^ for CJl^, with Cod. Rom. and Jo. Eph. 
14,650 and Cod. Borg. also give the same sense. 

^ Read ( i *^ . . for » ""^ ■ t with Cod. Rom. ^ oiala,. 


out to be put to death and was holding him ^ with her hand, ran 
up (and it happened that, when he saw the king sitting clad 
in royal apparel, he left his mother and ran up and kissed the 
king on the knees) ; and the king took hold of him and began 
to caress him and to say to him, ' Which would you like, to 
go and die with your mother, or to stay with me ? ' The boy 
said to him, ' By our Lord, I would like to die with my 
mother ; and for this purpose I am going with my mother ; 
for she said to me, " Come, my son, let us go and die -for 
Christ's sake." But release me, that I may go to my mother, 
lest she die and I do not see her, because she says to me, 
" The king of the Jews has commanded that everyone who 
does not deny Christ shall die," and I will not deny Him.' 
And he said to him, ' Whence ^ do you know Christ ? ' The 
boy said to him, ' Every day I see Him in the church with my 
mother, whenever I go to the church.' And he said to him, 
' Do you love me, or your mother ? ' ^ And again he said to 
him, ' Do you love me, or Christ ? ' He said to him, ' Christ 
more than you.' And he said to him, ' Why did you come 
and kiss my knees ? ' The boy said to him, ' I thought that 
you were the Christian king, whom I used to see in the church, 
and I did not know that you were the Jew.' He said to him, 
' I will give you nuts and almonds and figs.' And the boy 
said, ' No, by Christ, I will not eat the Jews' nuts ; but let me 
go to my mother.' And he said to him,* ' Stay with me, and 
you shall be a son to me.' And the boy said, ' No, by Christ, 
I will not stay with you, because your smell is foul and fetid, 
and not sweet like my mother.' And the king said to those 
that were standing by, ' Look at this evil root, whom from 
his boyhood Christ has deceived so as to make him love 

' The MS. has OlA, not jX, as L. prints. 

2 The MS. has ]nV) >], not ] ^ -> -I. as L. prints. 

3 After ^«io(\ there follow in Jo. Eph., 14,650, and Cod. Borg. the words 
■ . ^1)^7 ir^J CT_\ tio], "He said to him, 'By our Lord, my mother.'" 
This answer (absent in both MSS.) seems to have been accidentally omitted by 
our author. 

* Insert CTLJi after ;io|o, with Cod. Rom., Jo. Eph., 14,650, and Cod. Borg. 

202 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

Him.' 1 And one of the magnates said to the boy, ' Come with 
me, and I will take you, that you may be a son to the queen.' 
And the boy said to him,^ ' You are smitten on the face. My 
mother, who takes me to the church, is more to me than the 
queen.' And, when he saw that they held him tight, he bit 
the king on the thigh, and said, ' Release me, you wicked 
Jew, that I may go to my mother and die with her.' And 
he gave him to one of the magnates, and said, ' Take care 
of him until he grows up ; and, if he denies Christ, he shall 
live; and, if not, he shall die.' And, while this man's slave 
was carrying him off, he struggled with his feet and cried 
to his mother, ' My mother, come and take me, that I 
may go with you to the church.' And, crying out^ before 
him, she said, ' Go, my son ; you are intrusted to Christ's 
care ; do not weep ; wait for me in the church in Christ's 
presence till I come.' And, when she had said this, they cut 
off her head. 

" And owing to this letter and the reports that have been 
received distress has fallen upon all the Christians here. And, 
in order that the things which have happened in the land of 
the Homerites may be made known to the pious believing 
bishops, and that they may celebrate the ■ memory of the 
illustrious martyrs, we have written * these things ; and we 
beg your affection to let them be made known at once to the 
archimandrites and bishops, and especially to the chief priest 
of Alexandria, in order that he may write to the king of the 
Ethiopians to come at once and help ^ the Homerites. But let 
the chief priests of the Jews in Tiberias also be arrested, and 
be compelled to send to this Jewish king, who has appeared, 
and tell him to put an end to the tribulation and persecution 
in the land of the Homerites." And so the rest, consisting of 

1 CTICLkkJ). So Jo. Eph. (not OT~i » »jj|?, as Assem. prints) and Mich. 

2 Insert 01_1 after j.LD|0, with Cod. Rom., Jo. Eph., 14,650, and Cod. Borg. 
= The MS. has l-«-^l> not ] » '\ , ., as L. prints. 

" Omit J before 1 '~'A'-i with Cod. Rom. and Jo. Eph. 
' Read 5,iJ for »!3oAn3, with Cod. Rom. and Jo. Eph. 


salutations to the chief priests and bishops of that time and 

the believing archimandrites, which are contained in the 



While Asclepius Bar Malohe,i the brother of Andrew and 
of Demosthenes the prefect,^ held the see of Edessa, having 
become bishop there after Paul, who showed an outward appear- 
ance of being orthodox,^ — (Now this man was ostentatious in his 
person, and polished. And, when he was a bishop in Edessa in 
the days of Flavian, before Asclepius, he drew up a written 
statement for him, which did not anathematise the Synod, 
because he had been * his synkellos : and this book came into 
the hands ■ of the holy Severus, who succeeded Flavian ; and, 
when this Paul went up to salute him, he gave it him, and in 
divine love forgave him his offence, that is, on his assurance 
that he was a believer ; and this wise man, who kept knowledge 
hidden, as it is written,^ did not expose him. And in the days 
of this king he at first firmly refused to accept the Synod, 
while the people of Edessa supported him, and even suffered 
loss and outrage on his account every day; however, on being 
banished to Euchaita he conformed, and returned to Edessa ; 
and after surviving a short time he was struck with shame 
and 'soon after died, and Asclepius succeeded him. And he 

^ /.e. " son of sailors. " - vTrapxos. 

^ Here the sentence breaks off, being taken up again lower down. 
* We should probably insert another JOOI in order to express the pluperfect, 
which is necessary for the sense, since a bishop could not be a synkellos. 
' Prov. X. 14. 

204 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

was a Nestorian ; but he was just in his deeds, and showed 
kindness to the tillers of the soil, and was gentle towards them, 
and was not greedy after bribes. In his body he was chaste, 
and in outward matters he did much good to his church, and 
paid its debts. But he was active and violent against the 
believers ; and many were banished by him and outraged with 
every kind of torture, or died under the hard treatment inflicted 
on them at the hands of Liberius, a Goth, a cruel governor, 
who was called " the bull-eater.") 

And,^ while affairs in Edessa were in this position, in the 
year eight hundred and thirty-six of the Greeks, the year three,^ 
on the twenty-second of April, the river Scirtus, which enters 
and passes through the city, rose and overflowed, and overthrew 
two sides of the wall, and drowned many persons ; for it was 
supper-time, and while their food was in their mouth the waters 
rushed in upon them, the flooded Scirtus. But this Asclepius 
escaped, and so did Liberius. And ^ the flow of the waters of 
Shiluho, which are in Jerusalem, in the southern quarter of it, 
was stopped for fifteen years ; and the temple of Solornon in 
the city of Heliopolis in the forest of Lebanon, as to which 
Scripture mentions that Solomon built it and stored arms in 
it * [was burnt].^ And to the south of it are three wonderful 
stones, on which nothing is built, but they stand by them- 
selves, joined and united together and touching one another ; 
and all three are distinguished by effigies, and they are very 
large. And in a mystical sense they are set, as it were, to 
represent the temple of the knowledge of the faith in the 
adorable Trinity, the calling of the nations by the preaching of 
the gospel tidings. There came down lightning from heaven, 
while the rain fell in small quantities : it struck the temple and 
reduced its stones to powder by the heat, and overthrew its 
pillars, and broke it to pieces and destroyed it. But the three 
stones ^ it did not touch, but they remain perfect ; and now a 

^ Mich. fol. l6i r, 164 f. 2 525. 

^ Mich. fol. 164. •■ I icings ix. 18, ig. 

^ The word ,.0^ has dropped out of the text, and must be supphed from the 
heading. The verb is also omitted in Mich, 

" The MS. has \si\o, not \2l\o, as L. prints. 


house of prayer has been built there, dedicated to Mary the 
Holy Virgin, the Theotokos. 

And a year afterwards, in the year four,^ Antioch was 
overthrown by a great earthquake of unwonted severity, 
and countless myriads of people perished in it. For it was 
summer time ; and, while they were feasting, and their food 
was in their mouth, their houses ^ were thrown down upon 
them, as upon the sons of Job in the proving of Satan. And 
Euphrasius was chief priest there, who succeeded Paul who 
was called " the Jew " ; and he fell into a boihng ^ cauldron of 
wax, and perished. 

And his successor * was Ephraim of Amida, who was Comes 
Orientis^ at that time. And this man in the authority which 
he exercised in various countries was a man just in his deeds, 
and was hot greedy after bribes, and was able and successful. 
And ^ for years he had been infected with the teaching of the 
Diphysites through some books which his mother Mako (?) 
had inherited from a certain Bar Shalumo of Constantia, of the 
school of Diodorus and Theodore ; and he corrupted and 
won over many persons, some by subtilty and moderation, 
and some by the threats of the king, who was fond of him, 
and paid attention to what he wrote to him. 

= The MS. has vOC71_ij_.jiD, not ,OaT_.i_.";iD, as L. prints. 

3 MS. ^^^Akj, not Vj'Zt^Ak), as L. 

•* Mich. fol. iS^v; Greg. JIf. E. i. p. 201. " Kl>)i,-r\% dvaroKiis. 

^ Two leaves in the MS. have here been transposed. I pass on from p. 244, 1. 26 
(Land) to p. 246, 1. 16. The intermediate portion has nothing to do with the subject 
of this chapter, but belongs to the next. This is also evident from a comparison with 
Michael and Gregory. 

2o6 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 



Kawad,^ king of the Persians, kept making pressing 
demands for the payment of the tribute of 500 lbs. weight 
of gold which was paid to him by the king of the Romans on 
account of the expense^ of the Persian force which guarded 
the gates facing the land of the Huns ; and for this reason he 
used from time to time to send his own Saracens into the 
territory of the Romans, and they plundered and carried oft 
captives. The Romans also invaded Arzanene, a country 
which belonged to him, and the district of Nisibis, and did 
damage. On this account negotiations * were held, and the 
two kings sent envoys, Justin sending Hypatius and the old 
man Farzman, and Kawad Asthebid ; ^ and much discussion 
took place on the frontier, which was reported to the two 
kings by their magnates through couriers ; ® and no peaceful 
message was sent by them, but they were hostile to one 

And Mundhir, the Saracen king, went up into the territory 
of Emesa and Apamea and the district of Antioch on two 
occasions ; and he carried off many people, and took them 
away with him. And four hundred virgins, who were sud- 

' Insert O before Ajj]. ^ Mich. fol. 164?-; Greg. p. 78. 

^ 6,vd\aiia. ' " rpiKTarov. 

° The name meaht is Spahpat ('A<nrf(3^5i;s), the title of the Persian commander- 
in-chief (Josh. Styl. 59, and Wright's note). Cf. also 9. 4. 


denly made captive ^ among the congregation in the church of 
Thomas the Apostle at Emesa (?),^ he sacrificed in one day 
in honour of 'Uzzai. Dodo also the anchorite, an old man, 
who was made captive among the congregation, saw it with 
his eyes, and told me. 

Now of the bishops of the East, and especially those in 
the jurisdiction of the learned Severus, some ^ were banished, 
and others withdrew to Alexandria and various other countries, 
walking in the footsteps of the chief priest, Severus the doctor. 
And Akhs'noyo * of Hierapolis had been sent into exile at 
Gangra ; and he was imprisoned over the kitchen in the 
hospital ^ there, and was suffocated ^ by the smoke, as he 
states in his epistle'; ^ and at last he died. And * Antoninus 
of Berrhcea, and Thomas of Damascus, and Thomas of Dara, 
and John of Constantia, and Thomas of Amrin (?),^ and Peter 
of Rhesaina, and Constantine of Laodicea, and Peter of 
Apamea, and others withdrew, and lived in hiding wherever 
it was convenient for them. But the see of Alexandria had 
not been disturbed, and Timothy i" succeeded Dioscorus ; and he 
did not withdraw nor accept the Synod in the days of Justin ; 
and the fugitive believing priests who sought refuge with 

1 Omit J before ■ . »-iA m] 

2 -mVn | } seems to be corrupt. There is no authority for the form -rriVn j for 
Emesa, and only a few lines above our author writes ^SOjo ; but it may be an 
accidental corruption. Mich, has tCDO 1 V) i? (Sij^ios ?), but a, name of a town 
seems to be required. 

' Mich. fol. 162 r. 

^]o. Eph. ap. Mich. fol. 161 », Greg. -ff". S. pp. 195, 197, from Philox. £p, ad 
Man. Sen. (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. I4,597. fol. 35 ff.). 

^ Read »Q_3_K»AiO for »QJj^LiD, with Greg, and Mich. So also Philoxenus 
himself (fol. 89 v). 
' Of. 7. 12. 
8 Cf. jo. Eph. I.e. 

» I cannot identify this place. ^ •^\ should stand for Amorium ; but, as 

it is mentioned among the Mesopotamian sees, this is out of the question. John of 

..Vn l is mentioned among the Mesopotamian bishops in Mich. fol. 161 v. In a 

chronicle of the ninth cent, in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 14.642, fol. 29 r, he is called 

Thomas of ^tSo], as here ; cf. Assem., B, 0. 2, Diss, de Monoph. Ixiii. 

10 Mich. fol. 162 r. 

2o8 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

him he received affectionately, and honoured and encouraged 

Now 1 Nonnus ^ of Seleucia, who came from Amida, had 
withdrawn to his own city and taken up his abode in his 
mansion there, because he came of a wealthy family, and had 
been governor^ and great steward of the Church in his city 
in the days of John the bishop, who came from the monastery 
of Karthamin, a righteous man. He in his days blessed 
Nonnus, and said, " I am confident in my Lord that you will 
die as bishop in my see." And the event was delayed, 
inasmuch as after the captivity of Amida the gracious Thomas 
became bishop there, who built Dara. He, when the couriers* 
came to seize him, in order that either he might accept the 
Synod or they might drive him out, fell ill ^ in accordance 
with his prayer, and died suddenly and at once while in pos- 
session of his see, the couriers being in the city ; and this 
caused many to marvel. Accordingly, in order that the 
blessing of John might be fulfilled, the men of Amida 
seized Nonnus and appointed him bishop there ; and he lived 
a few months, and departed.® 

And in succession to him again, in the presence of three 
bishops, as the canons require, Nonnus of Martyropolis, 
Arathu (?) of Ingila, and Aaron of Arsamosata, who were 
on the spot, they ordained Moro Bar Kustant, the governor,^ 
who was steward of the Church, an abstemious man and right- 
eous in his deeds, chaste and believing ; and he was fluent and 
practised in the Greek tongue, having been educated in the 
monastery of St. Thomas the Apostle of Seleucia, which in 
zealous faith had removed"^ and had settled at Kenneshre on 
the river Euphrates, and there been rebuilt ^ by John the 

1 Jo. Eph. ap. " Dion." (Assem., B. 0. 2, pp. 48, 49) ; Mich. I.e. 
^ Read |JQJ for (joQJ. The former form occurs twice lower down. 
■* Tjyefitijv. * ^epeddpLoi, 

''Logically, we require JOTj^O, "ill," for |j(Tl5aO, "illness"; but the 
meaning is clear. 

^ At this point we go back to fol. 140 (see p. 205, note 6). 
' The MS. has AaJL»J, not A i Iff), as L. prints. 
8 Read Aj_UdZ1 for ti.j.^L]. 


archimandrite, a learned man, who was at that time an ex- 
pleader (?),! a native of Edessa, the son of Aphthonia.^ And 
this Moro had been trained up in all kinds of right instruction 
and mental excellence from his boyhood by Sh'muni and 
Morutho, his grave, chaste, and believing sisters.* And after 
remaining a short time in his see he was banished to Petra, 
and from Petra to Alexandria ; and he stayed there for a 
time, and formed a library there containing many admirable 
books ; and in them there is abundance of great profit * for 
those who love instruction, the discerning and studious. These 
were transferred to the treasury of the Church of Amida after 
the man's death. And in every matter which I record, in 
order not to cause annoyance by blaming one man or praising 
another, I have related whatever the truth of the matter is 
without any falsehood. However, the man progressed more 
and more in reading in Alexandria, and there he fell asleep. 
And his body was conveyed by his sisters, who were with 
him and ministered to him, comforting him in affliction, as it 
is written,^ and laid in his own Martyrs' Chapel in the village 
of Beth Shuro.^ And as a record of the eloquent expression 
of his love of instruction I will set down at the end of this 
Book the prologue composed by him in the Greek tongue 
and inserted in his Tetreuangelion. 

Now ' the believing cloistered monks in the East had also, 
moreover, been expelled and had withdrawn from the year 
three until the year nine,^ one week, that is, of years, from 
their cloisters in the district of Antioch and in Euphratesia, 
and also in Osrhoene and Mesopotamia. And the cloister of 
Thomas at Seleucia with the brotherhood came to Kenneshre 

1 . no. in n . ^ •^l- This seems to represent Airb Slko-vikCov , as in 7. 10 ; but 
the meaning does not suit this passage very well. 

2 Not Aphthonius ; see John's life in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 12,174, fol. 84. 

3 The MS. has OiZojjI, not ]Z.Qjol, as L. prints. 
* The MS. has J before IjjZq-., not O, as L. prints. 

= 2 Cor. i. 4 (?) ; i Thess. iii. 7 (?). 

In Jo. Eph. (Land, Anecd. Syr. ii. p. no, 1. 3) " Beth Shur'o." " Dion." "in 
the temple of Beth Shilo." 

7 Mich. fol. 163. * 525-531- 


2IO THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

on the Euphrates, and was there settled by the learned John 
the archimandrite, the son of Aphthonia. And Cyrus, 
archimandrite of the Syrians in Antioch, was expelled, 
together with the brotherhood of the monastery ^ of Thel 
'Addo, and the monastery of Romanus,^ and Simeon of L'gino, 
and Ignatius, archimandrite of the monastery of 'Akibo at 
Chalcis, and the monastery of S'nun, and John, archimandrite 
of Khafro d'Birtho,^ and the monastery of my lord Bassus, and 
John of the Orientals, and the monks of the Arches, and the 
monastery of Magnus (?),* and Sergius of the Quarry, and 
Thomas of the house of Natsih, and Isaac of the house of 
"bedyeshu', and the cloisters of 'Arab ^ in Mesopotamia and 
Izlo and Beth Gaugal, and five metropolitan cloisters in Amida, 
Hananyo and Abraham called " the humble," a worker of 
miracles, and Daniel, visitor of the cloister of Edessa, and 
Elijah of the house of Ishokuni, and Simai and Cosmas 
of the foundation of John the Anzetenian,^ and Maron of the 
Orientals, and Solomon of the house of my lord Samuel, 
and Cyrus of Sugo, and the monks of the Watch-tower and 
of Thiri, near Rhesaina. 

Now for this reason four or five communities of hermits 
also settled in the desert : at Ramsho Mori, a chaste man 
and of honourable character; and at Natfo Sergius, a plain 
and simple man, and after him Antony, a mild and peaceful 
man, and that kindly old man Elijah, our countryman, and 
Simeon of Chalcis, and Sergius, who has now rebuilt 
Sodakthe (?), and the community on the Harmosho (?),'^ the 

1 Mich. " was expelled together with the brotherhood, and the monks of the 
monastery ..." 

^ Of O;.^) I can make nothing, and take the meaning from Mich. (}_»J 
.CDQj]S005). Read either |i_»> or Aj_D>. Dr. Hamilton proposes i-i^ii}), 
" that of my lord Romanus." 

3 Read Ui-^? li^^ fo^ 1 AjS jl^212. Cf. Wright, C. B. M. pp. 605, 755, etc. ; 
Mich. Ol; » nS") ^21D. 

^ Text, " Magos " ; so Mich. 

5 The last letter of this word, left blank by L. , is »2. 

" See bk. 7, ch. 4 (p. 156, note 2). 

'Or, " near Harmosho." I find no trace of either of these names, and suspect 
both to be corrupt. Mich, omits both, writing merely "Sergius, and the monastery 
. . . Hauro." 


monastery founded by my lord John at Hauro.^ And 
Simeon, archimandrite of the monastery of my lord Isaac 
at Gabbula, which is now polluted ^ with the heresy of Julian 
the Phantasiast, was at that time zealous in the faith, he and 
those who were with him ; and Bar Hakino of the house of 
my lord Hanino, a worker of miracles, was similarly moved 
with zeal, insomuch as to go up to the royal city and in 
his own person admonish and reprove the king, although he 
was not received ;~ and this is witnessed by Akhs'noyo's 
epistle of thanks which he wrote to him from Gangra ; and 
similarly with the monks of the house of my lord Zakhkhai 
at Callinicus, and of the foundation of my lord Abbo, and of 
Beth R'kum. 

And so the desert was at peace, and was abundantly 
supplied with a population of believers who lived in it, and 
fresh ones who were every day added to them and aided in 
swelling the numbers of their brethren, some from a desire to 
visit their brethren out of Christian love, and others again 
because they were being driven from country to country by 
the bishops in the cities. And there grew up, as it were, a 
commonwealth^ of illustrious and believing priests, and a 
tranquil brotherhood with them ; and they were united in love 
and abounded in mutual affection, and they were beloved and 
acceptable in the sight of everyone ; and nothing was lacking, 
for the honoured heads of the corporation, which is composed 
of all the members of the body, accompanied them, the pious 
John of Constantia, a religious and ascetic man, (he would 
not even partake of the desirable bread, " the foundation 
of the life of man," * and so he progressed in the reading of 
the Scriptures and became a gnostic and a theoretic ; * for 
he used to raise his understanding upwards by the study of 
spiritual things for the space of three hours, marvelling and 
meditating on the wisdom of the works of God ; and for three 
hours more, from the sixth to the ninth, he continued in joy 

' At this point we return to fol. 142. 

2 Mich, has the masculine, " who is now polluted." 

■> iroXiTda. * Sir. xxix. 21. 

' I.e. learned in the inner or allegorical meaning. 

212 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

and peace with every man, in intercourse with those who 
came to him upon necessary business) — and Thomas of Dara 
again, while undergoing many labours, conversed much upon 

Now in the year nine,i in the fifth year of the reign of this 
serene king, Justinian, the king of our day, being moved by 
God our Lord, who had foreknowledge of his deeds, he distri- 
buted justice, and ordered that all orders should return from 
exile and from the countries to which they had withdrawn in 
zeal for the faith, while he summoned the believing bishops to 
come up to him. And, after this had happened in the year nine, 
in the year ten ^ a multitude of Huns entered the Roman 
territory and massacred those whom they found outside the 
cities ; and they crossed the river Euphrates, and advanced as 
far as the district of Antioch. Accordingly, under the direc- 
tion of God, as he said, " My people, enter thou into thy 
chambers, and hide thyself until My indignation be overpast," ^ 
and by order of the king, the believers in the East again 
retired into hiding. But John the hermit of Anastasia, a man 
of honourable character, had been killed in the desert by the 
Huns ; but Simeon the hermit, who was called " the horned," 
had not been hurt. 



The chief priests * in the days of Justin are as follows : — 
Of Rome, Hormisda ; of Alexandria, Timothy ; of Jerusalem, 
Peter, who succeeded John ; and of Antioch, Paul the Jew, 
who was driven out, and after him Euphrasius, who was 

1 531. ^ S3I-2. 

3 Isa. xxvi. 20. ■* Cf. Mich. fol. 167 v. 


burnt in the earthquake of Antioch in the year four/ and after 
him was Ephraim of Amida ; of Constantinople, Epiphanius. 
There is comprised in this space of time^ a space of nine 



" In order * to gather together the sense of a long treatise a 
man stores up a knowledge of these things succinctly under a 
few heads in his mind and memory* and understanding. 
And we may understand these things from the heads ^ which 
are set down in this book ; and these again cause the inner 
meaning ''' of all that is in them to pass rapidly and succinctly 
into the mind, when heard and considered^ in due order. 
For, if a man gathers together the record of the Gospels, he 
will learn from it that God became incarnate, and that divine* 
as well as human properties are His, by which He made^" the 


' We should probably read i^;-*, " book," for P-^l. 

' This chapter is contained in Cod. Rom., where the heading is, " The prologue 
composed concisely under heads by the holy Moro, bishop of Amida, a man 
deserving of blessed memory, upon the Gospel and the dispensation of Christ in the 
flesh."— Cf. p. 221. 

* Mich. fol. 162 ff. 

= The MS. has »i3, not J, as L. prints, before ]jjOiai. 

^ The MS. has V»J, not •_>-•', as L. prints. 

8 Instead of _.j5A!sD, Cod. Rom. has —oJALD, "repeated." Mich, agrees 
with Cod. Brit. 

" After "JA . \ .^ insert 'JAloT^I, with Cod. Rom. So Mich. 
^° Cod. Rom. seems to have . *^'^^. not ; '"i '^^^ as Mai prints ; and, as Mich, 
also hfis "made," this must be the right word. The participle, however, cannot 
here stand alone, so that we must either read r^^ or suppose (OOI to have 
dropped out. 

214 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

foundations of the world, which at His second coming He will 
make clearly to appear. And so everyone who examines 
these things severally will find first a notice of the census before 
His Incarnation, and then next the birth of John the Baptist 
for a testimony to the God of Israel, which happened in 
accordance with the previous annunciation of the angel ; and 
he will find that the supernatural birth of Jesus, who is God, 
took place in the Virgin Mary and from her, and that every 
man has his beginning from the earth according to the saying 
of the Baptist,^ but He who is not from the earth is Jesus from 

" Now the testimonies to His Incarnation mentioned ^ in the 
book of the Gospel are thpse spoken in the spirit by Elizabeth 
and by the angel to the Virgin and Joseph and the shepherds 
at the annunciation of His birth by the assembly of watching 
angels ; and again the prophecy of Zachariah, and the rising of 
the star, which betokened ^ the indestructible reign of the Son 
of God, who was born ; and the prophecy of Simeon the priest 
and Anna about the coming of Christ for the salvation of the 
world and of Israel ; and besides these also the proclamation of 
the Baptist, who testified that he was from earth and our 
Saviour from heaven. And, further, in the Gospel-record a 
man will understand His divine dispensation, which was 
effected by infinite wisdom, and not through book-wisdom 
and the pursuit of learning ; and His power of performing 
wonderful mighty works in deed and word, and His knowledge 
about everything, and that He did no sin ; and again that it 
was at His own pleasure to suffer in His own time and not to 
suffer when it was not time ; and that it was in His power * to 
destroy sufferings by His voluntary sufferings in the body, and 
to do away death by His Resurrection and to ascend to heaven. 
And the record plainly states that He became incarnate of 
the Virgin in flesh endowed with a soul and an intellect ; it 
states His nine months' human conception, His natural and 

'John iii. 31. 

2 Read vt-«-5^1 for vj^l. with Cod. Rom. 

* Insert J before wiCLkj, with Cod. Rom. 

* Cod. Rom., " that it is now in His power.'' 


supernatural 1 birth, and that He was wrapped in swaddling- 
clothes and sucked milk, and was also circumcised according to 
law ; and, further, that He fled before the threats of Herod into 
Egypt, carried by His mother, and that He came up from 
Egypt for the renovation of Israel and after the manner of 
Israel ; and again,^ that He increased in stature, and was 
subject to His mother and to Joseph her husband, and was 
baptized with water by John to signify the renovating birth of 
mankind, which is in him renewed in a iigure, because ^ His 
baptism bestowed upon us the holy birth of the Spirit ; and He 
was tempted by the devil as a man, but as God easily over- 
came the tempter in the contest and the argument ; and He 
was ministered to by angels ; and He gave peace to our race 
by restoring us to Paradise ; further. He associated with the 
disciples in human fashion, and withdrew at one time from the 
persecutors, and hungered * and thirsted ^ and was weary ; but 
He showed that He did not submit to these things merely from 
the necessity of nature ^ in human fashion, as though He were 
not God,'' by the fact that it is testified that He verily fasted 
forty days and was afterwards hungry (in a similar ma*iner He 
also slept ; but, because He was on a mountain in quiet. He 
kept watch in prayer, and this prayer He made to the Father 
in human fashion on behalf of men ; but on the sea and in the 
storm He slept in the ship for the instruction of the disciples, 
that they might believe that it is He who stills the storms of 
the- seas and the sound of their waves) ; and, further, that, when 
they sought to throw Him down from the brov/ of the hill they 
could not do so, but, while* they stood all around Him, He 
passed through the midst of them and went His way ; and, 

' Insert O before \SsN, with Cod. Rom. 
1 ^ Insert O before tCioL, with Cod. Rom. 

3 Insert J after Vta^SO, with Cod. Rom. 
^ Read ^<^n for ^, with Cod. Rom. 
' Insert O before .-aOl-f , with Cod. Rom. 

« After l^j-^ insert 1j.j-S;, with Cod. Rom. So. Mich. 
' Insert ]] before ^CJIoAj], with Cod. Rom. So Mich. 
8 Read ,£)> for O, with Cod. Rom. So Mich. (Aj_ki). 

2i6 THE CHRONICLE OF [book viii. 

when wounded by the lance on the Cross, His life did not pass 
away of necessity, but He bowed His head and gave up the 
ghost ; and in every respect divine and human qualities are 
His. But the reforms which Christ effected in the world are 
His rebuke of the deceiver, and the demons which He drove 
out, and the fiends which He ejected, and the sore diseases 
which He healed, and the dead which He raised, and the 
divers temptations which He thrust away, and certain passions 
which He brought to naught ; which reforms were types and 
figures of the future world, which shall be far removed from 
evil, the world which is looked for by us with hope and faith 
and love. And the teaching of our Saviour draws men away 
from the passion ^ of the love of money and the love of glory 
and pleasure, and raises them up that they may serve God in 
uprightness of will." 

Now there was inserted in the Gospel of the holy Moro the 
bishop, in the eighty-ninth canon, a chapter which is related only 
by John in his Gospel, and is not found in other manuscripts, 
a sectidh running thus : " It happened ^ one day, while Jesus 
was teaching, they brought Him a woman who had been found * 
to be with child of adultery, and told Him about her. And 
Jesus said to them (since as God He knew their shameful 
passions and also their deeds), ' What does He command * in 
the law?' And they said to Him, 'That at the mouth of 
two or three witnesses she should be stoned.' But He 
answered and said to them, ' In accordance with the law, 
whoever is pure and free from these sinful passions, and can 
bear witness with confidence and authority, as being under no 
blame in respect of this sin, let him bear witness against her, 
and let him first throw ^ a stone at her, and then those that 
are after him, and she shall be stoned.' But they, because 

1 Insert J |.a-Ki before ALDjoJ, with Cod. Rom. So Mich. 

2 John viii. i-ii. 

' Read AjajA.»1 for oj^A.*!, with Cod. Rom. 
■* Cod. Rom., like Cod. Brit., has r^£i, not r-i-CS), as Mai prints. 
" Read |, ■ 1 for \r^, with Cod. Rom. L. prints |i-», but there is no point 
either above or below the letter in the MS. 


they were subject to condemnation and blameworthy^ in 
respect of this sinful ^ passion, went out one by one from 
before Him and left the woman. And, when they had gone, 
Jesus looked upon the ground and, writing in the dust there, 
said to the woman, ' They who brought thee here and wished 
to bear witness against thee, having understood what I said to 
them, which thou hast heard, have left thee and departed. 
Do thou also, therefore, go thy way, and commit not this sin 
again.' " 

' Cod. Rom. has - ^ ■. '^^ as Cod. Brit., not ■ \ ■ ^ »■ ^ as Mai prints. 
2 Read ^7ni;»~ivAVo for ]LcLi, •") SAk?, with Cod. Rom. The reading of 
Cod. Brit, is doubtful. 


Also this ninth Book, concerning the reign of Justinian, states 
how he became Anti-Cffisar^ on the fifth day of the week in 
the last week of the fast ; and, after he had governed for three 
months in conjunction with Justin his uncle, who died at the 
end of July, when the year five was now ending,^ this Justinian 
became emperor,^ in the year eight hundred and thirty-eight of 
the Greeks, in the three hundred and twenty-seventh Olympiad. 
And the events which happened during his reign down to the 
year fifteen,* a space of ten years, which is contained in the 
sections below, are set down in this ninth Book, consisting of 
twenty-six chapters. Behold ! they are set down below, and 
are as follows : — 

The first chapter of the ninth Book deals with the fight- 
ing which went on in the summer of the year five before Nisibis 
and Thebetha, a Persian fortress. 

The second chapter of the Book treats of the battle which 
was fought in the desert of Thannuris. 

The third chapter of the Book gives an account of the 
battle which was fought before the city of Dara on the frontier. 

The fourth chapter of the Book gives information about 
the battle which was fought on the Euphrates in the year nine. 

The fifth chapter tells of Gadar the Kadisene, a Persian 
general, how he was killed ; and Izdegerd, who was with him, 
a nephew of the Ptehasha of Arzanene, was taken prisoner. 

The sixth chapter deals with the battle which was fought 
before Martyropolis on the frontier, and the large numbers 

' Cf. bk. 6, ch. 6. 2 ^26-7. 

' aiiTOKpirup. * 537. 



of Huns who invaded the territory of the Romans in the 
year ten. 

The seventh chapter explains how in the summer of 
the year eleven peace was made between the Romans and the 
Persians by the ambassadors, Rufinus and Hermogenes, the. 
master of the offices. 

The eighth chapter of the ninth Book treats of the 
Samaritans who rebelled and set up a tyrant of their own in 
the country of Palestine. 

The ninth chapter of the Book, concerning the heresy of 
Julian the Phantasiast, bishop of the city of Halicarnassus,^ 
how it appeared. 

The tenth chapter sets forth the first epistle of Julian to 
Severus, with a question about the body of Christ our God. 

The eleventh chapter of the Book treats of the answer 
to the epistle of Julian, which the doctor Severus, the chief 
priest, wrote to him. 

The twelfth chapter of the Book imparts information about 
the second epistle of Julian,^ which he wrote to Severus. 

The thirteenth chapter tells of the answer made by Severus 
the patriarch to this second epistle of Julian. 

The fourteenth chapter of the Book treats of the riot which 
took place in the royal city, and describes how Hypatius and 
Pompeius were put to death, and large numbers of the people 
were massacred in the circus in the year ten. 

The fifteenth chapter treats of the request contained in 
the petition which the believing bishops who had been 
summoned from exile to the royal city presented to King 
Justinian concerning their faith. 

The sixteenth chapter of the ninth Book sets forth the 
defence made by Severus the chief priest in his epistle to King 
Justinian, refusing to come, when summoned by him to the 
royal city. 

The seventeenth chapter of the ninth Book treats of 
Carthage, the chief city of the country of Africa, how it was 

' The text has "Alexandria," but Halicarnassus is obviously meant, as in the 
heading of the chapter below. 

2 Read ]^ . \n . for ]l g^Xo-.. 

220 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

taken by Belisarius the general and a Roman army, and made 
subject to King Justinian. 

The eighteenth chapter of the ninth Book deals with 
Rome and Naples in the country of Italy, and how they were 
taken by Belisarius the general and a Roman army. 

The nineteenth chapter of the ninth Book again treats 
of Severus the patriarch, who went up ^ to the royal city and 
appeared before the king, and was received in the palace, and 
remained there till the end of the month of March in the year 
fourteen, and then departed. 

The twentieth chapter of the ninth Book treats of the 
epistle of Severus the patriarch to the order of priests and the 
society of monks in the East, dealing with his expulsion from 
the royal city. 

The twenty-first [chapter] ^ of the ninth Book sets forth 
the canonical epistle of union and concord which was sent 
by Anthimus, chief priest of the royal city, to Severus the 

The twenty-second chapter of the ninth Book treats of 
the epistle of concord and union canonically sent by Severus 
in answer to Anthimus, chief priest of Constantinople, the 
royal city. 

The twenty-third chapter of the ninth Book introduces 
the epistle of concord and union which was canonically sent 
by Severus to Theodosius of Alexandria. 

The twenty-fourth chapter of the ninth Book treats further 
of the canonical epistle of union and concord which was sent 
by Theodosius the patriarch in answer to Severus the doctor. 

The twenty-fifth chapter of the ninth Book gives informa- 
tion about the canonical epistle of concord which was sent by 
Anthimus, chief priest of the royal city, to Theodosius, patriarch 
of the great city of Alexandria. 

The twenty-sixth chapter of the ninth Book records ^ 
the answer to the epistle, which was canonically sent by 

'- The MS. has ..jAi.Z.'l, not ^\^], as L. 

'^ The word | ■ i3 seems to have dropped out of the text. 

» For 1jai:iLD read ]jC71Sd or JCTLi^D. 


Theodosius, archbishop of Alexandria, to Anthimus, chief 
priest of the royal city, in concord and brotherhood. 

There is inserted also in it, at the end of this ninth Book, 
the prologue given above,^ which was composed concisely 
under heads by the holy Moro, bishop of Amida, a man 
deserving of blessed memory, upon the Gospel and the dis- 
pensation of Christ in the flesh, and also a story which is 
contained in the eighty-ninth canon, taken from the Gospel of 
John and mentioned ^ by him alone, about a woman with child 
by adultery, who was brought to Him by the Jewish doctors.^ 



In the year five,* when Justin was king, that old man of 
whom we related above ^ that he came from the country of 
Illyricum, he made his sister's son, who was general,^ Anti- 
Cassar;'' and Justinian became Anti-Caesar on the fifth day of 
the week in the last week of the fast. And,^ after he had 
governed for three months, his uncle died, at the end of July, 
and he became emperor,^ in the year eight hundred and thirty- 
eight of the Greeks,!" [^ ^^g three hundred and twenty-seventh 
Olympiad. And^^ as to his own Castra Mauriana he gave orders, 
and a great city was built, and privileges'^ were granted to it, 
and a military force was also stationed in it ; and water was 
brought into it from a distance,'^ because its own water was bad. 

' Insert J before ^ Without this the meaning will be, "there is inserted 
above," which seems contradictory. 

' Read ]i~tlD] for ^J-k?]. 

^ This seems to refer to the MS. from which the scribe was copying, as the 
prologue of Moro is not inserted at this place in our MS. 

* 527. ' Bk. 7, ch. 14 ; 8, I. ^ <rTpaTiiy6s. 

' See bk. 6, ch. 6. * Mich. fol. 167 z/, 168 r ; Greg. p. 78. 

^ airroKpiTup. '" 527- " Mich. fol. 1 62?-. 

J' Mich. fol. 161 r. 

22 2 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

And, behold ! from the beginning of his reign down to this 
day he has indeed devoted attention to building, refounding ^ 
cities in various countries, and repairing walls in various places 
for the protection of his dominions. 

But, since the Persians and the Romans were at enmity 
with one another in those times, while Timus^ (?), the master 
of the soldiers,^ was duke on the frontier, the army with its 
officers was mustered round him to fight against Nisibis ; and 
they fought, but could not take it, and retired thence to the 
fortress of Thebetha ; and the army came close up to the 
wall and made a breach in it ; and it was the hottest part 
of the summer. And through some cause or other they 
were prevented from effecting their purpose, and did not get 
possession of the fortress, which was about fifteen parasangs 
from Dara. And the army was ordered to return to Dara ; 
and, because they greedily ate honey and the flesh * of large 
numbers of swine, some of the infantry^ died of thirst on the 
march and were lost to the army, and others threw themselves 
into the wells of the desert and were drowned, and the rest 
were burnt up by the heat on the march, but the cavalry 
reached Dara; .and so the army was broken up. 



During the lifetime of Justin ^ the king, who had learned 
that Thannuris was a convenient place for a city to be built 
as a place of refuge in the desert, and for a military force to 
be stationed to protect 'Arab against the marauding bands of 

' Read ZrJ^kJ for Zr-Kt. 

2 Probably Timostratus (Wright, C. B. M. p. 559). -CCl^^^ might well fall 
out before . m 1 \)\l-J^S^. 

* Insert O before ^£Q£3J. ^ Insert ,QJ01 after ] . V . .^ 

" The text has "Justinian," but clearly Justin must be meant. ^ 


Saracens, Thomas the silentiary, a native of Aphphadana, had 
been sent to build such a city. And, when he had made but 
inconsiderable progress, then the works which had begun to be 
carried out were destroyed by the Saracens and Kadisenes 
from Singara and Thebetha. Now, because the Romans, as 
we have stated above, had taken the field and fought against 
Nisibis and Thebetha, therefore afterwards ^ the Persians also 
similarly came and made an entrenchment (?) ^ in the desert of 
Thannuris. And, Duke Timus, the master of the soldiers,^ 
having died, Belisarius had succeeded him ; and he was not 
greedy after bribes, and was kind to the peasants, and did not 
allow the army to injure them. For he was accompanied by 
Solomon, a eunuch from the fortress of Edribath (?) ; * and he 
was an astute man, and well-versed in the affairs of the world ; 
and he had been notary to Felicissimus the duke, and had 
been attached to the other governors ; and he had gained 
cunning through experience of difficulties. 

Accordingly, a Roman army was mustered for the pur- 
pose of marching into the desert of Thannuris against the 
Persians under the leadership of Belisarius, Cutzes,^ the brother 
of Butzes, Basil, Vincent, and other commanders, and Atafar, 
the chief of the Saracens. And, when the Persians heard of 
it, they devised a stratagem, and dug several ditches among 
their trenches,^ and concealed them (?) ^ all round outside by 
triangular ^ stakes of wood, and left several openings. And, 
when the Roman army came up, they did not perceive the 
Persians' deceitful stratagem in time, but the generals entered 
the Persian entrenchment* at full speed, and, falling into the pits, 
were taken prisoners, and Cutzes was killed. And of the Roman 
army those who were mounted ® turned back and returned in 

1 Read _35As for JA^. ^ ]mnmg^ (?). » UTpaTrjKdTTis. 

* Perhaps Hieriphthum (Gelzer, Geo. Cypr. p. 159). 

5 Insert O before . m 1 m.^aj3. * i^baaa.. 

1 Q.2L1L»|. Brockelmann quoting this passage gives doubtfully " erexit" ; but, 
as i£1dA3"| = was wrapped up ("involutus est," Brock.), I take it as above. In 
Smith's Thesaurus it is proposed to read Q.2LQJ ], but this could only mean " beat " 
or "dashed." 

8 rpiyoivos. ' Read \»iSi for | ■ i ', '^ . 

224 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

flight to Dara with Belisarius ; but the infantry, who did not 
escape, were killed and taken captive. And Atafar, the Saracen 
king, during his flight was struck (?) ^ from a short distance off, 
and perished ; and he was a warlike and an able man, and he 
had had much experience in the use of Roman arms, and in 
various places had won distinction and renown in war. 



The Persians were proud and puffed up ^ and boastful ; 
and, indeed, the Mihran and the marzbans assembled an army 
and came against Dara and encamped at Ammodis, being 
fully confident in the expectation of taking the. city, because 
the Roman army had been diminished by their sword. And 
their cavalry and infantry approached and came up on the 
south side of the city, intending to encompass it all round for 
the purpose of blockading it ; but a Roman force met them 
by the help of our Lord, who chastises but does not utterly 
deliver over unto death. For a certain Sunica, a general, 
who was a Hun,* and, having taken refuge with the Romans, 
had been baptized, and Simuth(?),* a Roman tribune,^ and 
their armour-bearers with twenty men each drove the whole 
Persian army away from the city several times, passing boldly 
and vigorously from one part of the field to another, and 
cutting men down right and left with the lance. And they were 
practised in the use of the sword ; and their cry was loud 
and terrific, and made them appear terrible to the Persians, so 

' The MS. seems to have lOTjZ.], not w«OTJZ|, as L. prints. The word is a 
rare one, and generally means " to be shaken." 

2 The MS. has Q-1.2Lj>1 |, not aa..a-i)l], as L. prints. For the meaning of 
the word see p. 199, note 4. 

' Insert 5 before ] ■ mm 

' Perhaps the "Simas" of Procopius (Bell. Pers. i. 13). /oVri . nn is probably 
corrupt, the scribe having taken it for a common noun. 

° XMapxos. 


that they fell before them : and two of their leaders were killed, 
besides no small number of horsemen ; while of the faige, 
who are the Persian infantry, many were cut down and hurled 
back by the Helurians,i under Butzes, to the east of the city. 

And the Persians, when they saw how great the number 
of the dead was, acted craftily, and sent to Nisibis, asking 
them to bring as many baggage-animals as possible and come 
at once to Dara, and take as much spoil as they could. And, 
when large numbers came, they laded them with the bodies, of 
their slain, and then they returned in shame. However, the 
rest of the Persian force invaded ^ Roman 'Arab, and burned 
it with fire. 



The Persians, having learned wisdom by experience 
through the great injury which they had suffered from the 
attacks of the Romans whenever they approached the city 
and went out against them, went up into the desert portion of 
the Roman territory and encamped on the Euphrates ; and 
according to their usual practice they made a trench.* And 
Belisarius at the head of a Roman ^ force and tribunes ^ came 
up against them to battle ; and they arrived in the last week 
of the fast. And the Persians were found to be as a little 
flock, and so they appeared in their eyes : and Asthebid '' their 
commander was afraid of them, and those who were with him ; 
and he sent ^ to the Romans, asking them to respect the feast, 

^ Read pO \ ■ for |)Q_^ ; cf. Proc. I.e. The Herulians, whom the Greeks 
frequently called "BXoupoi, are meant. 

2 The MS. has "; '^ V. not Oliii, as L. prints. = 531. ■* 0o(r(ra. 

5 The MS. has ]j-iD0C7IJ, not V*-^<3T. as L. prints. " x'X£a/)xoi. 

' The MS. has j^Acd"|, not-^oAcol, as L. prints. See bk. S, ch. 5 (p. 206, 

note 5). 

8 Mich. fol. 168?-; Greg. pp. 78, 79- 


2 26 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

" for the sake of the Nazarenes and Jews who are in the army 
that is with me, and for the sake of yourselves, who are 
Christians." And, when Belisarius the general ^ had con- 
sidered this, he was willing to agree ; but the commanders 
murmured greatly, and would not consent to wait and respect 
the day. And, when they went out to battle on the eve of 
the first day of the week, the day of unleavened bread, it was 
a cold day, with the wind in the face of the Romans ; and 
they showed themselves feeble, and turned and fled before the 
Persian attack ; and many fell into the Euphrates and were 
drowned, and others were killed ; but Belisarius escaped, 
while the nephew ^ of Butzes was taken prisoner (for he 
himself was ill at Amida, and did not go to the battle, but 
sent his army to Abgersatum under Domitziolus), and went 
down to Persia, but eventually returned : and how this hap- 
pened I will relate in this next * chapter. 



The Romans, when Belisarius was duke, in the year 
five,* having been prevented from building Thannuris on the 
frontier, wished to make a city at Melebasa ; wherefore ^ 
Gadar the Kadisene was sent with an army by Kawad ; and 
he prevented the Romans from effecting their purpose, and put 
them to flight in a battle which he fought with them on the 
hill of Melebasa. And he was high in the confidence of Kawad, 

^ (TTpaTTj-yis. ^ Syr. " sister's son." 

^ The MS. has A*jA^, not AjoZ, as L. prints. 

" 527- 

' Read ^Q-i.^ID for ^0,0, as proposed by Prof. Noldeke [Zeiisc&r. Deutsch. 

Morgenldnd. Gesellsch. vol. xxxiii. p. 159, note i). 


and had been stationed with an army to guard the frontier 
eastwards from Melebasa in the country of Arzanene as far as 
Martyropolis. And this man uttered many boasts and vain 
words against the Romans, and blasphemed like Rab Shakeh, 
who was sent by Sennacherib. And he brought about seven 
hundred armed cavalry, and some infantry, who accompanied 
them for the sake of amassing plunder ; and they crossed the 
Tigris into the district of Attachse in the territory of Amida. 
And Bessa was duke in Martyropolis ; and it was summer 
time in this year nine.^ And with Gadar was Izdegerd, the 
nephew^ of the Ptehasha^ who, as a neighbour, knew the 
region of Attachse. And when Eessa heard of it he went out 
against him with about five hundred horsemen from Martyr- 
opolis, which was about four (?) * stades distant. And he met 
him at Beth Helte and routed his army on the Tigris, and 
killed Gadar, and took Izdegerd prisoner and brought him to 
Martyropolis. This man after the peace, which was made in 
the year ten,^ was given in exchange for Domitziolus, who 
returned from Persia. But Bessa the duke after routing 
Gadar and the Persian cavalry, who were guarding the 
frontier of Arzanene, entered the country and did much 
damage there ; and he carried off captives and brought them 
to Martyropolis. 



The villages in the country of Arzanene are the property 
of the Persian crown, and no small ^ sum is collected as poll-tax 

1 531. 2 Syr. " sister's son." 

8 The native title of the tribal chief: Arm. bdeashkh. See Ncildeke, I.e. note 2. 
<■ This number cannot be right, as Martyropolis was N. of the Tigris, 240 stades 
from Amida and 100 from Attachse (Proc. Bell. Pers. i. 21). 

s 532. " The MS. has 5ai>l, not 5qA., as L. prints. 

228 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

from their inhabitants for the king's treasury and for the 
office 1 of the Ptehasha, who is stationed there (he is the 
king's prefect).^ To this country, as related above, Bessa 
the duke did much injury; who took the nephew of the 
Ptehasha captive, and also kept him prisoner in Martyropolis. 
And King Kawad was much distressed when he heard from 
the Ptehasha about the devastation of the country : which 
same Hormizd left no stone unturned,^ using force and 
cunning (?) * against Martyropolis,^ in order to get possession 
of it, for it acts as an ambush and a place of refuge for a 
Roman army, enabling it to ravage Arzanene. And an army 
was, so to speak, equipped by the Persian army : * Mihr 
Girowi was sent to hire a large number of Huns and bring 
them to their assistance. And they came and were gathered 
together against Martyropolis at the begining of the year 
ten ; ^ and they made a trench * against it, and a " mule " ^ and 
many mines ; and they made assaults upon it, and pressed it 
hard. And in it was Butzes and a Roman force of no small 
size, and they drove large numbers of Persians back in battle. 
But Nonnus also, the bishop of the city, had died. 

Now Belisarius, being held culpable by the king on 
account of the rout which had been inflicted on the Roman 
army by the Persians at Thannuris and on the Euphrates, 
had been dismissed from his command, and went up to the 
king ; and he was succeeded at Dara by Constantine. 

And a large Roman army was mustered, and Sittas was 
general ; i" and Bar Gabala, the Saracen king, was with them. 
And they reached Amida in November ^^ (?) of the year ten ;i^ 
and John, the hermit of Anastasia, a man of honourable char- 
acter, who had been elected to the bishopric, accompanied 

' d?/a. ^ CTrapxos. ' Lit. "was moving all the stones.'' 

4 01 W)> _a_y.X2. I can make nothing of this, and only guess at the meaning. 
The literal rendering is "a palace which he filled," and it is perhaps just possible 
that the idea of bribery is concealed under it ; but more probably the text is corrupt. 
^ Omit 2l before J^\ '^ i V). ^ Read |Xj_»a for r n\ . - . 

' 531-2. 8 0io.(ra. 

» See bk. 7, ch. 3 (p. 153). " ffTparriySs. 

^^ Or October. It is not stated whether it was the 1st or the and Theshrin. 
'' 531. 


them. And, when they had gone to Martyropolis and the 
winter came on (and the country is northerly and cold), the 
Persians were impeded ^ by rain and mud, and underwent ^ 
hardships, while they were also afraid of the numbers of the 
Roman army ; and Kawad their king also had died while 
they were there ; and they made a compact with the Romans 
to withdraw from the city. 

And, soon after they had withdrawn and Martyropolis 
had been freed from blockade, and the Roman army had 
returned, the Huns,^ who had been hired by the Persians, 
arrived. This great people suddenly attacked the territory of 
the Romans, and massacred and slew many of the tillers of 
the soil, and burned villages and their churches ; and they 
crossed the Euphrates and advanced as far as Antioch ; and 
no one stood before them or did them any harm except only 
the same Bessa, the duke of Martyropolis, who fell upon a 
detachment of them during their retreat and killed them, 
and captured * about five hundred horses and much spoil ; and 
the man became rich. And at the fortress of Citharizon the 
duke there repulsed a party of them, consisting of about four 
hundred men, and captured their baggage-animals. 

Now* after Kawad Khosru his son became king. His 
mother during the lifetime of Kawad her husband had been 
vexed by a demon ; and all the magians and sorcerers and 
enchanters, who had been summoned by Kawad her husband, 
who loved her greatly, did her no good, but, to say the truth, 
added demons to demons in her. She in the year four,^ in the 
days of Liberius the duke, was sent to the blessed Moses, 
who was a monk close to Dara, about two parasangs' space 
distant, and was a famous man. And she was with him a 
few days, and was cleansed, and returned to her own land, 

1 n \»-^<A «| from the root ^ii5> "to swell." This form occurs only here, 
but the Shafel is found in 7. 3, (p. 205, 1. 5, L.). See Smith's Thesaurus, col. 3795- 

2 The MS. has O 1 S (^, not O 1 S 1^, as L. prints. 

^ The rest of this chapter and the following chapter are contained in Cod. Rom. 
^ Read iA-» for ^jAj. Cod. Rom. 05Aj. Cod. Brit, is indistinct; the •_> seems 
to have been obliterated. 

5 Mich. fol. 168 n " 526. 

2 30 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

having received from this holy Moses of the monastery called 
Tarmel an amulet taken from the bones of Cyriac the martyr 
to protect her, that in it she might find refuge, so that the 
spirit should not return upon her. And, to do him honour, 
she, under a certain symbolical form (?),^ built him a house of 
prayer in her own country, and he is worshipped there. And, 
remembering the grace wrought in her through this blessed 
Moses of Tarmel, she did a service to the land of the Romans 
in the manner and on the occasion set forth below. 



Justinian the king, considering the things which had 
happened in his dominions between the rivers, and the forces 
which had at various times been destroyed by the Persians, 
and the tillers of the soil who had been slain and made 
captive by the Huns, and the land which had been burnt with 
the villages upon it, was not inclined again to send an army 
to contend in war with Khosru, who became king after 
Kawad his father. And, since this man was friendly to 
Rufinus, and it was he who had advised his father to make 
him his successor, he used to make assertion to the king, and 
encourage him, and to undertake that, if he showed himself 
before him in his own country, he would for the sake of the 

^isOfkj IIjIo. In bk. 3, ch. 4 (p. 244, 1. 11, L.), ]}i]^ means "in a 
mystical sense" (the word \]y\ being practically equivalent to fivariipiov), and I 
therefore here translate as above. Other possible renderings are "with certain 
mysterious rites " and "with some secrecy." I understand the meaning to be that 
Moses (or Cyriac?) was worshipped under the outward forms of Magism. Mich, 
adds, " and it was called the monastery of Moses of Tarmel." 


peace desired by the king accept what he justly asked of 
him.i And so this Rufinus and Hermogenes, the master of 
the offices, were sent as ambassadors ^ to Khosru in the year 
eleven ; ^ and they had much speech with him. And, because 
this Rufinus was well known there, inasmuch as he had been 
several times sent to Kawad, and was his friend, and used to 
give many presents to the magnates of his kingdom, and 
the queen, the mother of Khosru, wa^ friendly to him, be- 
cause he had advised Kaw'ad to make her son king, and she 
owed gratitude to Moses the blessed monk of Tarmel after 
God for her healing, she earnestly entreated Khosru her son, 
and on consideration of a sum of gold which he received, 
which was sent by King Justinian according to the message 
transmitted to him by Rufinus and Hermogenes his ambas- 
sadors, he made peace ; and a written treaty was drawn up 
and ratified. And* the stars in the sky had appeared 
dancing in a strange manner, and it was the summer of the 
year eleven.^ And it lasted about six or seven years, until 
the year three.® 



The Samaritans in the country of Palestine who live near 
the city of Neapolis, not far from Czesarea, having heard that 

1 Read rn ^Kn for |01^] r-^> "'''^ ^""^^ ^°^- The meaning of the reading of 
Cod. Brit, is "of God." 

" Cod. Rom. has the meaningless ]Z;-.i|, " epistle." 

' 532-3. * "Dion." fol. 182 V* ; of. Jo. Mai. p. 477. 

s 533. 6 540. 

* In the Paris transcript. I take the reference from the analysis of " Dionysius," 
published by M. Nau in the Jievue de I'Orimt Chretien, Suppl. trim. 1897, fasc. 4. 

2 32 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

the Persians had from time to time attacked and invaded the 
Roman territory, and supposing that they had shown them- 
selves weak before them, were emboldened by the thought 
that they had been sent from Khuth and Babylon,^ and from 
'Awa and from Hamath and from S'farwayim by Shalman- 
'asar, king of Assyria, and settled in the land of Samaria ; 
and, having rebelled, they set ^ a tyrant at their head ; and 
they entered Neapolis, and killed Mommuno the bishop there; 
and they made an insurrection, "and wrought havoc in the 
country, wishing to help the Persians, because it was out of 
their country that they had been settled in the territory of 
the Romans ; and they burnt many temples of the saints ; 
and they occupied the city and amassed spoil. 

And, when the king heard of this, he sent Hadrian the 
tribune ; ^ and there were gathered together also the duke of 
the country, who was with him, and an army of Romans, 
and the Saracens of Arabia ; and they marched against the 
Samaritans. And they were cut to pieces by the Romans ; 
and they killed the tyrant, and took the city and restored it 
to its former normal condition of subjection to their authority. 
And a bishop was also appointed in it ; and a military force 
was stationed there, to guard it and to keep order among the 
inhabitants of the country. 



Julian,* bishop of the city of Halicarnassus, withdrew from 
his see through zeal with the other believing bishops ; and he 
was an old man, and he was zealous in the faith : and in his 
desire to avoid speaking of two natures he, like Eutyches and 

' Insert O before ^^£5. = Mich. fol. l68 r; Greg. p. 79. 

' XiXfapxos. * Mich, fol, 181 r; Greg. ff. E. p. 211. 


the monks who have not a right knowledge of the true order 
of things, fell into the heresy of Eutyches. (And he was an 
acquaintance and a friend of the learned Severus the chief 
priest ; and once this same Julian on being questioned by 
someone composed a treatise against the Diphysites, and he 
produced it (?) ^ at no great length without cause of offence.) 
However, though that wise combatant^ Severus had heard of 
it, he had kept this knowledge hidden,^ fearing lest, if he 
corrected it, house should be divided against house, and he 
should cause a division in love, which no man had been able 
to separate, being patiently determined to accept his poverty, 
which is according to right (?). 

And, when in this way * reason was added to reason, as our 
Lord brought it about, in order, that is, that the learning of 
Severus might be made manifest, the beauty of his true faith, 
for the benefit of the discerning and of those who love in- 
struction, [he was compelled to expose the matter].^ 

And, to show the nature of the original subject of con- 
tention,^ I insert some epistles, which, taken in order, supply 
information to the reader, in the following chapters of this 
ninth Book. 

1 CTLttSJ (so MS., not \Q.SiJ, as L.). Mich, has 01\nZ, "followed it," 
which points to a reading OT.2IQJ. All the remainder of this chapter is exceed- 
ingly obscure and probably corrupt. 

^ lA.>.w|3 - • ^ j. from Prov. x. 14; cf. bk. 8, ch. 4 (p. 243, 1. 17, L.). 

'' Perhaps something has fallen out before this sentence. Mich, has " but, after 
Julian had written that it was his opinion, and the holy man had answered him 
twice, and he would not obey." 

^ I supply these words from Mich. " vir60e(ns. 

2 34 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 



" Certain ^ men have appeared here who say that the body 
of our Lord was corruptible, making use of testimony from the 
holy Cyril ; in the first place from what he wrote to Succensus, 
saying, ' After the Resurrection it was the body which had 
suffered, though it no longer supported human infirmities but 
was incorruptible ' ; ^ and from this they wish to prove that 
before the Resurrection it was corruptible, inasmuch as it 
was of our nature, but after the Resurrection it received 
incorruptibility: and in the second place from what he 
wrote to Theodosius the king, saying, 'It is a marvel and a 
miracle that a body naturally subject to corruption rose without 

" And they quoted such things as these by way of extracts ; 
but I, who set down the whole passage,^ made it my endeavour 
to show the opinion held by numerous doctors. But they 
brought me also his sixty-seventh treatise, which was written 
by him on the subject of the holy Virgin, the Theotokos, and 
in it are contained the words, ' The body of our Lord was in 
no way subjected to the sin which belongs to corruption, but 
was susceptible of death and of true burial, and He destroyed 
them in it.'^ And I indeed considered it to be an error in 

1 These letters are contained in Add. MS. 17,200 and in Cod. Syr. Vat. 140, 
from which last extracts are given by the Assemani (Bibl. Vat. MSS. Catal. vol. iii. 
p. 323 ff.). Both these give the Syriac translation of Paul of Callinicus. Our 
author's translation is independent. 

2 Mich. fol. 181 r. 

' Cyr. Ep. 45 (Migne, Patrol. Grccc. vol. Ixxvii. p. 236). 
'' Cyr. de Red. Fid. ad Theod. Imp. 22. 

s AVqCD ]nm'^ (Sy^. Mich, has \n^ ..J.25 CTiXd Ait O, and there- 
fore probably read |n(Tl ''^'~), "set down the whole matter in a sentence." Paul. 

Call, has AklCD OtXo ]AoOj_1, which determines the sense of ^Q-EOS). 
" I cannot find this in the Quod Beata Maria Sit Deipara. 


writing. And so, in order that the dispute may be solved by 
our being examined by you, I have also sent what I have 
written,! ^j^^j j ^,^ convinced that our fathers agree with it. 
And write to me at once, that I may know what opinions to 
hold on these matters, because I do not consider it right that 
we should again say that that which was not corrupted was 
susceptible of corruption. And pray that our life may be in 
unison with the grace of God." 



" When ^ first I received your piety's epistle, I rejoiced in 
accordance with my custom at your greeting, with which I 
was well pleased. Since in it you urge me to read the tome 
composed by you, which you sent with it, written to those who, 
you say, think and say concerning the body of our Lord and 
God, Jesus Christ our Saviour, that it was corruptible, and you 
ask me to write a criticism of it and send it to the love of God 
that is you, in obedience to you I have readily done this, I, a 
man who change about from one place to another and have no 
convenient time even for other things that are required. Still, 
so far as it was possible for it to be written, I have written 
it, partly by collecting in my memory passages from the teach- 
ing of the fathers, partly also from the few volumes of their 
works which were here. For I know well that there was a 
similar question in the royal city also, and by means of the 
proofs from the fathers drawn up by me the controversy and 
dispute were brought to an end. And so, since there appeared 
to me to be something unseemly in the things written by you, 

1 Possibly something has dropped out here. See the quotation in ch. 13 
(p. 238); and so Paul. Call. Mich., however, has the same as our text, so that 
no alteration should be made in it. 

2 ivTlypatpov. '^ Mich. fol. 181 v. 

236 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

since I find that the doctors of the holy Church, who have been 
from time to time, have instructed me^ differently on these 
matters, I have delayed sending what I have written to your 
piety (as indeed was right), lest some in ignorance should 
suppose that the controversy conducted in these words was 
a strife between us, and, although a discussion such as I 
knew it was would abound in love, yet some might suppose 
it to be hostility. Accordingly, let me know at once what 
your pleasure is upon these things, for I am ready to per- 
form whatever is agreeable to your affection, holding as my 
warrant the saying of the apostle, who said, ' Let everything 
that is done by you ^ be done in love.' " ^ 



" You ^ write that there appeared to you to be something 
unseemly in the things which I have written ; and you ought 
to have informed me at once in the epistle, and released me 
from anxiety. But I believe that in all that I have written I 
have truly confessed the Incarnation derived from us, and I 
have exerted myself to prove that the fathers were in accord 
with one another; for I do not consider it possible for us to 
believe and hold that which is corruptible and that which is 
incorruptible to be the same. And, while we confess Him 
who by His stripes healed all men to be passible, yet we also 
know Him to be raised and exalted above passions ; and, if He 
was mortal, yet we also confess that He trampled on " death, 
and gave life to mortals through His death. Accordingly you 
have only caused me anxiety by saying that I have written 

1 The MS. has ..-vJoN^m, not .-lOl-ijnNnm, as L. prints. 

2 Read ^^1V) for ^CTUijD. = i Cor. xvi. 14. 

^ &vTlypa<l>ov. '' Mich. fol. 181 w. 

^ Read CTLs) for OTjl3. The MS. has no dot, either above or below the letter. 


something that is unseemly, and not telling me what it is, that 
I may defend it. But condescend to write and tell me what 
is stated by the fathers, by Athanasius ^ and Cyril and others, 
for I wish to know your mind also. But^ I believe that I 
have followed the intention of the fathers, who are not at 
variance with themselves or at variance with one another, even 
as Paul, who says that salvation is not by works but by faith, 
is not at variance with James, who says that faith without 
works is dead. They did not say these things in opposition 
to one another, but in concord.'* 

" But pray that we may be enlightened by God, and may 
not through passion yield to our own wills, while at the 
same time you cause the word in a brief compass to shine 
upon us. 

. " The holy Cyril writes, ' It is not easy for us to say that 
corruption can ever take hold of the flesh which was united to 
the Word ' ; * and five lines lower down, ' It is a wonder and 
a miracle that a body^ naturally subject to corruption was 
raised.'® And what is the idea which he wishes to bring out 
(for he is not at variance with himself in these things), if he 
was not in these words thinking of the corruption of universal 
nature ? For He bore our infirmities of His own will and not 
by compulsion of nature ; and He took up our sins in His body 
on the tree, dying for our sin." 



" It ^ seems to me a very strange thing, when I call to 

'Text, " Theodosius. " Paul of Callinicus, however, has "Athanasius,"' and so 

^ Here begins a short extract in Cod. Rom. 

' Here the extract in Cod. Rom. ends. 

' Cyr. de Red. Fid. ad Theod. Imp. 21. 

5 Insert J before |;^k.£}. So Paul of Callinicus. 

' Cyr. op. at. 22. ' Avriypatpov. ^ Mich. fol. 181 ff. 

238 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

mind the few words which I wrote, that the love of God that 
is in you says that you were in great anxiety ; since I per- 
formed your request for no other reason than to free you from 
anxiety and disturbance. For, if you had sent me a small 
question and problem, then I might perhaps have used ^ few 
words in making answer ; but, since it is a tome of many 
lines and a fully-completed ^ work that you have sent me to 
examine, after considering the things contained in it every 
day according to my ability, I will make my opinion clear to 

" Now in respect of what is fitting I have found much 
which I will do readily for^ your piety; and, to show that I 
am not speaking falsely, listen to what you wrote, as follows : 
' In order to bring about an understanding of the matter in 
dispute, I have sent what I have written ; but test it to s,ee 
whether it is in accord with the Holy Scriptures, because I 
believe that our fathers were in accord with these. Write and 
tell me what opinion I am to hold.' Since, therefore,* you 
have given me matter for much discussion, how is it that in 
your second epistle you have required me to treat of many 
matters in a few lines and in a single utterance, as you say, 
a thing which needs many words and proofs from the fathers, 
who spoke under the inspiration of God ? For the Holy 
Scripture says, ' It is the Lord that teacheth intelligence and 
knowledge ' ; ^ and again in another place, ' The Lord giveth 
wisdom ; and from His presence cometh knowledge and under- 
standing. And He giveth salvation to the righteous.' ^ For, if 
your piety and we endeavour in this way to prove with respect 
to these fathers that they are npt in opposition to one another, 
there is nothing to prevent us from examining the matter 
carefully and knowing that they have never in anyway shown 

' Insert ^O before •>,>-a_KtA^. 

'^ Z.^^fZ.Z.| seems to be a denominative verb from |Z.^^i| (Hamilton). Paul. 
Call. Z,^!.. 

' Insert J before Zo.^. But the sentence seems to be corrupt. 

■• Read ^r^^ for ^jOiD (^^DOl, Paul. Call.). 

^ Job xxi. 22. " Prov. ii. 6, 7. 


themselves to be in opposition either to one another or to 

" For 1 you rightly and justly ^ say that the doctors are not 
in opposition to one another, even as Paul is not in opposition 
to James when the one says,"' By faith is a man justified with- 
out works,' ^ while the other wrote, ' Faith without works is 
dead ' ; * because Paul spoke of faith before baptism, which is 
the perfection of confession out of a pure heart, when it has 
not previously displayed good works in the world,^ but such a 
man is justified by believing and confessing and being 
baptized ; while James referred to faith after baptism, when 
he said that it is dead without works, if a man does not 
confirm it by right action.^ For baptism is the earnest 
of a good conversation ; since even our Lord, who was to us 
an instructor, after He had hallowed^ the water and been 
baptized ^ by John and given us ^ the institution of baptism, 
went up to the mountain and underwent a struggle with the 
tempter and destroyed all his power, thereby guiding us, that 
we might know that after the divine cleansing we ought to 
display a contest in deed and to struggle according to law 
with the adversary, therein displaying our virtues. 

" But someone will object, and say, ' Behold ! Paul took 
Abraham as a proof that a man is justified by faith without 
works, saying, " Therefore they that are in the faith are 
blessed with the believing Abraham " ; ^^ and, " To him that 
hath not worked but hath believed on Him that can justify 
sinners his faith is reckoned for righteousness " ; ^^ while James 
proved by the case of Abraham that a man is not justified 

' Here begins an extract in Cod. Rom. 

2 After ^j_.t insert Aj |X})10, with Cod. Rom. and Paul. Call. ; so Mich. 

' Rom. iii. 28. ■* Jas. ii. 20. 

5 After |^l4 insert (^ \'"'~i, with Cod. Rom. ; so Mich. 
" The MS. has ^J_».j^a23, not ]j^ ■ \n g^, as L. prints. 
' The MS. has t-»r^, not . ■ 1, O, as L. prints. 

8 After ] -^ insert ,VlSO, with Cod. Rom. ; so Mich. 

» Read _X for 01^, with Cod. Rom. (Paul. Call. ^-^? ]r^2i) 5 so Mich. 
M Gal. iii. 9. " Rom. iv. 5. 

240 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

by faith only, but by works confirmed by faith.^ And how 
are these not contradictory ? for the same ^ Abraham is an 
example of those who have not worked but believed, and 
of those who have shown faith by works.' 

" I am ready to explain from the Holy Scriptures. For 
he who examines the periods of Abraham's life [will see] ^ that 
he is an instance of both, of the faith which before baptism 
confesses salvation by believing in Christ, and of that after 
baptism which is joined with works, which is a reproduction * 
of the old circumcision of the flesh, which drives away^ the 
denial of uncircumcision and brings to us the adoption as sons 
by God ; wherefore Moses also was ordered to say thus to 
Far'oh ; ' And say thou unto Far'oh, " Israel is my son, my 
firstborn."'^ Wherefore Paul writes to the Colossians and 
says, ' In whom ye were circumcised with a circumcision not 
made with hands, in the putting off of the flesh of sins and 
in the circumcision of Christ, and ye were buried with Him 
in baptism.''' Wherefore he said of^ Abraham also that 
he was justified by faith without works while he was in un- 
circumcision, before he was circumcised, thus pointing to 
confession before baptism without works, writing to the 
Romans, ' To Abraham his faith was reckoned for righteous- 
ness. How? Not through circumcision, but in uncircum- 
cision.' ^ And he did not speak falsely ; for the words of 
Moses are witness, which say of God that He said to 
Abraham, ' Look toward heaven and tell the stars, if thou 
be able to tell them ' ; and He said, ' So shall thy seed be ' : 

1 Jas. ii. 21-24. With Cod. Rom. insert »i3 before |/^n iVn .m ; so Mich. 
Paul. Call, agrees with Cod. Brit., giving the meaning "which confirm faith." 

^ Read J for O before OQl, with Cod. Rom. 

' This must be supplied in order to make sense. Paul. Call, has ; » , ■ 001 
_»^sAiD ]tSi\ ,0 iOOIjol fjo, "for the one Abraham, when divided 
into periods." Mich., like our text, omits the verb. 

■* Insert » before jAjQjjZ, with Cod. Rom. 

° The MS. has (.ljo), not p.>J>, as L. prints. 

"Ex, iv. 22. ' Col. ii. II, 12. 

8 Read ^A for i2) (, with Cod. Rom. ; so Mich. 

" Rom. iv. 9, 10. 


and Abraham believed God, and it was reckoned to him for 

" But again our master James also took the same Abraham 
as an example in the faith which saves ^ by works after 
baptism, he being then circumcised and not in uncircumcision. 
And we may learn from the Scripture ; for he writes thus : 
' Wilt thou know, O man, that faith without works is dead ? 
For our father Abraham was justified by works, when he 
offered Isaac his son as a burnt-sacrifice. Thou seest that 
faith wrought with his works, and by works was made perfect. 
And the Scripture was fulfilled which saith, " Abraham be- 
lieved God, and it was reckoned to him for righteousness : 
and He was called his friend." ' ^ It is * easy again for one 
who reads the writings of Moses to learn from the book of 
Genesis that Abraham, after he was circumcised, offered 
Isaac as a burnt-sacrifice^ and fulfilled the commandment 
and was justified by works, giving us an instance of faith 
after baptism, which is a spiritual circumcision, justifying a 
man by works ; for it is written, ' Abraham was circumcised, 
and Ishmael his son, and those born in his house, and those 
bought with his money from strange peoples ' ; ^ and then 
God, trying Abraham, said to him, ' Take thy son, whom 
thou lovest, even Isaac, and get thee to the high land ; and 
offer him there as a burnt-sacrifice.' ' Accordingly these 
words of the apostles and those written in the old law do 
not seem to be in opposition * to one another, but to be 
one, and to have been spoken by one spirit concerning faith 
before* baptism, which justifies the man who presents him- 
self upon a short ^^ confession ^^ only without action,!^ baptism 

1 Gen. XV. 5, 6. ^ Read ^0^21 for ]j_00^2), with Cod. Rom. So Mich. 

^ Jas. ii. 20-23. ^ Read 001 for (OOl, with Cod. Rom. 

5 Read ]Z\Xi. for A2li, with Cod. Rom. 

^ Gen. xvii. 26, 27. ' Gen. xxii. 2. 

8 The MS. has ■ V •^in n m not —j^XoOCD, as L. prints. 
" Read —Lo for OlO, with Cod. Rom. 
1" The MS. has 'jZiOiil, not ZJQAI, as L. prints. 
" Insert J before lA_.JOAo, with Cod. Rom. 
12 The MS. has ^JUj^OS), not \tj. 1 No '^ , as L. prints. 

242 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

being full salvation if a man depart from the world forthwith, 
and another faith, which is after baptism, which requires the 
proof of good works and also raises the man to the measure 
of perfection and to high place.^ And so also ^ James very 
properly says of it that .faith is made perfect by works; 
since the wise Paul also in another place gives similar teaching 
respecting faith, saying that it is made perfect through 
works : for the Galatians,^ after they had been baptized 
and been reckoned sons of God through the Spirit, were 
perverted to Judaism and were circumcised, since they vainly 
supposed that by the circumcision of their flesh they gained 
something in Christ beyond the uncircumcised ; and he wrote 
to reprove them, saying, ' In Jesus Christ neither circum- 
cision nor uncircumcision availeth anything ; but faith which is 
worked out by love.'* From this also, therefore, it is plain 
that that kind of faith after baptism is of avail and saves 
with which work is joined and united in love ; and ^ what 
work done in love is Paul declares and "says, ' Love is 
long-suffering and kind ; love is not envious and excited 
and puffed up, nor is it ashamed ; and it seeketh not its own, 
and is not provoked ; and it imputeth no evil ; and rejoiceth 
not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; and it hopeth 
all things, ^nd endureth all things. Love doth not quickly 
fail.'^ These things are for the direction of action '^ and 
labour and toil, that many may be profited and be saved, 
when united to faith. And who will dare to find fault? for 
respecting this our Lord also said, ' If ye love Me, keep My 
commandments.' ^ 

' Cod. Rom. here inserts in the margin a sentence from bk. lo, ch. 9 (see p. 
313), which Mai prints as if it were part of the text. 
" Insert before ^Q»iipO, with Cod. Rom. 

' There is no —iO before I ' 6 1 ii in Cod. Rom., as Mai prints. 
^ Gal. V. 6. ^ 

■^ After \r^:^ insert with Cod. Rom. |i-ClL 001 (iisDO, which has dropped out 
in Cod. Brit, through homoioteleuton. 
" I Cor. xiii. 4-8. 

' The MS. has IJ-ki^OS, not ]j^ 1 \o g), as L. prints. 
* John xiv. 15. 


"As, therefore, the Holy Scriptures and our fathers have 
been consistent in the teaching given to us, so upon this 
question too they are in accord in teaching those who do 
not read negUgently : wherefore, as it is written, ' Every- 
thing is known ^ to the understanding, and plain ^ to them 
that find knowledge ' ; ^ which knowledge I have endeavoured 
to send in a discreet manner to your affection, as is the duty 
of Christians.* 

" But, since I have learned from several quarters that you 
have published the tome containing your work, which was 
addressed* to me, not only in the great city of Alexandria 
but also in various places, in accordance, as I am persuaded, 
with Christ, even God the Lawgiver, I have in love again 
sent and written to our brother the presbyter Thomas not 
to publish my work, but to keep it to himself, because I 
hoped that by the counsel of two persons, as by one mouth 
and soul, my writings and those of your Holiness might be 
made known. For after this fashion I once and again ex- 
amined the teaching of the memorable Akhs'noyo^ and 
Eleusinus the bishops, and the books which they composed 
upon abstruse matters ' concerning the faith ; and I never 
found in their case any declaration of the relations which we 
had with one another in love during our discussions, when 
by the help of our Lord we were alike of one mind. For 
I never produced either book or treatise in order to gain 
distinction with men, or to win renown beyond the measure 
of my feebleness, but in the rectitude of the Gospel in 
accordance with the teaching and legislation of the apostles. 
However, it is also unseemly that at such a time as this we 
should abandon the struggle against the heretics and contend 
and write against one another, lest the saying of the apostle be 

' Read^j_i for ^io], with Cod. Rom. So Paul. Call. (^jAl^dlirD .J^^O) 
and Mich. 

2 Read ^j'2. for . iZ, with Cod. Rom. So Paul. Call, and Mich. 

' Prov. viii. g. * Here the extract in Cod. Rom. ends. 

^ Insert J before iCAaZlj. 

^ Paul. Call, has "Felicissimus." 

' Oeopla, the inner or allegorical meaning of a book. 

244 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

fulfilled against us, who says, ' If ye bite and devour one 
another, take heed that ye be not consumed one of another.' ^ 
Such contentions it is the duty of those who love our Lord 
to shun with all their power, and to love one another, that 
peace may abound and may visit the Israel of God. Greet 
the brotherhood that is with you. The one that is with me 
salutes you in our Lord." 

When Julian received this epistle also from this learned 
Severus, he was very indignant, and was moved with anger ; 
and he wrote, saying that his request had been refused by 
him for a year ^ and a month, and he had not received ^ the 
respect due to him, and he had been tricked (?).* And then 
Severus again wrote a long treatise abounding in proofs from 
the true doctors of the holy Church, who say that the body 
of Christ which He received from us was susceptible of 
innocent passions except sin until the Resurrection.^ And 
for this reason, in order that it may be known, I have set 
down the above epistles for the discerning. 

There were many books addressed to Julian and Felicis- 
simus and Romanus and others who shared his opinions, and 
in them there is also much material for profit in study for 
those that love instruction. And they became known to the 
sagacious and intelligent of the true party of the faith con- 
cerning the Incarnation of our Saviour, and the simple were 
preserved and enlightened so as not to become Eutychianists, 
and especially the monks. 

1 Gal. V. 15. ^Ep. III. adSev. (Add. 17,200, fol. 9 r). 

3 ,-4S3, " felt." Mich, has ^\ii>j, " bound," and therefore read ^4^. 

^ «ilj_.iZ.Z.( "was answered" (?), is unintelligible, unless we insert a negative. 
Mich, has »Dj£Qj(, " was stolen, '' and therefore read »ilJ_.iZ'). This reading I 
adopt. Both renderings, however, are very doubtful in grammar. 

'Add. 17,200, fol. 38 ff. (Latin translation in Mai Spicilegium Romanum, x. 
p. 169). 




In the year ten ^ the slaughter wrought by the many Huns 
who invaded the territory of the Romans, and harried it, and 
killed many people who were in the country, and burned, as 
recorded above, was not enough, but in the royal city also 
many persons perished there in a riot^ which broke out. For, 
when John of Caesarea in Cappadocia was prefect* there, by 
sedulously inventing pretexts against persons by the use of 
trickery 5 and cunning, there and in various cities, he amassed 
a large quantity of gold for the royal treasury from all classes, 
both magnates and craftsmen ; and he was listened to with 
attention in the palace, and was formidable to everyone, since 
he stood so high in the confidence of the king that he made 
false accusations against many persons ; and he was surrounded 
by flatterers ^ and informers.^ And there were present in the 
royal city no small number of people from every quarter who 
had complaints against him, and favoured ^ and supported one 
of the factions.* Wherefore there were constant outcries i** 
against him and against the king; and the factions united 
and were in accord with one another for several days ; and 
the workshops were shut, and they began to plunder every- 
thing that came in their way, and to burn. And the king 

^ Sfj/MOi. '■' 532. ' trrdais. * iiwapxo^. 

^ iOijAiO. This word apparently occurs only here and in 7. 7 (p. 217, 1. II, L.). 
It is not given in Payne Smith's Thesaurus, and Brockelraann, who refers only to 
p. 217, II, renders it "cogitavit, spectavit"; but from this passage it seems clear that 
the meaning is as above. 

" Read pZiJO-SL* for ]jZ',:S3Q_». 

' MS. (ijCl^, not (jJCli, as L. The dictionaries give this word as = XouSclpios, 
"gladiator'' or "brigand," but here and in ch. 16 (pp. 257, 258) it seems clear that 
the meaning is as above (=Xo£Sopos (?)). 

8 Or, " and he favoured . . ." " /Jpos. i" &^6i;iris. 

246 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

was alarmed ; and at last the palace was shut. And the parties 
collected in the circus ^ and raised a great riot ; and they kept 
crying out that Hypatius should be king ; and, if not, they 
would burn the city. And Hypatius was compelled to come 
out, and Pompeius accompanied him. And they took a necklace 
belonging to one of the soldiers and set it on his head and 
enthroned him king, and they cried out at him and praised him. 
And, when this happened, by the advice of certain per- 
sons they set fire to the great church of the city, in order 
that upon receiving the news of the disaster the assembled 
people might be scattered ; for King Justinian was in dis- 
tress and alarm in the palace. And Mundus, a general,^ and 
his troops were present there ; and he and the Scholarians and 
all the troops who were at hand received orders, and they 
shut the door of the circus, and they massacred and slew all 
classes of people who were present there ; and there were no 
means of fleeing and escaping from the massacre. And more 
than 80,000 persons perished there in this riot. And Hypatius 
and Pompeius were at last arrested, and came in before the 
king. And, when he understood the state of the case, he 
wished to spare the men's lives ; but he was not able to do 
so, for his consort was enraged, and swore by God and by 
him, and adjured him also to have the men put to death. 
And they were sent to the seashore and killed and thrown 
into the sea. 



" Various * other men crown your believing head, O 
victorious king, with a crown of praises — men who take 

3 Read ]m I g> for IflOS). * Mich. fol. 171 ff. ' 


occasion from the case of other persons to write words about 
your favours towards them ; but we, who have been ourselves 
judged worthy to experience your virtues, render thanks to 
you with a crown of laudation, which we weave with splendour. 
And, while in the desert, and, so to speak, at the end of the 
world, we have been this long time dwelling in quietness, 
praying to the good and merciful God during such days as 
those on behalf of your Majesty and on behalf of our sins : 
and your tranquillity has inclined towards our vileness and in 
your believing letters summoned us to come to you. And 
the thing is a wonder to us that you did not receive this 
our request with scorn,^ but, with the kindness innate in you, 
sympathised with us, so as to bring us ^ out of affliction, 
making the pretext that this or that man had interceded 
for us. 

" Now we, since it is our duty to obey when commanded, 
immediately left the desert, and, journeying quietly along the 
road in peace without our voice being heard, have come before 
your feet ; and we pray God, the bountiful giver, on our behalf 
to reward your serenity and the God-loving queen with good 
gifts from on high, and to bestow peace and tranquillity upon 
you, and to set every rebellious people as a stool beneath 
your feet. 

" However, now that we have come, we present a supplica- 
tion to your peacefulnesses containing our true faith, not wishing 
to hold an argument with any man on any matter that is not 
profitable, as it is written,^ lest we annoy your ears ; for it is 
very hard for a man to convince persons of a contentious 
disposition, although he make the truth manifest. And so, 
as we have said,* we refuse to engage in a dispute with the 
contentious, who will not receive instructors ; for our master ^ 

1 Read ] • \onVi for ] . nmVn Mich, has CTl^iD'jAkj, "expecting,"' 
which represents ] ■ nmVn ; but I cannot see any meaning in it. 

" At Dr. Hamilton's suggestion I read _>AjZ> for _jAj |j. Mich., however, 
has |f" iiTiX "because you (it)," and must therefore have read ai-iA^|). 

3 Tit. iii. 9. * Read ,ik3'j for ^Ld]. Mich. " the apostle said." 

5 Read -—iJOl for _^r->(^- 

248 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

the apostle said, ' We have no such custom, neither the 
Churches of God.'^ 

" Accordingly, victorious king, we do now also declare the 
freedom of our faith, although in the desert, when we received 
your edict at the hands of Theodotus the duke, we wrote 
and declared what we think, and your Majesties gave us a 
message of truth free from affliction in that you were graciously 
moved and summoned us to your presence. And, since we 
have been judged worthy of the mercies of God, we do in this 
supplication inform your orthodoxies that by the grace of God 
we have from our earliest infancy received the faith of the 
apostles, and have been brought up in it and with it, and we 
think and believe even as our three hundred and eighteen 
God-inspired holy fathers, who drew up the faith of life and 
salvation, which was confirmed by our one hundred and fifty 
holy fathers v/ho once met here, and ratified by the pious 
bishops who assembled at Ephesus and rejected the impious 
Nestorius. And so in this faith of the apostles we have 
been baptized and do baptize, and this saving knowledge is 
grounded in our hearts, and this same doctrine alone we 
recognise as a rule in the faith, and beyond it we receive no 
other; because it is perfect in all points, and it does not 
grow old nor need renovation. 

" Now we acknowledge a worshipful and holy Trinity of 
one nature, power, and honour, w;hich is made known in three 
persons ; for we worship the Father and His only Son, God 
the Word, Who was begotten of Him eternally beyond all 
times, and is with Him always without variation, and the 
Holy Spirit,^ which proceeds from the Father, and is of the 
nature of the Father and of the Son. One of the persons 
of this holy Trinity, that is, God the Word, we say by the 
will of the Father in the last days for the salvation of men 
took flesh of the Holy Spirit and of the holy Virgin the 
Theotokos Mary in a body endowed with a rational and 
intellectual soul,^ passible after our nature, and became man, 

' I Cor. xi. i6. 

^ We require ^ for .S before VkjO?. Mich., however, also has »G. 

^ Read »i3 for > before ( » "^ ' 


and was not changed from that which He was. And so we 
confess that, while 1 in the Godhead He was of the nature of 
the Father, He was also of our nature in the manhood. Ac- 
cordingly He Who is the perfect Word, the invariable Son of 
God, became perfect man, and left nothing wanting for us in 
respect of our salvation, as the foolish Apollinaris said, saying 
that the Humanisation of God the Word was not perfect, and 
deprives ^ us, according to his opinion, of things that are of 
prime importance in our salvation. For, if our intellect was 
not united with Him, as he absurdly says, then we are not 
saved, and in the matter of salvation ^ have fallen short of 
that which is of the highest consequence for us. But these 
things are not as he said ; for the perfect God for our sake 
became perfect man without variation, and God the Word did 
not leave anything wanting in the Humanisation, as we have 
said, nor yet was it a phantom of Him, as the impious Mani 
supposes, and the erring Eutyches. 

" And, since Christ is truth and does not know how to 
lie and does not deceive, because He is God, therefore God 
the Word truly became incarnate, in truth again, and not in 
semblance, with natural and innocent passions, because of His 
own will He for our sake among the things which He took 
upon Himself in the passible flesh of our nature of His own 
will endured also our death, which He made life for us by a 
Resurrection befitting God, for he first restored incorruption 
and immortality to human nature. 

" And, indeed, as God the Word left nothing wanting and 
was not phantasmal in the Incarnation and Humanisation, so 
He did not divide it into two persons and two natures accord- 
ing to the doctrine introduced by Nestorius the man-worshipper 
and those who formerly thought like him, and those who in 
our day so think. 

" And the faith contained in your confession refutes the 
doctrine of these men and contends with it, because in your 

' Insert 5 before rO. 

2 Read ;"i .-^Vn for jXCLkkLD; so Mich. |j^Ca2j. 

'■' After 1 ^; «ii the MS. has ^_A, not |^, as L. prints. 


earnestness ^ you said thus : ' God appeared, Who became in- 
carnate. He is in all points like the Father except the 
individuality of His Father. He became a sharer of our 
nature, and was called Son of Man. Being one and the 
same, God and man. He showed Himself to us, and was 
born as a babe for our sake ; and, being God, He for men 
and for the sake of their salvation became man.'^ 

" If those who dispute with us adhered to these things in 
truth and were not content to hold them in appearance only, 
but rather consented to believe as we do and you do and as , 
our holy God-inspired fathers did, they would have abstained 
from this stirring of strife. For that Christ was joined by 
composition, and that God the Word is joined by composition 
with a body endowed with a rational and intellectual soul the 
all-wise doctors of the Church have plainly stated. Dionysius, 
who from the Areopagus and from the darkness and error of 
heathendom attained to the supreme light of the knowledge of 
God through our master Paul, in the treatise which he com- 
posed about the divine names of the Holy Trinity says, 
' Praising ^ it as kindly, we say, as is right, that it is kindly,* 
because it in truth partook perfectly of our attributes in one of 
its persons, drawing to itself and raising the lowliness of our 
manhood, out of which the simple Jesus became joined .by 
composition in a manner that cannot be described ; and He 
who was from eternity and beyond all times took upon Him 
a temporal existence, and He who was raised and exalted 
above all orders and natures became in the likeness of our 
nature without variation and confusion.'^ And Athanasius 
again in the treatise upon the faith named the unity of God 
the Word with soul-possessing flesh a composition, speaking 
thus : ' What is the relationship to the unbelief of those who 

1 The MS. has ^OaZo n i lL^, not ^n^n*-^ . ^AVo_ as L. prints. Mich, 
has JsQUOAnO, "in your writings." 

^ I do not know whence this is taken. 

" The MS. has ■ i k». ""^ ■ V>, not - ^ ^ '-i » Vn as L. prints. 

^ The words (-•-] | A!:Q>j3) _.J_>^L0| are accidentally repeated in L.'s text, but 
not in the MS. 

' Dion. Areop. de Div. Nom. i. 4. 


call it an indwelling instead of an Incarnation,^ and instead of 
a union and composition a human energy ? ' ^ 

" If, therefore, according to our holy fathers, whom your 
peaceful nesses have followed, God the Word, who was before 
simple and not composite, became incarnate of the Virgin, the 
Theotokos Mary, and united soul-possessing and intellectual 
flesh to Himself personally and made it His own and was 
joined with it by composition in the dispensation, it is 
manifest that according to our fathers we ought to confess 
one^ nature of God the Word, who took flesh and became 
perfectly * man. Accordingly God the Word, who was before 
simple, is not recognised to have become composite in a body, 
if He is again divided after the union by being called two 
natures. But, just as an ordinary man, who is made up of 
various natures, soul and body and so forth, is not divided into 
two natures because a soul has been joined by composition with 
a body to make up the one nature and person of a man, so 
also God the Word, who was personally united and joined by 
composition with soul-possessing flesh, is not divided into or in 
two natures because of His union and composition with a body. 
For according to the words of our fathers, whom the fear of 
God that is in you has followed, God the Word,^ Who was 
formerly simple, consented for our sake to be united by com- 
position with soul -possessing and intellectual flesh and 
without change to become man. Accordingly one nature 
and person of God the Word, Who took flesh, is glorified, 
and there is one energy of the Word of God which is 
made known, which is exalted and glorious and fitting for 
God, and is also lowly and human. How is it that some are 
not corrected?"^ 

And they are urgent and refuse to accept what Leo wrote 
in the Tome in opposition to these things, he and those of his 
opinions ; and they produced quotations from him, and from 

1 Omit J before •O' \ >■ 

^ This is not in the extant portions of the Sermo de Fide. 

^ Insert «2 before r>j. 

* Insert O before A ^ . \Vo . Vn s Omit » before IotI^I. 

8 Read ^ • ^ • ^'^ for ^ ■ \ nV>. Mich. ^nV>0 pAj. 

252 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

Nestorius and Theodore and Diodorus and Theodoret and the 
Synod of Chalcedon,^ who speak of two natures after the 
Incarnation of God the Word, and two persons ; and they 
provided a copious refutation of these with proofs drawn 
from the fathers who have at various times held opinions 
contrary to these and taught one nature and person in the 
Church, saying that God the Word was in truth humanised 
without change and became perfect man, and the same re- 
mained perfect God, besides things which I forbear to record 
here on account of their length, and because they were every- 
where to be found in works against the Diphysites. 

And at the end of their petition ^ they said thus : " And 
for this reason we do not accept either the Tome or the 
definition of Chalcedon, O victorious king, because we keep 
the canon and law of our fathers who assembled at Ephesus 
and anathematised and deprived Nestorius and excommuni- 
cated any who should presume to compose any other definition 
of faith besides that of Nicsea, which was correctly and be- 
lievingly laid down by the Holy Spirit. These we reject and 
anathematise. And this definition and canon those who 
assembled at Chalcedon deliberately set at naught and trans- 
gressed, as they state in the Acts ^ of that Synod ; * and they 
are subject to punishment and blame from our holy fathers in 
that they have introduced a new definition of faith, which is 
contrary to the truth of the doctrine of those who from time 
to time have been after a pure manner doctors of the Church, 
who, we believe, are now also entreating Christ with us, that 
you may aid the truth of their faith, honouring the contests 
undergone by their priesthoods, by which the Church has been 
exalted and glorified. For thus shall peace reign in your 
reign by the power of the right hand of God Almighty, to 
whom we pray on your behalf^ that without toil or struggle 
in arms He will set your enemies as a stool beneath your feet." 

And, when the letter of defence for the faith, as given 

' After XDJOfjJ insert with Mich. .CDJOTJOXDO .m^jiOJolZo. 
^ Sarins. ^ ireTrp!i,yjj,4va. 

" Mansi, vii. pp. 456, 457. 
^ The MS. has ^OHj-^^Q-kj, not ^nm e^Vn k. as L. prints. 


above, had been presented to the king and been read, and 
many words had been spoken during the no small space 
of one year and more by the believing bishops who had 
come thither to the royal city by the king's command, as 
recorded above, with whom was the learned John the archi- 
mandrite, the son of Aphthonia, (and he wrote a record of 
the discussions), the king would not banish the Synod of 
Chalcedon from the Church, while he summoned by letter 
the holy Severus the chief priest, who was hiding in various 
places. And, since he rejected the king's request and 
refused to come to him, the believing bishops who were in 
Constantinople returned each one of them to any place he 
chose to hide himself, according as he judged convenient 
for him. 

And 1 then after a time, in the year thirteen,^ after many 
letters from the king, the holy Severus also came to him and 
was received, and he was in the palace till March of the year 
fourteen,* while the Diphysite bishops everywhere were dis- 
turbed and annoyed and also alarmed, and especially Ephraim 
of Antioch, until in their anxiety they stirred up Agapetus, 
chief priest of Rome, who shared their opinions, and invited 
and brought him to the royal city. Moreover, how it came 
about and what happened will be made known in a chapter 
which I am going to write below. 

The end of the petition contained in the fifteenth [chapter] * 
concerning the monks who assembled at Constantinople.^ 

1 Jo. Eph. Frag. {Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 386). ^ 534-5. 

3 536. * This is not in the text. 

" According to the heading the petitioners were not monks but bishops. In 
Mich., however, they are called "bishops and monks." 

2 54 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 



" The 1 eternal Word of the Father, the Son of God, Who 
had in the end taken flesh and was not changed, and, more- 
over, became perfectly man by the Holy Spirit and Mary the 
holy Virgin, the Theotokos, and in everything was truly made 
like unto us except sin, fulfilling the teaching of salvation in 
parables, [sowed] ^ the seed from it in His disciples, that they 
too and all throughout the whole world who by their means 
received the word, if anything that was good sprang up from 
it in the way of righteousness and pious deeds, might ascribe 
this not to themselves but to the power of that which He sowed 
in the beginning, as by grace, and, when among valleys and 
boulders ^ and stone rocks in the wilderness, might with loud 
and strong voices cry out, making utterance. Similarly, there- 
fore, has your serene Mightiness also sown * the seed of 
kindliness that is in my vileness, and has caused this letter to 
spring forth from me; not as the offspring of presumption, for 
how was it possible that in answer to the powerful and strong 
voice of your Majesty, which reached my ears, an utterance 
should not be emitted by me ? For, when those who bitterly 
despised my vileness thought that they had everywhere shut 
the doors in my face without mercy, then indeed, as by an 
unexpected miracle, you by your letter summon me to your- 
self, me, a man who am, as it were, driven about and banished 
by enemies. And this same thing is like God, who to them 
that were pursued ^ by foemen, when they thought themselves 

' Cf. Evag. iv. II. 

^ ^\ seems to have dropped out before ].L3V-^. 

' MS. 1Aj_1_j», not "jAi V." as L. 

" Read iJ>\ for Aj^Jl. » Read ^j_2ljj5 for _._21j»5. 


shut in and caught by them, provided a broad way of safety, 
worthy of His wisdom and His great might ; a way which 
worked a miracle upon Far'oh, who had let them go after their 
long time of subjection, and again ^ pursued after them to 
bring them into subjection to his hard yoke, and with his 
horsemen surrounded them in the wilderness of the Sea of 
Rushes and barred the way, thinking in his heart and saying, 
' These men are entangled in the land, for the wilderness hath 
shut them in.' ^ But the marvellous God to those who 
thought themselves hemmed in by warriors made a way of 
grace over the sea dry, that they might cross it on foot ; who 
commanded Moses to raise his staff over the sea and cause it 
to be divided. And so in close resemblance to these things 
you also with your Majesty's wand of peace have divided the 
sea in the wilderness which hemmed me in'; and the way 
which, it was thought, could not be traversed you have again 
caused to be traversed by me. 

" And it is a great proof of your gentleness that you 
unhesitatingly indited your letter to me even with oaths^ 
promising me immunity from injury ; in this also after the 
manner of God, because He too, condescending to the weak- 
ness of men, oftentimes sent forth His promises with oaths, as 
Scripture teaches, and Paul made mention of it, saying, 
' When God made promise to Abraham, because He had none 
greater than Himself by whom He could swear. He sware by 
Himself and said, " Blessing, I will bless thee ; and multiplying, 
I will multiply thee." ' ^ But I, the vile one, am bold to say 
that I was in no need of such security,* since I trust the word 
that comes out of your mouth only, believing it to be a 
perfect safeguard to me, even as the wise Koheleth said, 
' Observe the mouth of the king, and be not anxious in regard 
to the word of the oaths of God.' ^ But I have confidence in 
the test which springs from the deeds which in truth bear 
witness more than oaths to your peacefulness as well as* 
to your inclination to the mercies which belong to a gentle 

1 Insert O before ,^oL ^ Ex. xiv. 3. " Heb. vi. 13, 14. 

4 Read ] - '^ <^ i^ ] (dir^dXeio) for IulJA^LCO |. " Eccles. viii. 2. 

^ fcSlo is crossed out in the MS., but a copula of some kind is required. 

256 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

soul. For, as soon as you have taken upon yourself the cares 
of the kingdom, you release from sorrow all classes of men 
sentenced to exile, chief priests and magnates and common 
people, having regard to that which is equally esteemed by all 
men, the light of the sun,^ and rain, and the temperate air 
which it brings, and the other things which are required for 
and conduce to the life of men. 

" But I will not, by drinking from the copiousness of this 
rich stream of your gentleness, cause myself to err, and be 
rendered proud ; but I have determined to declare what is in 
my mind. For I am afraid lest, if my meanness be openly seen 
in the royal city, many persons may be alarmed, and, though 
I am in truth nothing but merely a vile person bound under 
this heavy yoke of sins, when they hear of this, many persons 
may be roused 'to anger and inflamed by this paltry anxiety, 
as by a little coal of fire, so as to trouble and annoy even your 
Mightiness ^ owing to your affection towards me : and I think 
that it will not seem to you fitting nor t'o others profitable. 
Now this I say, not as though I had any power against your 
Majesty's Mightiness, for it is written, ' When a righteous king 
sitteth upon a throne, no evil riseth up against his eyes,' ^ but 
because I am persuaded that, as this power * belongs to you by 
grace from on high, so you are clad in understanding and 
wisdom, and make it your endeavour to do^ many things, not by 
this sword, but by sagacity befitting kingship. And this we are 
taught by the Scripture, which says, ' A wise king winnoweth 
and scattereth the wicked.' ^ And, just as it is easy for those 
who are winnowed by the wind, which blows away the chaff, 
to hold aloof from sinners,^ so also is it simple for your 
serenity, my lordj with the all-considering heart and with 

' Read ] -^« for rn « ^n « 

2 Read «ail],.K>0 ] for ODJ^jjO |. s Prov. xx. 8. 

* The MS. has ]\ i ki, not ]X*jJ, as L. prints. 

" The MS. has xOfJ^SOL, not ^Oj.£1£dZ, as L. prints. ^ Prov. xx. 26. 

' For ]j_6jj we should perhaps read ].^m, "grains of wheat " (Hamilton). In 
this case we should probably read ^Q_»;.:aj for ^n mn o\ ^ and render "easy for 
them (the reapers) to separate the things that are winnowed . . . from the wheat." 


the mercy of a gracious ^ father, to separate those that are 
under subjection to you from those of the contrary part, in 
order that the Churches in union may be reckoned worthy of 
friendship. For I know that it was for this reason also that 
you judged it right that my feebleness too should come to 
your feet, because, when also you reckoned this same thing ^ 
worthy of a letter from you to the pious bishops of the East, 
who are men that pray for- the safety and preservation of your 
Majesty, they also, after they had written to you what they 
thought, informed my feebleness of this your will, urging us 
according to the custom of the Church to help you ^ by prayer 
on your behalf 

" " Now in your great city of Alexandria nothing has been 
done by me of the things falsely asserted against me. And 
it is easy for me to show the folly of the informers ; * for 
they have slandered me, saying that by means of a large sum 
of gold which I distributed there, I stirred up riotous conten- 
tion. And this same thing is known to those who hate me 
greatly that, though involved in the passions of other sins, I 
do not seek hastily to amass money ; and this by no light 
reasons, but my life^ is habitually frugal, insomuch that not 
even the renowned bishopric drew me away from this habit. 
For, as it is the approved custom for a priest to perform 
priestly functions,^ in the same way it is the approved custom 
for him to be poor : wherefore also the law given by Moses 
ordained that the chosen tribe of Levi should have no inherit- 
ance in the land, but for their necessary food the appropriated 
oblation '' should be sufficient, being associated in this with 

1 The MS. has ]jAcDQ_i_*j, not ]jAcDQ_k»J, as L. prints. 
^ This sentence is very awkward and obscure. The general sense I owe to Dr. 
Hamilton, and I arrive at it by omitting ,20. 
' Only ^O ... is visible. Read < nn\ . 
^ '{5)QA. See p. 24s, note 7. 

5 ;8(0S. 

^ The MS. has iCTLSJ, not _£Q.1U, as L. prints. Logically we require another 
J before ^CTXIiJj. 

' Omit X before ] 1 *'^ ^n o It is doubtful whether the letter is really in 
the MS. 


258 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

the widows and the needy and the orphans, because they are 
accustomed to poverty, saying, ' And the Levite shall come 
(because he hath no part or inheritance with thee), and -the 
stranger and the orphan and the widow, which are in thy 
villages, and they shall eat and rejoice; that the Lord thy 
God may bless thee in all thy works which thou doest.' ^ But, 
since, as it is written, ' Righteous lips are acceptable to the 
king, and he loveth upright speech,'^ your Mightiness may 
learn from the governors who have been at any time in 
Alexandria, and now from their officials,^ whom nothing 
escapes, whether anything of the kind has been done by me 
even in word, or has been reported to have been done, as they 
have falsely and maliciously asserted of me. But about these 
informers * I will not say anything, because it does not escape 
your knowledge what kind of men they are : but I await a 
judgment with them, after we have been separated from this 
world of toil, befoi'e the tribunal of Christ, where we shall give 
an account for idle words and for vain thoughts ; and especially 
shall we bishops, to whom much has been intrusted, be judged, 
although here we delight in bodily things and dally in them.* 

" But, if some apply the term turbulence to what I wrote to 
Julian, bishop of Halicarnassus, who has been perverted to the 
heresy of the Manichees and reckons the voluntary saving 
passions of Christ, the great God, as a phantasy, I do with ten 
thousand mouths and tongues confess and do not deny what I 
wrote, even as no one will hastily order me to deny my faith : 
for this is the opinion of your orthodoxy also, who more than 
the affairs of the world care to hold fast the things which 
belong to the Spirit. And I was not impelled to do this by 
my own will or my own motion, but I was greatly pressed by 
him to write, because he thought that I agreed with his 
doctrine. For, when I had gone through what he sent to me 
(and I am* far away from Alexandria), in the things which 

^ Deut. xiv. 29. ' Prov. xvi. 13. 

" rd^is. ' See above, and p. 245, note 7. 

« Read ^(Jl£D for ^.£3. 

" For «_»Aj1, " I am,'' we should perhaps read (OOl uAj], AjOOI .-tAjl, 
or /uOOl Lj], "I was." 


he wrote I found that under the name of incorruptibility he 
covered, as it were with a sheepskin, the blasphemies ^ of Mani, 
because there are many things which I will forbear to mention. 
" This foolish man, who confesses the passions with his 
lips only, hiding his impiety, wrote thus : ' Incorruptibility was 
always attached to the body of our Lord, which was passible of 
His own will for the sake of others.' And in brotherly love I 
wrote and asked him : ' What do you mean by " incorruptible," 
and " suffered of His own will for the sake of others," and " was 
attached to the body of our Lord," ^ if without any falsehood 
you confess it to be by nature passible ? For, if by the in- 
corruptibility possessed by it you mean holiness without sin, 
we all confess this with you, that the holy body from the 
womb which He united to Himself originally by the Holy 
Spirit of the pure Virgin, the Theotokos, was conceived and 
born in the flesh without sin and conversed with us men, 
because " He did no sin, neither was guile found in His 
mouth," ^ according to the testimony of the Scriptures. But, 
if you call impassibility and immortality incorruptibility, and 
say that the body which suffered in the flesh on our behalf 
was not one that was capable of suffering with voluntary 
passions and dying in the flesh, you reduce the saving passions 
on our behalf to a phantasy ; for a thing which does not 
suffer also does not die, and it is a thing incapable of suffer- 
ing.' * And upon receiving such remarks as these from me he 
openly refused to call the holy body of Emmanuel passible 
in respect of voluntary passions ; and therefore he did not 
hesitate to write thus, without shame and openly : ' We do 
not call Him of our nature in respect of passions, but in respect 
of essence.* Therefore, even if He is impassible, and even if He 
is incorruptible, yet He is of our nature in respect of nature.' " 

1 Read !^ for »ii before ._iaia£i;Q-iv 

^ I owe the translation of this difficult passage to Dr. Hamilton. For .g^ . o 1 
]001 we should have expected ZoOl (.£Li_QJ. 
= I Pet. ii. 22. 
^ Quoted shortly from the third letter of Severus to Julian (Add. MS. 17,200, 

fol. 17). 
5 ovffia.. 

26o THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

And the rest of the erring fatuity of JuHan, which is con- 
tained at great length in the epistle, I forbear ^ to record now, 
matters which are to be found in the many books which this 
holy Severus composed against Julian. 

But at the end of the epistle he wrote, saying thus : " I 
therefore entreat you and take hold of your feet, again repeat- 
ing the request that you will leave my meanness alone, and 
not again bring me forth among men, because I am enfeebled 
in my body and in my mind ; wherefore also I am weak, since 
true are the words of Scripture which say, ' The mind falleth 
among blows (?).'^ And there are now many white hairs on 
my head, which bear witness to me of death, the departure 
from this weary life, and it appears to me to be a thing 
very good and beneficial to sit hidden in a corner and bear in 
my mind the separation of soul from body, awaiting my 
grave ; ^ for ' the earth is the home of everyone that dieth,' * as 
Job said ; because in the case of other animals who live on the 
earth their hair, does not change, but in the case of this 
rational animal, man, because he was destined to come to 
judgment and have his deeds examined in the future world, 
as soon as he reaches old age, the hair of his head turns white, 
such appearance making announcement to him and inciting 
him, as far as those who have delayed are concerned, to pre- 
pare his deeds for his departure ; and the Scripture also bears 
testimony to him, saying, ' Lift up thine eyes and look on the 
fields, for they are white and prepared for harvest ' ; ^ for the 
separation of the soul from the body is in truth a harvest, and, 
as with a sickle, He cutteth it away from it, and it is bereft. 
So I beg that your Mightiness will grant me this simple 
request,^ that I may dwell hidden where I am, because the 

' Read [.ili. for ..ClL. 

^ If i2L»j01 is right, it would seem to be connected with i-SUjI, "to impel." 
Ct., however, p. 73, 1. 8, 21 (L.), where the verb seems to mean "to revile." I 
cannot find the source of the quotation. 

^For ._.;nr) IZuuii we must read either _i}J2lO Aj.£3 or ]AjjG 

^ Job XXX. 23. 5 John iv. 35. 

e For ■>-<.» CT X read \o^ 


rest of my days in the world I am determined to live in secret, 
as in a corner ; for such is the life of a monk. 

" May Christ, who is God over all, give you dominion over 
your enemies, with perfect peace and concord among the 
Churches, that you may be crowned with this also. And, if I 
am committing any fault or presumption in this my letter of 
petition, I entreat you to forgive me, as on other points ; for 
it is very becoming in a Christ-loving king to overcome evil 
with good, as the apostle said,'^ a duty which you display in 
deed, and are therefore rightly called victorious." 

The signature of Severus to the epistle — 

" May the only Trinity, for that is our God, preserve ^ your 
orthodoxy many years, keeping the dominion of the common- 
wealth* of the Romans in peace, and may He bring every 
nation of Romans and barbarians into subjection to you, and 
grant to the holy Churches * by your means perfect concord in 
sound faith ; and may He reckon you worthy to receive a crown 
in the kingdom of heaven." 

Now after this epistle the holy Severus remained till the 
year thirteen,^ and then came to the royal city, because he was 
pressed by letters from the king. 



When in the summer of the year eleven^ Rufinus and 
Hermogenes, the master of the offices, had by the help of our 
Lord made peace between the Romans and tlie Persians on 
the terms contained in the written treaty, and the Roman 
generals ® and army in the East had come to the royal city, 
they received blame from the king and incurred his displeasure, 

1 Rom. xii. 21. ^ xhe MS. has ^fiOJ- °°' i-^> ^s L. prints. 

" TToXiTela, ' Insert .^ before IZ^. 

» S34-5. « arpaTinbi. ' S33. 

262 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

because they had not acted worthily of the high honour and 
rank which he had bestowed on them by showing themselves 
brave and astute ^ in the struggle against the Persians, and 
especially Belisarius, because of the loss of the army under his 
orders, which had been defeated in battle at Thannuris and on 
the Euphrates ; and he made his defence to the king on the 
ground of the impatience of the army, and the lack of discipline ^ 
among the men under him. 

Now there were in Constantinople certain magnates from 
Africa, who, owing to a quarrel which they had with the 
prince of the land, had left their country and taken refuge 
with the king, and they gave him information about the 
country and incited him, saying that it was very extensive 
and very peaceful, and that it had no thought ^ of a war with 
the Romans, but was engaged in a struggle with the Moors, a 
people who are settled in the desert and live by robbery and 
devastation like the Saracens. And they pointed out to the 
king that this country had been torn and snatched from the 
Roman Empire since the days of Zirzeric, who took Rome, and 
also carried off valuable objects of gold and silver and other 
precious substances, and withdrew to Carthage in Africa, a 
distinguished* city, which he took and occupied; and he 
settled there, and stored and placed the treasures in it. 

And so the king made ready an army under Belisarius and 
Martin and Archelaus the prefect,^ and many ships carrying ° 
arms and accoutrements (?) "^ for the army ; and they sailed over 
the sea ; and, because God willed this expedition and assisted 
it, they arrived in a few days and suddenly appeared before the 
royal city of Carthage. And the prince of the land was not there,® 

1 ]jL3|-^. See bk. I, ch. I (p. l6, note 8). 

^ The negative P has fallen out of the text. 

3 The MS. has lAjJtiO, not "jAjj^kj, as L. prints. 

" Read lA i 1 ■ S\ for ']A . n . .;] .■> j),ra/)xos. 

" Read A\ .. n . for - - V . o - 

' (AjoJ, " outer garments," can hardly be right. 

^ We must either insert another ^-icZ. or omit 3, rendering ' ' the prince was 
not there." 


but was engaged in war with the Moors in the desert ; but a 
small force, which was in the city, which came out and met 
the Romans, was defeated in battle and was vanquished and 
retreated. And the .city was surrendered, and the Romans 
entered and occupied it. And they collected spoil ; and the 
prince's treasure was kept for the king of the Romans. 

Now the Romans also occupied a few of the cities of the 
country, because they were betrayed ^ to them by certain men 
who were with them, who betrayed the country and knew it 
well ; and it ^ is a spacious land, extending over about fifty 
days' journey, and contains more than one hundred and thirty 
cities, and is rich and fertile. But the king and the chief 
priests of the land and the magnates of the people were 

Now, when the prince heard it and came with an army, it 
was found to be small and contemptible before the Romans ; 
and, when he understood that his kinsmen had been taken, and 
his magnates had surrendered, and his treasure had been 
carried away, he was weakened, and on condition that his life 
should be spared he surrendered. And he was taken away in 
company with Belisarius in the year twelve,* and was publicly 
presented to the king in the circus^ before the people,^ with 
the treasure^ and his kinsmen and his magnates. And an 
ambassador of Khosru, king of the Persians, was there and 
was present and saw these things. And from that time 
Africa has been subject to the Romans. And gradually the 
other cities in the region of Africa were reduced : only the 
Moors continue their accustomed hostilities there. 

' Read ,_,jrQiO for ^JCTlk). 

^ The rest of this sentence is contained in Cod. Rom. Instead, however, of 
"and is rich and fertile," it has " and the chief city and capital of the country is 
called Carthage." 

' /.e. Arians — followers of the Synod of Ariminum. 

« 534. 5 iTTTriKis. * dijfws. '' Cf. Jo. Mai. p. 479. 

264 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 



Alimeric ^ the tyrant held possession of Rome by rebellion 
in the days of Zeno and Anastasius ; and he was a warlike 
man and an able, and he added great strength to the country 
of Italy, and he rebuilt Rome and kept the barbarians out of 
it. And he had died, and his successors one after another 
held and governed the country of the Romans in rebellion 
against the kingdom of Constantinople. 

Now a certain Dominic,^ one of the chief men of the 
country, had a quarrel with the tyrant, and took refuge with 
King Justinian, and gave him information about the country. 
And he was an old man, well read in the Scriptures,^ a 
Diphysite ; and he often engaged in disputation, and I know 
him. Now the king, having conquered Africa in the manner 
described above, was eager to conquer Rome also. And, 
observing that Belisarius had been successful in the war in 
Africa without doing any injury to the population of the 
country or diminishing it by bloodshed, but had been content 
with the necessary demands of tribute, taxes, and subjection, 
he made ready an army for him and sent him to Rome. 
And John the chief priest there had died during those days, 
and Agapetus had succeeded him. 

And, when the army had reached a place called Naples, a 
celebrated city, not far from Rome, and had taken it, the 
Senate * in Rome and their council,^ together with their chief,^ 
were disturbed and afraid, because they had already heard 
how Carthage and the tyrant of that country of Africa had 
been conquered ; and, observing these things, they anticipated 

' I.e. Theodoric ; see bk. 7, ch. 12. 2 q^ Demonicus. 

* Lit. "from the reading of the Scriptures." Possibly some words have fallen out. 
■* cri)7«;Xi/Tos. = ^oi\i\. 

^ If the singular is genuine, the Gothic commandant, or possibly the king, would 
seem to be meant ; but perhaps we should read ,nr n . » ■ ■« •< their chief men.'' 


matters by sending a petition, asking for peace, and promising 
to surrender the city ; and later they also sent hostages. 
And afterwards Belisarius arrived there with the army and was 
received in the city with the praises of its inhabitants, and he 
occupied it and did no injury in it. And he was there for a 
time, while occupying the other cities also and bringing them 
into subjection to the king, without doing any hurt by slaying 
or destroying the population. And the king gained renown 
by these things and rejoiced in the year fourteen,^ 



Now ^ the well-tried Severus, after receiving pressing 
summonses from the king, at last came to Constantinople in 
the year fourteen,^ and was received in a friendly manner in the 
palace by the king, who was disposed * and incited thereto by 
Theodora the queen, who was devoted to Severus, and he was 
honourable and venerable in her eyes. And, Epiphanius, the 
chief priest of the city, having died, Anthimus had succeeded 
him ; and he was an ascetic man and a practiser of poverty, 
and a friend of the needy and a believer. He was bishop of 
Trebizond, and, happening for some reason to be present there, 
and being a man of virtuous character and known to the king 
and the magnates for his chastity, he was appointed patriarch ; 
and he would not receive the Synod of Chalcedon into the faith. 

^ 536. The text is (.fl^i nflfl 1 ff); (j, which is a confusion between 
" TpuTKaLSiKaTov '' and " TeaaapeaKMSiKaTov." Read ( ^ '^. ''^"i;''" (^ which is 
the nearer to historical fact. 

^ Jo. Eph. Fragm. (Anecd. Syr. ii. p. 386). 

'535-6. In chs. 15 and 16 the date is rightly given as the thirteenth year of 
the Indiction (534-5). "rpls" (ifTl 1; (^) and "riacrapes" (-rn.m ^^ are easily 
confiised : see note I above. 

* Cf. Evag. iv. 10. 

266 THE CHRONICLE OF . [book ix. 

And in Alexandria, after Gaian had been driven out, who 
was a JuHanist, and was there for three months after the death 
of Timothy, Theodosius became bishop, a man of conspicuous 
faith and learned and kind and gentle ; and he was an 
acquaintance and a friend of the holy Severus. 

When these three chief priests were joined together in 
love, and in faith ^ were not divided from one another, 
Ephraim ^ of Antioch was alarmed and greatly disturbed, and 
yet more so because * Peter of Jerusalem was not of his own 
inclination a lover of discord * or a heretic, although through 
weakness and lack of energy and vigour he conducted himself 
according to the times. 

Now^ it happened that in those days Sergius,^ an 
archiatros of Rhesaina, went up to Antioch to make a 
complaint against Asylus,^ the bishop of that city, telling 
Ephraim the patriarch ^ that he had been injured by 
him. And this man was a man of eloquence and prac- 
tised in the reading of many books of the Greeks and 
in the teaching of Origen, while for some time he had been 
reading commentaries on the Scriptures by other doctors in 
Alexandria (and he was skilled in the Syriac tongue, reading 
and speaking) and books ^ of medicine. And of his own 
inclination he was a believer, to which evidence is also borne 
by the prologue and the very apt translation of Dionysius 
which he made ^^ and the treatise composed by him on the 
faith in the days of the illustrious Peter, the believing bishop. 
However, as regards his character, this Sergius was very 

^ Insert .£i before (ZaiLDjOl. ^ Mich. fol. 170. 

s Insert J before JUOj-^. So Mich. Js. 

"■ Read ^jjai for ]j_i5c71. Mich. ]V]oVn 

' What follows is contained in an abbreviated form in Add. MS. 12,154, fol. 151." 

« Mich. I.e. ; Greg. H. E. p. 205 ff. 

' 17,202 has ^QXD], and 12,154 ^^fiOOJ, while Mich, and Greg, have \\r^m| 
Asylus of Rhesaina is mentioned in Elijah's life of John of Constantia (ed. Kleyn, 
P- S9)) whence I follow the reading of 17,202. 

8 After .LjOiO insert Pj-i^^^ iaO ij^^t-l, with 12,154 : similarly Mich, and 

" The MS. seems to have I » \*"^ ■ ''^ {^i.^\la), not | ■ \*~iO as L. prints. 
i» Wright, C. B. M. pp. 493-501. 


wanton in the lust of women, and he was incontinent and not 
chaste, while he was greedy in respect of the love of money. 

Of this man Ephraim made trial, and, finding him to be a 
man of experience, promised to do for him anything that he 
asked, if he would go as his emissary to Rome with an epistle 
to Agapetus, the chief priest there, and return. And he 
accepted.^ And he was furnished with presents by Ephraim, 
and received a letter for the man, while he was accompanied 
by a lad named Eustace, an architect, from Amida,^ who 
spreads about a strange story about Sergius ; but, lest it 
should do harm to the reader, I do not record it. 

These men also accordingly came to Rome to Agapetus, 
and they delivered the epistle and were received ; and the man 
was pleased with their epistle, in which he found agreement 
with his opinions. And he came with them to Constantinople 
in the month of March in the year fourteen ; ^ and Severus was 
there, and Anthimus was chief priest. And the whole city 
was disturbed at the arrival of Agapetus ; * and the earth 
with all that is upon it quaked ; and the sun began to be 
darkened by day and the moon by night, while ocean was 
tumultuous with spray (?) ^ from the 24th of March in this 
year till the 24th of June in the following year fifteen.^ And 
Agapetus, when he appeared before the king, had a splendid 
reception from him, because he spoke the same language'' and 
was chief priest of the country of Italy, which had been 

' After yiQ^CTU insert WnD ^J 001, with 12,154. Similarly Greg. 

2 Read ^] for -^X 3 ^35. 

^ This sentence is not in 17,202, but, being in 12,154 (which, however, omits 
the portents following) and in Mich. , it must be presumed to have formed part of 
the original text. 

^ y nf-^ . ^i'~^ f-"!-^, a very awkward phrase, the rendering of which I owe 
to Dr. Hamilton. The usual meaning of (.^ is "to be anxious,'' or " to neglect" ; 
but, as |30;A means "a storm," and Mich, has i|l.^OXj, we may fairly render 
as above. 

° 537- 

'Instead of the rest of this sentence 12,154 has OiAj.^^Z ^SO, "and had 

been brought up with him," which is probably an error for mA . V; / ;^0, "and 
shared his opinions." 

268 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

conquered and brought into subjection to him. And he was 
instructed in the outward words of Scripture but did not 
understand its meaning ; and he held an ignoble opinion upon 
the Incarnation of Jesus, our Lord Christ, God the Word, and 
he would not consent to call the Virgin Mary the Theotokos, 
and divided the unity into two natures, since he held the 
priority of the conception of the babe, like those of the school 
of Diodorus and Nestorius. And he abstained from com- 
munion with Anthimus and Severus, and they yet more from 
communion with him ; and one of them he called an adulterer 
and the other a Eutychianist : and he perverted the love of 
the king towards them and made him hostile to them ; and he 
drove them from the city. 

And 1 Anthimus and Severus and Theodosius of Alexan- 
dria made union with one another^ in epistles, which we have 
set down below ; and Anthimus and Severus left the city to 
live each of them in hiding wherever was convenient for him. 

Now Menas became bishop ^ in the royal city after 
Anthimus. And Sergius the archiatros died suddenly there, 
and Agapetus died after him in those days by a miracle, his 
tongue being eaten away and rending him in his lifetime ; * 
and Silverius became bishop in Rome after him. 



" To ^ the God-loving presbyters and deacons and archi- 

^ Cf. Evag. iv. II. 

2 Here the extract in 12,154 breaks off owing to the loss of a leaf in the MS. 

8 The MS. has loOl, not ZoCTI, as L. prints. 

^ This passage is repeated in a ninth cent, chronicle in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 14,642, 
fol. 29 V, which, however, in place of - .rnn . ^^ »~s has «_»CnQJ_«JD, "and he 
tore it with his teeth." 

5 Mich. fol. 178. 


mandrites and priors and all the holy order of monks in the 
East Severus greeting in our Lord. 

" That I have passed outside the city which is ruler among 
cities and beyond the pursuit of men, some of you, O holy 
ones, being present, have seen with their own eyes, I who 
have reckoned it right to indite this short letter on my part 
and to stir you up to the expression (?) ^ of thanksgiving for 
what I even reckon as my glory (?),^ and to state clearly that 
the actions of the divine providence towards us ^ are in truth 
beneficial to us for the preservation of the orthodox faith and 
the formation of a new will, with which, as one may say, it is 
right to clothe oneself after the fashion * of a new garment, 
and for shunning every heretical opinion and contention. For 
Jacob also the patriarch, the great in endurance of labours 
and in trust in God, when he fled from intercourse with the 
barbarians in Sh'khem and from the dangers that surrounded 
him there, urged those that dwelt with him to the same course 
to which I have urged you, as he says in Scripture : ' And 
Jacob said to his household and to all them that were with' 
him. Put away from among you the strange gods, and be clean, 
and change your garments : and let us arise and go up to 
Beth El and build there an altar unto God, who answered me 
in the day of distress and delivered me in the way which I 
went.'^ For he has in truth delivered me from all the 
expectation of the adversaries, who hate me without a cause, 
and mocked at me and wagged their heads and said, as in 
Job, ' His foot hath fallen into a gin, and he hath been caught 
in a net. Let gins come upon him, and they shall prevail 
against him, as thirsting^ for him. His noose is hid in the 

1 For ]A<yi 0/ I read |Ao e^Kn but the sentence is extremely obscure. Mich. 
hasZl^IDoZ, "bringing."' Dr. Hamilton suggests ]Zn <^ 1 CiL, "strength." 

^ Read ")ZQj^>-i.ii-» for |/n ri . «~i » With the MS. reading we must render 

' This sentence is hopelessly corrupt in the text. I take the sense from Mich. , 

who seems to have omitted A ,0, and read ]3 ; ■ n for ]i ; aV ), and ZoA for Q_^. 
■■ Logically the J before LQ^jd should be omitted. 
■'' Gen. XXXV. 2, 3. 
« The MS. has ^CTL., not ^Ol], as L. prints. 

270 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

ground, and the net is over his paths.' ^ But, as for the 
wickedness of these men, it is not sated with blood ; the 
Christ-worshipping queen was a sufficient protection for me, 
and God, who through your prayers directed her to that 
which is good in His sight, even as He cries in Isaiah the 
prophet to those that trust in Him, ' Fear not, because I 
have delivered thee. I have called thee by thy name, because 
thou art Mine. If thou pass through water, I am with thee, 
and rivers shall not overflow thee ; and in fire thou shalt not 
be burned, and flame shall not scorch thee. Because 1 am the 
Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, that delivereth thee.' ^ 

" And He that said these things has not only given me a 
marvellous deliverance, but has further also added an addition 
to the portion of the believers, to say truth, to the portion 
of the Lord and to the possession of His inheritance, Israel, 
that it may not be as those whom the Scripture blames, saying, 
' Ye shall sow your seed in vain.' ^ For the pious Anthimus, 
archbishop of the royal city, who received the chief chair, even 
when he was in possession of it, would not retain it, but in 
upright fashion and with true judgment and knowledge hated 
the impiety of these men, and accepted the communion of us 
and of Pope Theodosius of Alexandria and of all the pastors 
who belong to our confession. Accordingly they vainly lead 
men astray who say that they do not receive the Synod of 
Chalcedon in respect of the definition of faith, but in respect of 
the rejection of Eutyches and Nestorius, clokes which Flavian 
also used but did not succeed in leading your zeal astray, and 
you were not overreached by Satan, and are able to say like 
Paul, ' His devices do not escape us.' " * 

And so on with the rest of the epistle. 

' Job xviii. 8-10. ^ Isa. xliii. 1-3. 

^ Lev. xxvi. 16. * 2 Cor. ii. 11. 




" To 1 our pious and holy brother and fellow-minister, 
the patriarch, my lord Severus, Anthimus greeting in our 

" Bearing in my mind the utterance of the Lord which says, 
' To whomsoever much has been committed, from him shall 
much be required,' ^ and the saying ^ of the Psalmist, ' Who shaU 
ascend into the hill of the Lord? and who shall stand in His 
holy place ? ' * and the apostle, who ordains of what sort a man 
must be who is set apart for God, I have been in no small fear. 
For, if those great patriarchs called themselves, one ' dust and 
ashes ' ^ and another ' a worm and no man,' ^ what shall I say, 
the small and contemptible, who have attained to the height of 
this ministry without being worthy of it? For the disturbance 
of the holy Churches also agitates my soul greatly ; for certain 
men, being held fast in sins and, as if displaying an appearance 
of avoiding variation and confusion, which does not exist, 
wantonly'' divide God the Word, who is one and indivisible, 
and became incarnate without variation. And for this reason 
I am in great sorrow, as it is said in the Psalmist, ' Sorrow hath 
taken hold upon me because of the sinners that have forsaken 
Thy law.' ^ But trust in God gives me joy, and I believe that 
He will surely perform His promises and will give us all that we 
mean creatures need, not because we are His friends but because 
of importunity, and He will make requisition for all His elect ; 
who has also for a long time preserved your Holiness from sins 

1 Mich. fol. 174. ^ Luke xii. 48. 

3 Insert O before ]Al:ial^. " Ps. xxiv. 3. 

5 Gen. xviii. 27. " Ps. xxii. 6. 

' To get this sense we should probably read ^^.^^^k3 for ^...^SO. Mich., 
however, has <aQ..«-j, "part," which points to a reading ^j;_^k). With the MS. 
reading the meaning will be " mock and divide.'' 

8 Ps. cxix. 53. 

272 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

through your apostolic ^ contests and labours and your spiritual 
teachings, which by grace have been vouchsafed unto you, as a 
stone that cannot be moved, as well as us, His holy Churches, 
to be an invariable foundation of the faith. It is therefore the 
same God who assigns exaltation to the lowly and greatness to 
the small and strength to the weak, as the divine apostle says, 
' By grace are we all justified.' ^ And these things, being by 
divine power made strong in weakness, have by an ineffable 
judgment brought our weakness also to be ruler in the holy 
Church in this royal city. Acknowledging therefore His grace, 
we beg you, pious one, to entreat Christ our God to assist 
our worthlessness ; and, because different men ^ have different 
marks, the mark of priests is also the preaching of the gospel, 
for, ' Speak,' He says, ' priests, and, when you go up upon the 
high mountains, make proclamation.'* 

" In this first spiritual and love-abounding ^ greeting I com- 
municate with you, O holy one ; for, while rejoicing in union and 
also in conjunction with you and in spiritual ties in accordance 
with the laws of the Church, I declare that I cleave to the one 
only definition of faith, that which was laid down by the three 
hundred and eighteen holy fathers who assembled at Nicaea 
under the direction of the Holy Spirit, and to this I pray that I 
may cleave unto the end ; which definition was ratified * by the 
Synod of one hundred and fifty holy fathers which assembled in 
this royal city against the impious fighters against the Spirit ; 
and not only so, but also by the holy Synod which assembled at 
Ephesus against the impious Nestorius, the leaders of which were 
the archbishops, memorable for piety and love of God, Celestine 
of the Romans and Cyril of Alexandria, who in his twelve 
chapters overthrew Nestorius the man -worshipper. To these 
chapters I assent together with all his writings and embrace 

^ Read ( > ^^ ■ \ » for ( > ^ ■ \ » 

2 Tit. iii. 7. 

' Read P;.Kt])> for (j-i;.^^)). The sentence is awkward, but the sense is clear 
from Mich. 1^] ]'^ 1 \iL iOOlX ^p^"). 
* The reference seems to be to Isa. xl. 9. 
° Read Av . e^ « for W 1 "^ ». 
' Read ^\^Aj>> for ASQj^Z., as in the parallel passage in ch. 25 (p. 289). 


them as a holy law, while together with these holy teachings 
of Cyril I receive also the formula of Zeno uniting the 
Churches, which aims at the consummation of religion for the 
annulling of the Synod of Chalcedon and the impious Tome 
of Leo. I confess that God the Word, who was begotten 
before the ages of God the Father, the only Son, connatural 
and coeternal with the Father, through whom all things were 
made and through whom all things were established, the Light 
of Light, the invariable image and invisible will of the Father, 
in the last days became incarnate and became perfectly man 
of the Holy Spirit and of the holy Theotokos and ever-virgin 
Mary, and united to Himself personally flesh of our nature, 
having a rational and intellectual soul, and without variation 
and confusion and sin took our resemblance upon Him. For 
He remained immutable as God, and even in assuming our 
attributes He did not at the same time also diminish His 
own divine properties ; and that which was derived from us 
He made His own by dispensation by a junction ^ consisting 
in a natural union. For He who was begotten without time 
and without a body of God the Father, the same submitted to 
a second ^ birth in a body ; and, after He had in an ineffable 
manner become incarnate of a virgin mother, she that bore 
Him also continued a virgin even after the birth. Wherefore 
also we truly confess her to be the Theotokos, and that He 
who was born of her in the flesh is perfect God and perfect 
man, the same out of two natures one Son, one Lord, one 
Christ, and one nature of the incarnate Word ; and He became 
perfectly man, while each one of the natures remained without 
confusion in its sphere of manifestation, the natures which 
combined to form an indivisible unity. So also He is very 
rightly one of the holy and connatural Trinity, before the 
Incarnation and after the Incarnation, inasmuch as He did 
not add a number to the Trinity, the number of a quaternity ; 
and He is impassible in that He is of the nature of the 

' MS. not ] » 1 ^, as L., but 'JA,.«JLO, changed into ]A ■ 1 ) ^. Perhaps 
read IZo-m-tiO. 

2 The MS. has ^52.5, not ^JZj, as L. prints. 

274 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

Father, but passible in the flesh in that He is of our nature. 
For God the Word did not suffer in His own nature, but in 
flesh ^ of our nature; and He who personally united this to 
Himself suffers in our likeness. And Gregory the Theologian 
defined the matter and called Him impassible in the Godhead, 
passible in the assumption of flesh.^ And He is one and the 
same in the miracles and also in the passions ; and by dispensa- 
tion He made our passions His own, voluntary and innocent 
ones, in flesh which was passible and mortal and of our nature, 
intellectually, and rationally possessed of a soul. And this 
all the time of the dispensation He allowed to be passible 
and mortal for the purpose mentioned above with respect to 
His Humanisation, I mean that He suffered not in semblance 
but in reality. For in the flesh that was capable of suffering 
He endured voluntary and natural and innocent passions and 
the death by the Cross ; and by a miracle befitting God, that 
of the Resurrection, He made and rendered it impassible and 
immortal and in every way therefore incorruptible, since it 
came from the union and existence ^ in the womb, which * 
was holy and without sin. While recognising, therefore, the 
distinction between the elements which have combined^ to form 
the unity of nature, I mean the divine and the human nature, 
we do not separate them from one another; also we do not 
cut the One and ineffable into or in two natures, nor yet 
do we confound Him by rejecting the distinction between the 
Godhead and the manhood, but we confess Him to be one 
out of two, Emmanuel. 

" And, thus believing and taking my stand upon this 
belief, as upon a rock, I also anathematise the deviations 
from the truth which have been made by both sides, and 
the impious and erring men who went before them as their 

^ Read »0 for O before jCfl'^i, as in the parallel passage in ch. 25 (p. 290). 

' Greg. Naz. Or. xl. 45. 

' For ]k5aj_0 read ]^^ ^n n or ^kJOTJ. 

* If "the womb " is the antecedent we must read 0O1 for •.lOI ; but possibly the 
antecedent is "the union." Cf. p. 290, note 4. 

' d^OlJ, "ran," here and in the parallel passage in ch. 25 seems to be used 
to represent (rvvidpafiov, though no such meaning is recognised in lexicons. 


leaders 1 (I refer to Valentine and Marcion and Arius and 
Macedonius and Eunomius and Apollinaris and Eutyches), 
and those also who owing to the union with the Word 
have vainly and impiously confessed the flesh which was 
derived from us and was personally united to God the Word 
to be impassible and immortal, and have introduced a 
semblance and a phantasy as belonging to the great mystery 
of the immutable and veritable Humanisation of the Lord ; 
and I anathematise also Paul of Samosata and Photinus and 
Diodorus and Theodore and Nestorius, and also Theodoret 
and Andrew and Hibo and Eutherius and Alexander of 
Hierapolis and Irenseus the twice-married and Cyrus and 
John ^ and Bar Tsaumo the Persian and the Synod of Chal- 
cedon and the Tome of Leo and those who say that He is 
made known and exists in two natures, i.e. our Lord Jesus 
Christ after the ineffable union, and do not confess that 
there is one aspect,* one person and nature of God the 
Word, who became incarnate and became man. On the 
basis of these apostolic and divine and blameless doctrines, 
holy brother ours, I give you the right hand of communion, 
a communion which I will hold fast till my last breath, 
while I will not consent to hold communion with any man 
who thinks differently from this, because Basil says, ' He 
who* communicates without discrimination with the foolish^ 
is separated from the freedom ^ of Christ.' ^ For I know 
that you also, pious one, hold these things ^ fast, and have ^ for 
a long time laboured. For who is there who in our times 
has undergone such a contest, removing from place to place, 
that his faith may not be shaken ? And in you I see the 
doctors of the Church, because you have duly set the lamp 

1 MS. ,001i 1 *■>, not ^Oaij_»J, as L. 

^ After this name the names of Theodoret and Andrew are accidentally repeated 
in the MS. 

^ Trpbaairov. * Insert J before fjj ^ ISuIittjs. 

^ For ( . mm. o\ {ira^pnicla) Mich, has .CD0JJ.2J {vap&Seuros). 

' I do not know from what part of Basil's works this quotation is taken. 

8 The MS. has J before ^-^Aoi, which L. does not print. 

^ There seems to have been another letter before ^iO, and I insert O. , So Mich. 

276 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

visibly on a stand, shining, as you do, in deed and word. 
It will be worthy therefore of your piety in consideration of 
these things to gladden us by instruction in return for our 
letter." And the rest, consisting of the greeting of the epistle.^ 




" To ^ our all -pious and all -holy brother and fellow-minister, 
the patriarch Anthimus, Severus greeting in our Lord Jesus 
Christ our God. 

" For the letter ^ of your chastity Paul the apostle shall give 
me a precedent for crying aloud in very opportune time, ' Thanks 
be unto God for His ineffable gift ' : * for immediately upon your 
accession to the see of the patriarchal throne of the Church in 
the royal city you determined in the exaltation of the primatial 
see for the sake of the right religion to despise that which to 
others is an occasion for betraying their faith. For in those who 
wish to follow the divine commandments and, as it is written, 
to go after the Lord, the wisdom of the Most High places fitting 
thoughts, in deacons and presbyters and patriarchs according 
to the order of their priesthood ; insomuch that the patriarch 
Abraham, after he had settled in many and divers countries, 
came to a certain country and drank copiously from a well that 
sprang from it, which was named the Well of Oaths, because^ 
he made oaths and treaties with the barbarians who lived near 
the country, and he planted fair and fruitful plantations ; and, 
lest his thoughts should be dissipated in them, he called there 
upon the name of the Lord, the everlasting God, and, as he said 
to Him, ' Thy thoughts shall not go after the beauty of things 
that are seen and forget God in the pleasant delight of the sight, 

' Given by Mich. 2 Mjch, fol. 174. 

' The sentence, as it stands, is ungrammatical, but this is clearly the meaning ; 
there is the same difficulty in Mich. 

* 2 Cor. ix. 15. = Omit before ^O-^ik). 


for He alone is from everlasting, and hath made the things 
that are seen bright to the eyes and pleasant to the taste ' : 
and Scripture goes on to relate thus : ' Abraham planted a 
piece of land by the Well of Oaths and called there on the 
name of the Lord, the everlasting God ' ^ (and some have 
explained it to be wood-land and some plantation-land). In 
the same way, therefore, your piety after having settled in 
other countries has come to the head of the oaths,^ as to a 
piece of land fair in produce, I mean the see of the royal 
city, which is rich in the pomp ^ of the world, and drinks 
from the plentiful abundance of the stream. And, when 
you perceived that certain men wish to be perverted to a 
reprobate mind, differing* from the pure unadulterated 
coinage, well tried in the orthodox faith, you did not allow 
the eyes of your mind to go astray through the beauty of the 
world and the splendour of its vanities, which pass away ; 
but, after the pattern of the patriarch Abraham, you called 
there upon the name of the Lord, the everlasting God,* 
whose merciful Word became incarnate ^ and became man, 
that is, in order that the second Adam might in truth die 
the death that had prevailed over us'^ and overthrow its 
eternal dominion, a death which it was not possible for 
impassible and immortal flesh to endure, because that which is 
impassible and immortal is not capable of suffering and dying. 
For, if He did not die our death for our sins and destroy this 

^ Gen. xxi. 33. 

^ |AVnnVn - » .^ Perhaps the original Syriac translator of this letter wrote 

]»~i/ nVn - m . 1 , the chief see ; but Mich, has the same as our text, and, as the 
divergences between him and our text in these letters show that he drew not from 
our author but from a common source, we must not emend. 

3 (pdyraffis. * Read [^Jii^. 

^ What follows in Mich, is entirely different from our text. Moreover, not only 
is the transition at this point abrupt, but the sentence is of doubtful grammar, the 
personal ] A\Vf) being used with a feminine pronoun. Probably, therefore, a leaf 
has been lost ; but, as what follows is not in Mich, and cannot easily be joined on 
to his text, I leave the text as it stands. A leaf ends at this point. 

8 The MS. has jmsZ], not j n\ n Zo, as L. prints. 

' The MS. has ,^ ■ N\ not isoliA, as L. prints. 

378 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

death in flesh resembling our passions ^ when He rose from the 
dead, we are strangers and alien to the benefit of the Resur- 
rection. For ' Christ died for our sins,' ^ cries Paul ; and 
again, ' Since by man came death, by man came also the 
resurrection of the dead. For, as in Adam all die, so in 
Christ shall all live ' ; ^ and again, ' Since the children par- 
took of flesh and blood,* He also in like manner partook of 
the same, that through death He might bring to naught him 
that had the power of death, that is, Satan, and might deliver 
them who through fear of death were all their lifetime under ' 
subjection to bondage. For He received not of angels, but of 
the seed of Abraham did He receive. Wherefore it was right 
that in all things He should be made like unto His brethren.' ^ 
Now the seed of Abraham was the passible body of our race, 
which God the Word, the Ruler of All, united to Himself 
personally from the Holy Virgin, in order that with Him He 
might raise our race, which had fallen under the power of 
death, inasmuch as He was the firstfruits of our race. So 
also, since He is one nature and person, it is manifest that 
the incarnate Word of God of His own will endured the assay 
and assault of human® and natural and innocent passions. 
And the signs, even the human ones. He utters in a divine 
fashion (?),^ and performs some of them in a manner befitting 
God and some in human fashion. And we do not on account 
of the difference of the energies and the utterances and the 
miracles^ and the passions fall into the division of the two 
natures after the ineffable union and divide these things, the 
utterances and tokens and ' energies,^ forasmuch as we know 
that it is the same who wrought the miracles and who suffered 
and spoke in a divine manner and after the dispensation. 

^ This is an awkward construction, and we should perhaps insert a word, render- 
ing ' ' resembhng us in our passions. " 

" I Cor. XV. 3. 3 I Cor. xv. 21, 22. ^ Insert before ]iD». 

« Heb. ii. 14-17. 6 MS. Ij-mJI, not ^i al], as L. 

' Probably some words have dropped out in this sentence. 
8 Read ]L-^yL for IZJOLDjI 

' It would accord better with the following clause if instead of ] ~ - 1 V 
IZOJ, n SViN o we read ]Z-;iD»AliO I^jjA, "the passions and miracles." 


" These, to speak briefly, are the foundations on which the 
faith and confession of Christ rest, and ' to them nothing can be 
added, and from them nothing can be taken away.' ^ I ^ use 
opportunely in connexion with these things the holy words of 
Koheleth, and with application to those who have swerved 
from the king's highway and have gone in a crooked way 
and rejoice in evil perversity, but,^ as the Scripture said, ' in 
the Spirit which speaks parables,'* according to the law 
which was before delivered unto the Church by the apostles." 

And again a little lower down in the epistle he says,* 
" On these terms I undertake to participate in communion 
and also in inseparable conjunction with your piety and with 
those only who hold and also preach these things with you, 
and those who hold or say anything different I reject as 
strangers and aliens to our communion ; and I avoid the 
foolishness that is in these men, as also your messenger 
said, as a thing that makes us alien to the boldness ^ of Christ 
and supplies many with an occasion to sin. But, as one of 
those men of wisdom in divinity also says, ' By reason of 
foolishness many have sinned.' "^ For, if so be that we stand 
upon this watch-tower and place of observation and proclaim 
this to those who are under our power, we shall hear from 
them combs of honey, even good words, and the sweetness 
of them is healing to the soul. 

" Since therefore you have chosen for yourself to contend 
in a good struggle and have confessed a good confession, cry 
out like the prophet Habakkuk, ' I will stand upon my watch 

' Eccles. iii. 14. I owe this reference and the translation of the difficult sentence 
which follows to Dr. Hamilton. I can scarcely think that this sentence represents 
what Severus wrote, but, as Mich, has practically the same, any corruption must be 
older than our author. See p. 277, note 2. 

^ Mich. fol. 175. 

3 Mich, omits "but," and in place of ]liAk3, "parables," has ^dlAd^l, "the 
Scripture," making the clause run, "as is said in the Scripture in the spirit of 
Scripture, saying." 

"* The reference is probably to I Cor. xiv. 2, as Dr. Hamilton suggests. 

^A fragment of the letter not contained in our author is found in Add. MS. 
12,155, fol. no, and the whole intervening portion, including this fragment, is given 
in Mich. 

' Insert A before OiZqOjjUA. ' Sir. xxvii. •!. 

28o THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

and walk upon a rock,' ^ and despise them that strive below. 
And, if so be they place you under curses and anathemas, 
say to God with David with great fitness, ' They shall curse,^ 
and Thou shalt be blessed : let them that rise up against me 
be ashamed, but Thy bond-servant shall rejoice.' ^ For also 
those who profess a sound faith according to the utterance 
of the apostle ' are come unto Mount Tsiyon,* and unto the 
city of the living* God, unto Jerusalem in heaven, and to 
innumerable companies of angels, and to the Church of the 
firstborn, which are written in heaven.'*' Now, how can a 
man, shooting from the earth, hit those that are in the Church 
that is in heaven and mingle with it? For in vain will he 
toil and without profit will he stretch his bow, even if he dare 
to shoot upwards ; for upon himself will the arrows that are 
shot come down : for we listen also to one of the wise men, 
who says thus : ' He that casteth a stone upwards casteth 
against his own pate ' ; '' only if so be we continue unto the 
end, armed in the breastplate of the right faith and girt about 
in every place with all kinds of spirits.^ Now of this con- 
junction with your piety, which has been brought about for 
us by this canonical letter, tending both to unity of spirit 
and to be a bond ^ of peace, as the apostle said,i° I will send 
information to our fellow-minister my lord Theodosius, the 
holy Pope and archbishop of the great and Christ-loving 
city of Alexandria, who labours in apostolic fashion, and 
undergoes a contest and stands in danger on behalf of the 
true word, and increases the efficacy ^^ of the talents intrusted 
to him every day by means of industry, and rejoices con- 
stantly in the manifestation of them. And do you write to him, 

1 Hab. ii. I. ^ Read ^O^Q^ for OUCL^al^. 

^ Ps. cix. 28. ^ Read _^ for J before ^OaOl ? . 

^ The MS. has (.i-Ki, not |j<jJ, as L. prints. 

^ Heb. xii. 22, 23. ' Sir. xxvii. 25. 

^ Mich, has oaO^^] »>j|^£Q£i, "with the arms of the Spirit," and there- 
fore probably read |.>j05) h-jI instead of (AjoOJJ r-^l- The former, no 
doubt, represents what Severus wrote. 

» Read X for J before Xo\m. " Eph. iv. 2. 

" The MS. has |j_N»Aa£), not \j^ ■ \n'^, as L. prints. 


even as you have written to us, and grasp him with the same 
hands of concord, and write and enter into communication 
with him by a communicatory letter in accordance with the 
rules and laws of the holy Church. Wherefore the love of 
God that is in you should take care to perform your part 
towards him also, and it shall be to you, according to the 
prophecy of Isaiah, ' a wall and an outwork ' ; ^ as shall come 
to pass. And greet your brotherhood. That which is with 
me greets you in our Lord." 



" To ^ our all-pious and all-holy brother and fellow-minister, 
the chief priest, my lord Theodosius, Severus greeting in our 

" In the Book of the Judges, which is the Book of the 
Tribes, he said that the tribe of Judah invited the tribe of 
Simeon his brother to community of lots, urging him, as to 
brotherly assistance, in these words : ' And Judah said unto 
Simeon his brother, Come with me into my lot, and let us 
fight with the Canaanites ; and I likewise will go into thy lot. 
And Simeon went with him.' ^ But I invite your person, holy 
brother, not to the community of war and fighting and to give 
a helping hand for the sake of lots of inheritance, but rather 
to the community of peace and concord, and * on account of 
a gain made by the Church which Christ, even God, purchased 
with His own blood, a wonderful addition. For the holy 
Anthimus, the chief priest, who has been judged worthy to 
tend the Church of the royal city, severing the bonds and 
snares of the bitterness of the heretics, and repelling now their 
deceitful arts, now his open attacks,^ has embraced our com- 

' Isa. xxvi. I. ^ Mich. fol. 175 (if. " Judg. i. 3. 

* The MS. has O before . "^Nm, which L. does not print. 
^ Severus must have written "their open attacks"; but, as Mich, also has the 
singular possessive, we must not emend. See p. 277, note 2. 

282 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

munion, holding the sound and pure faith. And to my 
meanness he has sent a letter, containing a covenant of com- 
munion upon a perfectly orthodox confession, and he has 
anathematised by name everyone who is a heretic and an 
alien ; and his mind is not estranged from the commandments 
and ordinances of the Lord, which our spiritual fathers left 
as holy laws, upon which ^ we all ought to gaze earnestly and 
say, like the enduring Job, ' Gazing upon righteousness, I will 
not turn away.' ^ - So I eagerly and with goodwill welcomed 
this event which has happened as the gift of God, and I 
repeated the saying of the divine Scripture, ' This day we 
know that the Lord is with us, that all the peoples of the 
earth may know that the power of God is mighty.'^ For 
this is written in Joshua the son of Nun. 

"And it would indeed have been right that the* holy 
archbishop Anthimus should first apply to your evangelical^ 
throne and offer to you the firstfruits of concord ; but the 
necessity of this time and the distance of the country and 
the hurry of events changed the due order of things ; and 
because this was done in secret; for as a wise doctor of 
divine doctrines you know what is written in the record by 
John the Theologian rather than Evangelist,^ that the disciples 
were assembled with the doors shut for fear of the Jews, and 
that the great God and our Saviour, Jesus Christ, while the 
doors were shut, appeared inside by a miracle, and stood in 
the midst and said, ' Peace be with you.' ' 

" I have therefore attached to this letter a copy of my 
own letter of concord and that of the God -loving chief 
priest, the man above mentioned, which were composed under 
fear of the Jews, and have sent them to your Holiness. But 
the religious presbyter and steward, Theopompus,* also has 
certainly* already given you an account of this proceeding 
(for he also has communicated with you i" in this counsel and 

' Read ^OIO for CTLS. = Job xxvii. 6. 

^ Josh. xxii. 31, iv. 24. ^ Read 001 for |001. 

= The MS. has "ij-l^Jol, not ,ajA^Jo"|, as L. prints. 

'' Mich, "beyond the other evangelists." ' John xx. 19. 

^ MS. Theopomptus. ' irivrus. " Mich. " with us.'' 


action), because I believed that the love of God that is in 
you would rejoice and exult over it, especially when you 
met with the canonical letters containing the covenants. 

" But know, O pious brother, beloved by me above all 
things, that these demands of the Chalcedonians ^ differ in 
no way whatever from the promised covenant of Nahash the 
Ammonite, which he wished to make with the Children of 
Israel, who said to him, ' Make a covenant with us, and we 
will serve thee'; but he cruelly and barbarously returned 
answer, ' On this condition will I make a covenant with you, 
that you pluck out all your right eyes ; and I will lay a 
reproach upon Israel.'^ We are therefore in need of much 
watching and of immutable faith, and of prayers and entreaties 
that He that keeps Israel will not slumber nor sleep, and 
that He will turn the reproach upon those that are rich and 
boastful, and we may not become ' a scorn and a reproach to 
them that are round about us,'^ as David somewhere sings, 
while falling from divine things, they also confess human 
things ; for no trust is to be placed in unbelievers and 
enemies of God. But to you, who are understanding in 
divine things, what is here said is matter of knowledge.'' 



" To * our all-pious and all-holy brother and fellow- minister, 
the patriarch, my lord Severus, Theodosius greeting in our 

" O being beloved by me above all things, rock of Christ, 
and guardian of the pure faith who cannot be shaken, very 
excellent is the blessing granted to our time, which has dis- 
played your spiritual constancy to the holy Churches of God. 
We are also in good hope and are confident that the blame- 
less pattern of your virtue, which we possess, will be preserved 

' Insert J before ] . in, ■ nXn a i Sam. xi. i, 2. 

' Ps. Ixxix. 4. * Mich. fol. 176, 177 r. 

284 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

for you.^ But I do not know which of your virtues to admire ; 
for what is there among your qualities which is either 
defective or which stands in need of superfluous description ? 
If so be I admire the severe manner of your lovely life, the 
virtue of chastity attracts me to it, and the glorious purity of 
right faith, which justly demands to be placed before them all, 
and your life ^ of labours endured for a long time for God's 
sake, and your flight from place to place, and the fact that in 
everything you have chosen to suffer, in order that we may 
not be perverted from the right faith. In the same faith how 
many times have you under stress of events boldly cried with 
Paul, 'Who shall separate me from the love of Christ? Shall 
tribulation or distress or persecution ? ' ^ But in what category 
shall we place the exactitude of your teaching, whereby those 
that err are reproved and deceit is plucked out by the roots, 
while those that believe are delivered and are planted into the 
right faith ? And it seems to me as if I heard Christ, even 
God, saying to you what He said to Jeremiah the divine 
prophet : ' Behold ! I have put My words in thy mouth. Be- 
hold ! I have this day set thee over nations and over king- 
doms, to root out, and to pull down, and to destroy, and to 
build, and to plant ' ; * and again what He said about Paul : 
' He is a chosen vessel unto Me, to bear My name before 
the nations, and before kingdoms, and before all Israel.'^ 

" These are your qualities, O divine father, — qualities 
which it is perhaps easy to admire, but difficult to carry fully 
into action, even as now also by the watchful labours of your 
pious soul good deeds have been done to the Church of God. 
For in Christ Jesus those who were before far off" have become 
near. The pious Anthimus, who will be henceforth renowned 
for character and faith, the chief priest and true pastor of the 
Church of the royal city, has of his own will become a 
communicator with you, pious one, and with us, and walked 
after our right faith; who has banished and rejected snares 
and disturbances, and has trampled on transitory and unstable 

^Possibly we should read ^-^, "for us"; so Mich. 

2 Read ^01102001 for ^011123001. ^ Rom. viii. 35. 

^Jer. i. 9, 16. '^ Acts ix. 15. 


profit, inasmuch as he has learned to believe that human great- 
ness is nothing,! a.nd has boldly proclaimed the right and 
unfailing faith ; so that on account of this which has happened 
how we rejoiced and how we gave thanks to God and what 
spiritual festival we celebrated, O honoured father ours, it is 
not possible to say in words. 

" Now he has made a firm covenant jn a canonical letter 
and sent it to our evangelical throne, as indeed your Holiness 
also has already stated even in your honoured letter. And 
in the things which he has written he has declared the whole 
exactitude of the sound and right faith, while he has spurned 
with the anathemas everything that is deceitful and heretical, 
professing that he holds and proclaims these things with us, 
and says these things, since he is a communicator with those 
in whose communion our holy Church also rejoices, and pro- 
fessing that from those from whom we turn away he also 
turns away. He has therefore mentioned by name and 
anathematised those other names of the impious heresy, and 
the impious Synod held at Chalcedon, and the epistle of Leo. 
And, when we had with all possible care considered ^ the things 
written to us by the pious man and minutely examined them 
all, and had found that nothing in them was alien from the 
right faith, and we saw that there also everyone who is opposed 
to us was attacked,^ we all the more admired your judgment 
upon them ; for with the things which were canonically written 
to you, holy one, by the pious Anthimus upon the divine 
doctrines we found * those also which were written to us to be 
in accord. Since, therefore, we have found the letter of con- 
cord and communion of the holy Anthimus to be of such sort, 
I will, like the prophet, cry out in due_ season, ' Let the heavens 
rejoice from above, and let the clouds sprinkle righteousness,'^ 
because the Lord has had mercy on His people, and such good 
reforms have been brought to pass for the holy Church of God. 

" With outstretched hand, therefore, we have accepted the 
event, and on our own part also hasten to conclude similar 

1 Insert J before ]X». ^ Read ^ 1 ■ nZ] for ^J-riZ]. 

' Lit. "shot at with arrows." * Omit J before ^JLkkH*]. 

i> Isa. xlv. 8. 

286 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

covenants ; and we have admitted the pious man to the closest 
communion with us, and have indited ^ a return letter to him, 
in which we have clearly set forth the right faith of the 
fathers and exposed the evil character of the faith which 
pollutes feeble understandings. And of the document on 
account of which we have entered into communion with him, 
and will give it to any who shall be hereafter, of this we have 
sent a copy to your fatherhood, because we did not wish that 
any of .your rights should cause you jealousy,^ and especially 
those which have to do with our holy Church. And then of 
necessity I say that the fact that you observe towards the 
evangelical see the prime honour which is due to it, and 
express the same in writing, as the things written to me 
declared you to do, was in truth worthy of your holy soul, 
which is careful to do everything with judgment and in 
accordance with the will of God. But I plainly declare my 
feeling that my chief honour, and one which gives me great 
joy, is that honour which is justly paid to you by everyone. 
With confidence, therefore, pious father ours, I unhesitatingly 
assent to whatever ^ rightly seems good to you with regard 
to the holy Church, considering that, as* befits your fatherhood, 
you will not cease from action and advice which will be of 
benefit to the Church. 

" But so much for these things. But as to ourselves, O 
honoured father ours, by what distresses and human humilia- 
tion we are now surrounded, every kind of plot ^ being con- 
certed against us, in order that we may either flee of our own 
accord, or that we may be expelled by force by others, while 
they may be granted time ^ here also to do their own deeds and 
lead astray the holy Church, I wished to declare in this letter 

' The MS. has _J-»-> ■ »oZ], not ^j_k>_«_kiZ1, as L. prints. 

2 Mich, "to deceive you in any of our affairs." He read therefore ^,102) 
for ^flsDJ, ^^J? for ^OCll^jJ, and ^"l i \ (^J for ^QI11_^, which prob- 
ably represents what Theodosius wrote. 

^ Read ^ for J before — > \ i]. * Insert J before ( i ""^ - 1 

° I read ]jZ.Q„L for |5Z.QA. No point either above or below the letter is 
visible in the MS. Mich. ■ . mlnVI . . . -^^AVj 

« The MS. has )j.i21, not ]l nt, as L. prints. 


also (for thus especially should we incite you, who sympathise 
with us, to prayer on our behalf), but it is not right for us to 
add load to load and burden to burden. But by only saying 
this much about the greatness of the stress^ I make it plain 
that we are in very truth in need of your pious prayers." 

And so on with the rest of the epistle.^ 



" To ^ our all-pious and all-holy brother and fellow- minister, 
the patriarch, my lord Theodosius, Anthimus greeting in our 

" Christ Jesus our God, who called simple and unlearned 
men and fishermen to be apostles and teachers, and called 
those who were before these from feeding a flock to be kings 
and prophets, who has chosen weak things and despised things, 
as the divine apostle said,* He it is who has now called me 
also, the mean one, to the work of this spiritual ministry in the 
judgments which He knows, to be the head of this holy Church 
of Constantinople. I therefore, the sinner, remembering the 
utterance of the Lord spoken ^ through Ezekiel, ' As for thee, 
son of man, I have given thee as a watchman unto them of the 
house of Israel ; and, if thou hear ^ the word at My mouth, and 
give forewarning/ from Me, saying unto the sinner. If thou 
sin, thou shalt die the death, and thou tell not the sinner, that 
he may take warning, nor yet the impious, that he may turn 
from his way and live, the wicked man shall die in his wicked- 

^ i,v6.yKri. ^ Given in Mich. 

3 Mich. fol. 177. * 1 Cor. i. 27, 28. 

^ Read ]; - ^| for ]r^|, and so it appears to be corrected in the MS. 
« The MS. has ^Vl *Z, not »OQ_»Z, as L. prints. 

' The MS. has O before IsO^Z, not J, as L. prints. So Mich., though it 
cannot represent what Anthimus wrote. 

288 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

ness, but his blood will I require at thine hands,' ^ and the 
commandment of the apostle to Timothy about the blamelesd- 
ness ^ of the bishop's office, am beset with fear and trembling. 
And, when besides these things I contemplate also the turmoil 
which is increasing in the holy Churches and on the side of 
those who do not believe rightly, because they have reckoned 
religion as a means of profit for a time, and speak wickedness 
on high against their head, and divide God the Word, who 
became incarnate without variation and became perfectly man, 
I am beset with weeping and groans, and I mourn over my- 
self, because I am unworthy. But trust ^ in God comforts me, 
as it is said, ' Look * at the generations of old and see ; who 
hath trusted in the Lord and been confounded ? or who hath 
abode in His fear and been forsaken ? or hath called upon 
Him and He turned away from him ? Because the Lord is 
compassionate and merciful, and forgiveth sins and saveth in 
time of affliction.' * Therefore all my hope and my thoughts ^ 
are set upon Him, that He will see our state and will hear,^ He 
who made the eyes and planted the ears, and that He will 
reprove the turbulence of those who prevent right ways, and 
will call like the true shepherd who laid down his life for his 
sheep, because He said, ' No man shall snatch them out of 
mine hands ' : ^ for He foreordained your Holiness to stand at 
the head of the people of Alexandria the great, and established 
you as a tiller of the Church, not in calm, but in the turmoil of 
storms, that you might guide the ship above the waves into 
the peace of the harbour of Christ our God by the holy and 
adored Spirit.^ For by the prayers of your holy fathers, the 
former rulers, you have, as it were, received the trust of standing 
at the head of a people which walks after the teaching of 
the fathers, and contends for its pastor unto death in word 
and deed. 

1 Ezek. iii. 17, 18. 

2 MS. IjAj A, not ].J^A, as L. 3 Omit li before "|^£1£D. 
* Read O nnZ') for dQrSjZ"!. s Sir. ii. 10, II. 

« The MS. has -tLt IjV), not .-tJ-iZ^So, as L. prints. 

' The MS. has ^V) ■ 1, not ]Vl ■ 1, as L. prints. 

= Johnx. 29. 9 Or, "wind." 


" Embracing, therefore, union with you and brotherly- 
unanimity in Christ and the laws ^ of the Church, we declare 
by this Synodical epistle that we cleave to the one definition 
of faith, that of our three hundred and eighteen holy fathers 
at Nicaea, which also the one hundred and fifty who assembled 
here against the fighters against the Spirit ratified, and 
to the holy Synod which met at Ephesus with the assent 
of Celestine and in the presence of Cyril, who in the twelve 
chapters demolished the doctrine of Nestorius. To these I 
assent, and I embrace the rest of his writings ; and I 
receive the formula of Zeno uniting the Churches, which 
aiined at the annulling of the Synod of Chalcedon and of 
the Tome^ of Leo. And I confess that God the Word, the 
only Son, who was begotten of the Father in eternity, through 
whom all things were made. Light of Light, living image of 
the Father and sharing His nature, in the last times became 
incarnate by the Holy Spirit and of Mary the Virgin, and 
became a man perfectly without variation and confusion, in 
everything like unto us except sin ; and He remained God 
immutable, and, when He assumed our attributes. He was not 
diminished in His Godhead ; and that which was derived from 
us He made His own by dispensation by a natural union. 
For He who was begotten without time and without a body of 
God the Father, the same underwent a second birth in flesh, 
inasmuch as in an ineffable manner He became incarnate of a 
virgin mother ; and, after she had borne Him, she continued in 
her virginity ; and we justly confess her to be the Theotokos, 
and that He who was born of her in the flesh is perfect God 
and perfect man, the same out of two natures one Son, one 
Lord, and one Christ, and one nature of God the Word who 
became incarnate ; and each one of the natures which com- 
bined to form an indivisible unity remained without confusion. 
And so He is very rightly one of the holy and connatural 
Trinity, both before He took flesh and after He took flesh, and 
a fourth number was not added to the Trinity ; and He is 
impassible in that He is of the nature of the Father, but passible 

1 Insert O before ]mnVoi\ 2 Read J for 2^ before OimiDa^. 


290 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix- 

in the flesh in that He is of our nature. For God the Word 
did not suffer in His own nature, but in flesh of our nature ; 
and He who personally united this to Himself suffered in our 
likeness. And Gregory the Theologian defined the matter and 
called Him impassible in His Godhead, passible in the assump- 
tion of flesh.i And He is one in the miracles, and also in 
the passions, and by dispensation ^ He made our passions His 
own, voluntary and innocent ones, in flesh which was passible 
and mortal after our* nature, endowed with a soul and an 
intellect, and passible and mortal all the time of the dispensa- 
tion ; for He suffered not in semblance but in reality, and in 
flesh that was capable of suffering He suffered and died on the 
cross ; and by a Resurrection befitting God He made and 
rendered it impassible and immortal, and in every way in- 
corruptible, since it came from the union of the womb, which * 
was holy and without sin. While recognising, therefore, the 
distinction between the elements which have combined to form 
the unity of nature, I mean between the Godhead and the 
manhood, we yet do not separate them from one another ; 
also we do not cut the One into or in two natures, nor yet do 
we confound Him by rejecting the distinction between the 
Godhead and the manhood, but we confess Him to be one out 
of two, Emmanuel. 

" And, thus believing and taking my stand upon this belief, 
as upon a rock, I also anathematise the deviations from the 
truth of such and such men." 

And the rest, consisting of the greeting in the epistle. 

' Greg. Nar., Or. xl. 45. 

'■^ Read Aj|J;.2^ for (J^jlo, as in the parallel passage in ch. 21 (p. 274). 
' Read ^^->> for ^J. 

" Read 001 for .-jOI ; or, perhaps, rather omit (OOI, and take IZdji-w as the 
antecedent, as in ch. 21 (p. 274, note 4). 




" To ^ our all-pious and all-holy brother and fellow-minister, 
the archbishop and patriarch, my lord Anthimus, Theodosius 
greeting in our Lord. 

" And how else could it have come about that you, a 
chief priest wise and watchful towards the Creator of all 
things and their Saviour and God, should in the midst of 
events openly show yourself crying out like Jeremiah the 
divine prophet, ' I have not wearied of going after thee, and 
the day of a man have I not desired,' ^ except that you despised 
such human honour, and placed the observance of religion be- 
fore all things? The thing, therefore, which has been thus 
done by your Holiness is great without controversy, and all the 
believers who have heard of it are already wondering at it, 
while hereafter also all the bond-servants of the Lord who 
shall be hereafter will wonder at it, when it is duly proclaimed 
in all the holy Churches. But it is no higher than the rest of 
your apostolic and truly sublime and holy life. For it was 
truly fitting for you, who by unceasing energy in ascetic 
exercise have mortified your earthly members, that you might 
speak ^ in the words of Scripture, and with Paul are able to 
say, ' I am crucified with Christ ; nevertheless I live, yet now 
not I, but Christ liveth in me,' * after the manner of Moses the 
great to esteem the reproach of Christ greater riches than the 
treasures of this world, and to choose rather to be afflicted with 
the people of God than to enjoy the temporal ^ pleasure of sin.^ 

" For I, who am feeble, judge that it is on account of my 
shortcomings that I endure all the troubles which befall me ; 

' Mich. fol. 177 7^ ^Jer. xvii. 16. 

3 The MS. has ^kjlZ, not t^QiZ, as L. prints. 

* Gal. ii. 20. 

5 Insert J before \lS:>]. ' Heb. xi. 25, 26. 

292 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

but, since I am bound to represent the Church which is under 
the evangelical throne, which ^ is now enduring many ills (and 
how many it is enduring is not easy to say), therefore in due 
season I say as the divine Paul said, ' As the sufferings of 
Christ abound in us, so also is our consolation great in Christ.' ^ 
For the fact that you, the pious chief priest and patriarch of 
the royal city, should use boldness on behalf of the right and 
apostolic faith, and should be eager to show that in respect of 
the strict observance of the divine doctrines you are of one 
mind and one accord with Severus, the holy patriarch of the 
Eastern Churches, has almost made me forget in the evangelical 
see and acceptation of the divine Mark the whole of the 
troubles which are upon us. For, ' what thanks can we render 
to God ? ' ^ For this apostolic saying also do I use on account 
of the help with which He has helped His holy Churches, who 
has now stablished you as a stablisher of these, and as a fore- 
most fighter in the danger to religion. For you have shown, 
O pious man, that you have dwelling in you the holy utter- 
ance * of the Lord, which says, ' Fear not them which kill the 
body, but are not able to kill the soul ; but rather fear Him 
which is able to destroy soul and body in hell,' ^ and that you 
' reckon that the sufferings of this time are not worthy to 
be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.' ^ 
While, therefore, your spiritual light so shines before men, God 
is glorified in this great increase of those that are being saved, 
which His true Church receives. 

" So it is with joyful exultation and delight that I have 
canonically ''' received your piety's letter of concord and union, 
which has just been brought to me,^ because the holy patriarch 
Severus above mentioned told me beforehand that it was 
coming to me, who is the cause of all blessings and benefits to 
the Church of Christ and to me ; and he has also sent me, as 
befitted him, a copy of what you canonically wrote to one 

' Read i-iai for OOl. ^ 2 Cor. i. 5. 

' I Thess. iii. 9. * Insert l^O after L^d. 

"' Matt. A. 28. « Rom. viii. 18. 

' Perhaps read (A 1 IP 1 D, " your canonical letter " ; so Mich. 
* What follows in our text is omitted by Mich. 


another, which also made it clear that your communion was 
brought about with great caution and great benefit. And, 
while inditing this letter with my whole heart, I say the same 
things to your Holiness which also I wrote to him,i that I 
confess as the one definition of faith and accept that which 
was laid down by our three hundred and eighteen holy 
fathers at Nicaea through the Holy Spirit, and ratified by 
the Synod of one hundred and fifty and by that at 
Ephesus, which was assembled by our father Cyril, who in the 
twelve chapters rejected Nestorius ; and I accept also the 
formula of Zeno uniting the Churches, which aimed at the 
annulling of the Synod of Chalcedon and of the Tome of 
Leo, while I confess that God the Word, of the nature of the 
eternal Father, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, became 
incarnate and also became man by the Holy Spirit and of 
Mary the ever-virgin, in flesh endowed with a soul and an 
intellect after our nature, and was made like unto us in every- 
thing except sin, for, ' sin He did not, neither was guile found 
in His mouth,' ^ as the Scripture said. For it was right and 
just that the nature which was vanquished in Adam should in 
Christ put on a crown of triumph over death. And so also 
the apostle said, ' Since the children partook of flesh and 
blood,^ He also in like manner . partook of the same, that 
through death He might bring to naught him that had the 
power of death, that is, Satan, and might deliver them who 
through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to sin.' * 
But, if we were vanquished in another nature, and the Word 
of God did not partake of it or make the same flesh which 
was assumed from us and personally united to Him impassible 
and immortal through the union ^ with Him, as some foolishly 
say, our faith is vain, because it is no great thing that Satan 

1 Not in the letter given above (ch. 24), but in the letter of Theodosius to Severus 
upon his election to the see (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 14,602, fol. 2-4). 

2 I Pet. ii. 22. 

^ Insert PD)0 after |^£Q.2, as necessitated by the plural following. So also 
in the letter to Severus (Add. MS. 14,602). 
* Heb. ii. 14, IS- 
= The MS. has ]ZQ_ir*-». not ]ZQ_i_Ki, as L. prints. 

294 THE CHRONICLE OF [book ix. 

should be vanquished by the Lord ; but in a body which was 
passible and of our nature He suffered innocent passions, and 
underwent death, and trampled on the sting of sin, and dis- 
solved the power of death. Now, if He received the seed of 
Abraham, and in everything was made like unto us His 
brethren except sin, as the wise Paul said, and through death, 
which He underwent in His own flesh, vanquished Satan, who 
had the power of death, while He remained beyond the 
assault of passions in that He is recognised to be and is justly 
God, on account of His victory we glory, because we have been 
delivered from the yoke of bondage. Who is there, therefore, 
who will not marvel at the accuracy of the divine words, 
which everywhere supply due direction and in the same words 
refute the ' semblance ' of Eutyches, and those who are like 
him, and the doctrine of Nestorius ? For he says that Christ 
partook of our likeness in flesh and blood ; and, that no one 
might think that He did so in phantasy, he went on to say 
that He partook of the same that through death He might 
bring to naught the power of death. 

" Moreover they contend against those who divide the one 
Christ into two ^ natures by the example of children. For,^ as 
the child and the man, who is made up of soul and body, is 
one out of two, and the two .are called one nature, though the 
soul was not converted into flesh nor the body changed into 
the essence * of the soul ; so also Christ, who consists of the 
two elements, the Godhead and also the manhood, which have 
a perfect existence, each in its proper sphere, is one and is 
not divided ; and the union is not confused in Him in that 
[He united to Himself personally flesh of our nature and]* 
allowed it in all the dispensation to be passible and mortal 
(but the same was holy without sin), and by the Resurrection 
made and rendered it impassible and immortal and in every 

' The MS. has _»)A_^, not ^jAi^Z, as L. prints. 
2 Mich. fol. 177 V, 178 r. 

* The sentence, as it stands in the text, is unintelHgible, and from a comparison 
with the letter to Severus in Add. 14,602 it is clear that the bracketed words have 
fallen out. 


way incorruptible. For our former ^ father Cyril said, 'He 
first raised His body in incorruption, and He first exalted it 
to heaven.' 2 So believing therefore, I anathematise such and 

And the rest, consisting of the greeting in the epistle. 

1 ] ' ^_ fi has perhaps crept in from below (Hamilton). 
^ I do not know the source of this quotation. 


In this tenth Book also and in the sixteen chapters contained 
in it, which are set forth below, are included the events which 
successively happened from the year fifteen, the year eight 
hundred and forty-eight according to the era of the Greeks,^ 
down to the end of the year thirteen, the year eight hundred 
and fifty-nine of the Greeks,^ still in the time which is con- 
cerned with this serene king of our day, Justinian. 

The first chapter, concerning Ephraim, who went down to 
the East. 

The second, concerning the doings of Bar Khili at Amida 
in the years fifteen and two.^ 

The third, concerning Cyrus, a presbyter of the town of 
L'gino,* who was burned in the tetrapylon of Amida. 

The fourth, concerning the epistle of Rabbulo of Edessa 
to Gemellinus of Perrhe about those who eat the sacrament 
like ordinary bread. 

The fifth, concerning the dedication of the church at 
Antioch, and also the Synod which was assembled by Ephraim. 

The sixth, concerning Khosru, king of Persia, who went 
up and took Sura and Berrhcea and Antioch. 

The seventh, concerning Belisarius, who went down and 
took Sisaurana, a fortress in Persian territory. 

The eighth, concerning Khosru, who went up and took 
Callinicus and the other camps ^ on the frontier ® of the 
Euphrates and the Chaboras. 

' 537- 

^ One of these numbers must be erroneous, for the thirteenth year of the indiction 
ends with Aug. 31, 550, while the year 859 of the Seleucids ends with Sept. 30, 548. 
The latter is probably right, as the fall of Rome, with which the Book ends, was on 
Dec. 17, 546. 

= 537 and 539. *■ Text " L'gin." " Kda-rpa. " UfUTOv. 



The ninth, concerning the plague of tumours. 

The tenth, concerning Martin and Justus, who entered 
Persian Armenia and returned. 

The eleventh, concerning Khosru, who went up to Edessa 
and did not take it, and returned. 

The twelfth, concerning James and Theodore, the pious 
believing bishops, who were consecrated and sent to the East 
and intrusted with the leadership. 

The thirteenth, concerning the country of Lazica, which 
was conquered by Khosru. 

The fourteenth, concerning the lack of corn and the scarcity 
of vegetables which occurred in the years nine and ten.'- 

The fifteenth, concerning Rome, which the barbarians took 
and sacked. 

The sixteenth, concerning the decorations and buildings 
of Rome. 




When^ Severus and Anthimus, the believing chief priests, 
had been driven out * by the king, as mentioned in the ninth 
Book above, and had withdrawn from the royal city on the 
arrival of Agapetus of Rome, who soon after died at the end of 
the month of March in the year fourteen,* as also did Sergius the 
archiatros, who brought him, then Ephraim, who held the see 
of Antioch in the East, was strengthened and invigorated, and 
upon his sending a message [to the king] (?) ^ there was sent 

' 546 and 547. 

" The words ( ■ Vn , o and ];XQ^) seem to have been transposed, the text 
reading "book i, chapter 10." 

3 Mich. fol. 173 V. 

" The MS. has Q_i_*jjZ"i, not QJjjjZ'), as L. prints. ■ ^ 536- 

^ In this chapter the MS. is very much torn and obliterated. The words in 
brackets are conjectural supplements. 

298 THE CHRONICLE OF [book x. 

[a force of Romans] (?) ^ and Clement[inus the tribune (?) : 
and] he received orders in the year fifteen ^ to traverse * the 
Eastern jurisdiction and to go all round it, and himself to give 
admonition in words, while Clementinus was to use force to 
make the inhabitants of the cities in the East accept the 
Synod, as had been done by the natives of Italy, the land 
of Rome. And this same Ephraim, accompanied by 
Clementinus, went [to] Berrhoea and Chalcis and Hierapolis 
and Batnse and Edessa, and to Sura and to Callinicus and the 
rest of the frontier,* and to Rhesaina and to Amida and to 
Constantia ; and he induced many persons to submit, some by 
words and by promising* them the friendship of the king, 
and some by fear of threats and also exile and spoliation of 
goods and degradation from their ranks "^ and exclusion from 
all trades ; and others they hunted and drove from country 
to country, among them the monks, who were found approved 
in the faith and true believers in time of trial. And, as the 
winter was a severe one, so much so that from the large and 
unwonted quantity of snow the birds perished and . . . , 
there was distress . . . among men . . . from the evil things. 
And '' . . . in various countries . . . From the hill of Singara 
[in the land] of the Persians they took (?)... John, the 

' This supplement is made probable by the account in Elijah's life of John of 
Constantia (ed. Kleyn, p. 47). 

2 536-7. ' Read ;*~'Vi for i-2iiJ. * Uficrov. 

^ The MS. has ]j50QjO, not V«?Oai_, as L. prints. 

= d|ias. 

' The MS. is here very indistinct, and, as Land's text is very incomplete, I give the 
text which I follow, conjectural supplements being enclosed in square brackets : 

^^^jlio^^l ...lc7i£3ooai |^,[>^l(?)...5]Z1iZ]iD| cA...o 

I [pi-iD ]]^? ]iV^»(Ti!^ I [I'^nmgi]'! ,_i_K.Q_. ] ■ fnyg' | [Aj.o>] 
1 [',]2 ^]a[^]4[j]'b ^ii^^Zlo I [(?) 4j4]£Dar) oiio^? .^1 
I Uo[^£3? U3]n ■ \ Ud_a \h ■■■ ^>°^o ,'^\k, I V ... o ^]6i£} 

I 1 . . . ^ . . . [^(Tiaj_»j] I i<l^^ [^^^O ]]. .nov.['~i] 

l[k5_A] I OjViso 55 . . . [iL]] iL\^o vp . . . I oajjl^o o . . . 
.liXijO [■l5a]jt.[V.] I »Q.X£DO . . . va[r]niD ... | ... ^> "Ur^ 

■ I . m I rci]L ^j ^roL] I 5^[a]j_6j'lo 


believing [bishop] of Constantia, [by means of] a man named 
Cons[tantius (?)], and he was imprisoned in A[n]t[i]o[ch] and 
afflicted and ... he would not change but continued . . . 
until the beginning of the year one^ [in] prison [and there] 
ended [his life] . . . and they were expelled . . . and lived 
in [various] countries . . . [until] the year three.^ . . . Khos[r]u 
. . . and went up [to] S[ura] and Berrhoea and Anti[o]ch. 
Now Theodosius of Alexandria was summoned by the king to 
come to him, and went up with a few bishops from his juris- 
diction ; and he would in no wise accept the Synod of 
Chalcedon, until in the year one ^ Paul was appointed to the 
see. And, when Theodosius and the bishops who were with him 
came before the king, their [arrival] was announced by letter * 
to Ephraim . . . thence . . . But * The[odosius and those who 
were] with him [appeared] before the king and . . . , and 
without . . . , and they were removed . . . , and there they 
lived,® and the queen was studious in showing them honour, 
and ^ no one [of] their acquaintances or other discreet men 
was prevented from seeing them [or] ministering to them. . . . 
Now there wept up ... in [the year fif]teen,^ and also (?) 
. . . the king . . . much ^ . . . he ^^ told him about [a . . . 
man] named But ^^ . . . , [who plotted] a rising ^^ in Dara in 
the summer of the year, who was put to death. And he 
freed the king from distress of mind, but in what way I 
have not sure enough information to state, and therefore keep 

1 537-8. =^540. '537-8. / 

^[v^]ocnZ[NsV> A]=it2Ll 

°]n\Vr>\ rnVr.v[;n JILlX0j]1Z ,_.? a[jt*jZ1]. 

' '|jVj^[1 ]]j»ov2 ^o ^aij.:.6[^ ^] -ju] 1oai U^ASd ]Jo 

• vOj] . m Vl[.»-3? ol] <Qj1 ItJoJ? 
8 537. A year ending with — KaiSimTov can hardly in this place be other than fifteen. 
» [— ]-yj-flD . . . b\V? ...(?) ^1o. 

i» ?[Ai>] I . . . 4,QJ=> cjTio^[> . . . I . . . ^-aj]] ^ cnlii -j^y 
.Vi[4]r5Zl? I \bjLa-i 01.1...? U-*-ar3 | lij^ 1.'lXd^4j1 

" Or possibly Kut . . . '^ Avrapala. 

300 THE CHRONICLE OF [book x. 

And,- because Paul who succeeded ^ Th[eo]d[osius] (?) in 
the see . . . , he shut up ... ^ on account of zeal for the 
faith [in] a bath and suffocated him ; and this man's son he 
arrested and put in the guard-house, that he might not make 
his father's death known. But it so happened that he escaped 
and made his way to the queen, and through the believers 
who knew his father he told the news of his fearful death. 
And on this account Ephraim of Antioch was sent to Alex- 
andria, and Abraham Bar Khili [accompanied him] ; and, as 
they passed ^ through Palestine, they took with them a monk 
named Zoilus. And they went to Alex[andria and] investi- 
gated the action of Paul ; and they drove him from his see 
and enthroned Zoilus, a Synodite,* in the city : and in order 
to protect this man from the violence [of] the people of the 
city they appointed ^ Acacius Bar Eshkhofo ^ of Amida "^ 
tribune ^ of the Romans there. 



1 . . . (?) olj U-l . . . a . . . I . . . ^l I (?) [^^m]j[]]Z jZiSj 
I .£u_kjo U^[^] .-^i:i[j->] I [12.]aikLiOnj ]i ^ I ^[k)] | 

.Ijoij cn[^]n\o 

2 Mich. : "he suffocated his archdeacon " ; but I cannot get this from the letters 
remaining in our text. 

3 MS. ^ti:ii> p, not ^^£li.rS, as L. 

• a-vvo8iK6s. ^ Only «CD is visible. Read qIqCD. 

* /.e. son of a cobbler. 

' The MS. has "UJ^], not V»^k)l, as L. prints. 

" Here the MS. breaks off. The words in brackets I supply from the headings in 
the introduction to this Book. The whole of this chapter and the following are 




" I ^ have heard that in your country of Perrhe certain of 
the brethren, whose cloisters ^ are not known,* and others of 
the distinguished ^ archimandrites of the place, have falsely given 
out concerning themselves the vain report that they do not eat 
bread, and have lyingly uttered of themselves the empty boast 
that they do not drink water, and have asserted * of themselves 
that they abstain from wine. Accordingly I am afraid^ to 
mention that I have heard that they insult the body and blood 
of Jesus, the Son of God ; but, since necessity constrains me, 1 
will, as is right, be bold to say things which are what these 
men are not afraid to do, who madly and without discrimination 
offer * the body and blood of Jesus Christ our Lord, that is, the 
holy and hallowing body which they have received and the 
living and life-giving blood which they have drunk. These 
men, whom I do not know how to name,® are said impiously 
to satisfy the constant wants of their natural hunger and thirst 
upon it, and it is impossible for them of their own will to go 

1 This letter is also published by Overbeck in his edition of Ephraim (p. 231 ff.) 
from our MS. The beginning of it is quoted by Assemani (5. O. vol. i. p. 409), as 
from John of Ephesus ap. " Dion." This extract bears no indication that it is part 
of a letter, and varies considerably from our author. 

2 Jo. Eph. ap. "Dion." (Assem., B. 0. i. p. 409); Mich. fol. 179 ff. 

3 Read ^Ol^V^QA for ^C71;l0QA, with Jo. Eph. 
^ The MS. has ^ 1 S i,-», not — >..2^,-i, as L. prints. 

5 For ]i .Vn.Vi read jiCTlV^a V). Mich. ^ i <=^0 . QJD. 

^ The MS. has omVn m (so Overbeck), not OOTSQjj, as L. prints. 

' Only i. is visible. ReadV«1. Mich.,tZfiD. 

8 The MS. has ^^ 1 "); D, not ^ T O; O, as L. prints. 

» Read \iSi'\ for ]jjai. Mich. ^CTI 1 V)m]. 

302 THE CHRONICLE OF [book x. 

even one day without the oblation, which is their sustenance ; 
but continually every day a large quantity of food is supplied 
by the sacrament. And for this reason also they richly^ 
leaven the particle which they prepare, and diligently dress ^ 
it, and carefully seethe it, that it may serve them for food, 
and it is not treated as the mystery of the body of Christ, 
symbolised ^ in unleavened bread. And for the rest it is 
said that, whenever hard pressed, they even offer common 
unconsecrated bread over one another's hands and eat it. 
And it is said to be their practice, when walking from one 
place to another or going on a long journey, to satisfy their 
natural hunger and thirst on the same body of our Lord two 
or three times in one day, and, as soon as they have reached* 
their destination, in the evening they are said again to offer 
the oblation and partake of it as if fasting ; nay, even in the 
holy days of the fast of Lent they presume to act in this 
manner without fear of God and without shame before men. 
And men who, as they say, refrain from ^ bread and water 
every day are found to eat the holy bread and drink the 
blessed wine on such glorious days, on which even the vile 
themselves abstain. 

" Now the Spirit that is in me, holy brother ours, bears 
witness for me that I tremble to write to your reverence 
all that I have heard about them, because my heart could not 
really believe it : * and I would it had been possible for you to 
have known what I wish to learn ''■ without an epistle or a word 
from me, and for these same men to have received correction 
from your uprightness, because neither did I wish that either 
you, my lord, or they should know what is rumoured about 

^ Instead of (jjZiaj, Jo. Eph. has IZjjjOj, " for a long time." Our text is 
supported by Mich. rno[nni\]«-> 

2 Read ^ i n , Vl !iO for ^ i ^,V>, with Jo. Eph. ; so Mich. mn ;Vn'-i . jf the 
MS. reading be retained, the meaning is "cleanse." 

s Instead of ^Ak5, Jo. Eph. has ^lAkj, "eaten." Mich, omits the clause. 

* Read O M.Sf) for ain£D, with Jo. Eph. ; so Mich. ]aX. O. 

= Read ^..JioASD for ,^ > \n]i (Hamilton). Mich. . vn i<>n<,r. 

' Read ,^] for ^1. 

' We rather require "to state.'' 


them. Do not then think yourself or let them suppose that 
it is because I believe the evil report about them that I write 
these same things to you concerning them ; but, being still in 
doubt, I say to others also that it is impossible that such a 
great sin should be committed by men who have ever been 
baptized in Christ. For they say that, as soon as they have 
performed the sacrament in the paten, they lightly^ (?) eat^ 
as much as they want of it, while the cup of the blood each of 
them tempers with hot water, whenever they can, like mixed 
wine and drinks it, and again iills it and gives it to his 
neighbour ; so that owing to the quantity of wine which they 
drink under the name of the sacrament they are often obliged 
actually to spit it out of their mouth. 

" O what transcendent impiety, if it is the fact that 
these men, despising their life, have converted the revered 
vessels of the sacrament, which on account of the mysteries 
contained in them even for spiritual heavenly purposes men fear 
to approach boldly, iiito vessels of service for their belly, and 
did not even so much as remember the punishment which 
Belt'shatstsar, the heathen king, received and was reproved ! 
For, because in the vessels of the service of God he purposed to 
insult God like a rebel by using them in a carnal fashion, the 
likeness of a palm of a hand that wrote was sent from on 
high to write on the wall of his house the righteous sentence 
of condemnation for his presumption : ' though how indeed can 
the vessels of service of the temple in Jerusalem be compared 
to the glorious vessels of service of the body and blood of the Son 
of God ? For neither is the showbread of the priests of Israel 
in any way worthy to be compared to the glory of the trans- 
cendent mystery ; and, if so be any man likens the bread of 
the table, which David ate when he was hungry, to the life- 
giving body of God the Word, we ought to look upon him as 

1 A ■ |ri . » o^ "easily." This word occurs three times in this chapter with 
reference to eating, and it is difiScult to see the meaning of it. Mich, has here 
iy\ , ]ty)'-i\]'-> ^ "sufficiently," and perhaps, therefore, read Aj(.Q.21£D ; in the 
other places he omits it. 

' Read • ^'^l for Q^Si]. So Mich. 

3 Read OiZq-m^SsO for OlZo 1 Vl KtjiO. Mich. OlZj^rCl^ 

304 THE CHRONICLE OF [book x. 

a foolish man who does not distinguish the body and blood of 
the Lord from showbread : wherefore he is an offender against 
the body and blood of our Lord. For the showbread scarcely 
cleansed a bodily pollution, even when baptisms of various 
kinds were combined with it and observance of this and that : 
but this life-giving body and blood of our Lord Jesus not only 
purged and hallowed the sin of the soul and of the body in 
those who received it with faith, but also caused God to be in 
us, and that by His Spirit, as we are in Him by our body ; ^ for, 
' Whoso eateth My body and drinketh My blood,' says the 
Son of God, ' he is in Me and I in him, and I will raise him up 
at the last day.' ^ In another way again we may understand 
the greatness of this service, which is a new one, delivered to 
us by God the Word, from the hard and severe punishment 
which Paul pronounced against those who have enjoyed it, 
beyond that received ^ by those who offend against the old 
service introduced by Moses ; for he said, ' If so be he who 
transgressed against Moses' law died without mercy at the 
mouth of two or three witnesses, of how much sorer punish- 
ment will he be worthy who hath trodden under foot the Son 
of God, and hath counted the blood of His covenant as that of 
an ordinary man, and hath done despite unto the Spirit of His 
grace, wherewith we were sanctified.' * Who is there, therefore, 
who is so mad as to compare this bread of life, which came 
down from heaven by virtue of its union with God the Word 
and gives life to the world, to the showbread with its 
earthly seasoning ? But the opinion of anyone who thinks or 
acts in this manner ^ is manifest and is, moreover, clearly 
apparent, for he who thus madly receives it reckons it to be 
in fact common bread, as he sees it, and does not believe the 
Son who says, ' The bread which I will give is My body, which 
is given for the life of the world ; ' ^ for it follows that not only 
is the bread in the body of Christ, as is seen by them, but in 
the bread is the body of the invisible God,' as we believe and 

1 Mich, "his body." ^ John vi. 54, 56. 

3 Omit ^*jj1 ; so Mich. * Heb. x. 28, 29. 

^ Insert J before (jOI. " John vi. 52. 
'Mich. "Son of God." 


receive the body^ not to satisfy our bellies but to heal our 
souls. For 2 those who eat the holy bread in faith do in it 
and with it eat the living body of God the Sanctifier, and 
those who eat it without faith receive sustenance, as with 
other things necessary for the body. For, if the bread 
is carried off and eaten by enemies by violence, they eat 
common bread, because those that eat it have not faith, 
which perceives its sweetness : ^ for the bread is tasted by the 
palate, but the virtue which is hidden in the bread is tasted 
by faith. For that which is eaten is not only the body of our 
Saviour, as we said a little before, but whatever is mingled 
with it, as we believe : for the virtue * which is not eaten is 
mingled with the edible bread, and to those that partake of it 
becomes one with it, even as the hidden heavens mingle with 
the visible water, and from them a new birth is born. For 
the Spirit secretly hovers over the visible water, so that 
from it a likeness of the heavenly Adam is born anew.^ And, 
just as in the visible water, in order that it may impart to all 
who are outwardly baptized in it, there is invisible life, so also 
in the external bread food is hidden and concealed, of which 
everyone who rightly partakes obtains immortal life ; and we 
believe the saying of Paul, that those who receive it slightingly 
obtain from it injury to soul and body and are not profited, 
even if they are reckoned among the believers. And would 
that they obeyed the saying of the apostle, who says, ' And 
let a man examine himself, and then let him eat of that 
bread and drink of that cup ; and he that eateth of it when he 
is not fit for it eateth and drinketh condemnation to himself ! ^ 
And the same proclaims by his words that it is on account of our 
enmity against the body and blood that the various infirmities 

' A comparison with Mich, shows that at this point a leaf has been lost in our 
MS., which I supply from Mich. An extract from this portion is also contained in 
Add. MS. 14,532, fol. 67, from which it has been edited by Overbeck {op. cit. 
p. 230). The translation of the part which exists only in Arabic I submit with great 
diffidence, having but a very superficial knowledge of that language. 

2 Here the extract in 14,532 begins. 

' Mich, has "its life," and therefore read ._>aiCl.>_Ki for OiZq_i.Xjj. 

*Mich. "the body." 

* Here the extract in 14,532 ends. " i Cor. xi. 28, 29. 


3o6 THE CHRONICLE OF [book x. 

and unexpectedly sudden death have befallen us by a righteous 
judgment. " By reason of this happen most of the diseases and 
sicknesses, and the fate of those who fall asleep suddenly. But, 
if we judged ourselves, we should not be judged. But, when our 
Lord judges us, He gives us a discipline, that we may not 
be condemned with the world." ^ And, if those who were in the 
fixed days of service were now to partake, they would receive 
one substance only of the body of life. If it be done without 
the sorrow of repentance, and men do not receive it in faith with 
reverent fear, even if they do not also commit a deed contrary 
to their faith, then they are guilty of the body and blood of 
the Lord, as Paul said, because they do not discern the 
Lord's body. What punishment can be too severe for this, 
too great even to be applied to the judgment of those who 
approach it without fear and do not receive an aliment of 
faith, but a thing necessitated by their hunger? O, what 
insolence is this, to which the divine retribution is not equal, 
if it slays the man ! Who does not fear even heaven, when 
men satisfy the needs of their bodies on a coal of devouring 
fire, as if it were common bread ? Who is not frightened at 
this statement, that of the coal on which our life depends, 
that which the seraph ^ revealed to us, grasping it with a fiery 
forceps in his hand, to signify the sublimity of our mystery, 
and, while meditating upon it with reverence, approached to 
take hold of it, of this these men eat to satiety and without 
fear ? And before the body which is given for the life of the 
world their heart does not quake and they are not afraid, and 
their hands do not tremble or shake, and their knees do not 
slip that they should fall, when they eat it for the support of 
bodily life. And perhaps we ought to say that our Lord also 
in His full knowledge of all times knew the deed of these men ; 
and for this reason, after they had eaten of the legal passover 
and were satisfied, then blessed the bread and gave it to His 
disciples, in order that these men might not say that, after 
He had blessed, they were satisfied (but, after they were 
satisfied. He blessed, when the Master and His disciples 
took a small particle of it) ; and over the cup He said, 
1 I Cor. ii. 30-32. 2 ]y[g_ ,_,_2) "jjljEaL] ; cf. Isa, vi, 6, 


' Take, drink ye all of it,' that they might understand by 
this that it was of this small cup of which twelve persons 

" And it must needs be said that they thought of themselves 
that they would attract the admiration of simple persons (?)^ 
by their abstinence from bread and wine, and did not under- 
stand that the laughter of the intelligent would defeat and 
overcome them, and would fall upon their heads, prevailing 
over the praise of ignorant persons like them. Those who 
are like them have in all this unpardonable sin accepted 
for themselves glory from perishing men, even though it did 
not result to them. It is not fit that they should be named 
men, but, in justice, they should be named rabid dogs ; for 
the sign of rabid dogs is this, that they suddenly attack the 
body of their master to eat it. 

" And a man who has forbidden himself bread ought to be 
empty and not taste anything until the time appointed for 
him. And this is well known that, when Saul enacted that 
no one should taste anything on the day of battle until the 
evening, then Jonathan, because he tasted some honey on the 
end of his rod, incurred the penalty of death, if it had not 
been for the violence of the people until he was safe. For 
' the foundation of the life of man is bread and water,' ^ says 
Jesus Bar Asira,^ the son of Simeon. (Under the name of 
bread he extended his saying to all food.) And they say of 
these men that, after they have received the oblation in the 
morning, and partaken of it yet again in the evening, then 
they lightly (?)* eat other food and lightly (?) feed on dressed 
beet and pulse.® They are said to fill themselves ® on cheese 
instead of bread ; they are, moreover, in the habit of eating 
fish with all their pleasant taste ; they sate themselves largely 

1 . . m\^ (i.| iViNJ (?)). Neither the reading nor the translation is clear. 

^ Sir. xxix. 21. 

= Arabic • . fy] \] ; but the Syriac must have been ]; 1 m] ^O. 
i A .^o . m o^ See p. 303, notfe i. Here the Syriac text again begins. 
' I insert "beet and " from Mich. 

" Read . v«~i AmVn for ^ 1 SV)Acq!:0, with Payne Smith. There seems to 
be some forther error in this sentence, but the sense is clear. 

3o8 THE CHRONICLE OF [book x. 

on delicious fruit, and they delight in it particularly when dry, 
besides honey-combs and egg-cakes.^ And, because the heat of 
the wine which they drink under the name of the Sacrament 
inflames them more with thirst, all through the summer season 
they are said regularly to drink the milk of sheep and goats ; ^ 
and this again they have done of set purpose, for they have also 
discovered that the moisture and coolness of milk ' are found 
to temper the perpetual burning which results from the wine 
in their excess. Now, because of these things, and by reason 
of them, there is in due season uttered, as it shall be spoken, 
against them also the righteous reproof of God which He 
pronounced to Eli because of his sons : ' Behold ! I have 
given you all the good things of the earth, that ye might use 
them without sin ; even as for them I set apart all the offer- 
ings of the children of Israel, that they might enjoy them 
without guilt. Wherefore have ye also offended against My 
body and My blood, like those who wrought wickedness 
against My sacrifices and against My offerings ? ' And, since 
the impiety of these men against God has far surpassed the 
impiety of those others, which was committed against the 
people, there has been fear and great trembling in case they 
should suffer, lest also a punishment like that which went 
forth against those should be pronounced against them. 
" ' Wherefore,' thus said the Lord, the God of Israel, ' I said 
indeed that thy house and the house of thy father should 
minister before Me for ever ' ; but now the Lord saith, ' Be it 
far from Me! for them that honour Me I will honour, and 
they that despise Me shall be lightly esteemed.' " * You see 
how He rejected them for ever from the priesthood, and made 
them outcasts and aliens from His house. 

" Now, what shall I say ^ of men who are not in unison 

^ Or "round eggs" ■ lit. "rounds (ff^aipai) of eggs." 

^ Mich, omits "sheep," and adds "instead of water." 

'The MS. has {LOjow^, "bread," which gives no intelligible sense. I read 
M^ *^- So Mich., who, however, has "the moisture of the wine and the coolness 
of the milk." 

* I Sam. ii. 30. 

' Mich., apparently reading ]ioai for ^LLO, "thus he says." 


with the prophets of the Old Testament, nor yet resemble ^ the 
apostles of the New ? For they ought at least to have learned 
from the chief of the apostles, Peter, what his food was; 
since he has plainly stated in what his bodily life consisted. 
For, when his chosen disciple, Clement, asked him to allow 
him to be his only minister, he spoke thus to him, praising his 
zeal and jesting at his sustenance : ' Why ! Who is strong 
enough for all this ministry ? Are we not continually eating 
bread and olives ? or perhaps it may be that sometimes there 
may also be a cabbage.' ^ Moreover, have they not. also 
received a good tradition from Paul, the preacher of truth? 
For, behold ! he also out of the greatness of his need sent and 
sold his tunic, and with the price of it it is written that they 
bought bread only and brought it to him with a cabbage,* that 
by his action he might lay down a law for us also, as in his 
saying, ' If we have food and raiment, that is enough for us.' * 
And, if it is a small thing for them to liken themselves to the 
apostles, the baptizers of the world, let them imitate even the 
Lord of the apostles, the Maker of the worlds, and of all that 
is in them ; unless, perhaps, even the human dispensation of 
our God is contemptible and vile in their eyes. For, behold ! 
as to our Lord, He has everywhere shown us that He ate 
bread ; and the bread too was not of wheat, but it was of 
barley, and so were the seven other loaves, which were fruitful 
and multiplied at His word, and 4000 men ate of them and 
left seven baskets actually (?)^ full of bread. And, when He 
ate the passover with His disciples, unleavened bread was set 
before Him. And also after His resurrection from the dead 
He ate bread with His disciples for forty days, that the dis- 
pensation of our Lord and His fleshly assumption of a body ® 
might be believed by them, as they themselves wrote : ^ ' Jesus 
went in and out among them.' ® And the house of Cleopas, 

^ Mich, "listen to." 

^ Clem. Horn. xii. 5, 5 ; id. Recog. vii. 5, 6. 

^ Act. Paul, et Thecl. xxiii. (Syriac, Wright, pp. 147, 148 ; translation, pp. 

129. 130)- , 

^ I Tim. vi. 8. ^ ^01jiLi|0 is probably corrupt. 

^ The MS. inserts O before OlZoj^^th-^ (so Overbeck), which L. does not print. 

' MS. OOAd'), not OdAoI, as L. ^ Acts i. 21. 


because He did not wish them to recognise Him ^ while 
walking with them in the way, He blessed over bread and 
brake it for them within the house, and then they knew 

" But these men, as I hear, do not follow in their deeds 
those that err, nor yet are they in concord with the truth in 
their actions ; for they are not circumcised like the Marcionists, 
neither are they ascetic after the manner of Christians. For, 
behold ! they are not like those deniers of the truth who eat 
only pulse or bread, but do not presume to commit a lie at 
their oblations, neither yet do they resemble ^ us believers who 
eat common bread in moderation and receive the support^ of 
our true life separately. 

" Why have these gluttons not trained themselves, so that 
cheap things only might be enough for them ? And why have 
these guzzlers not accustomed themselves * to repel the hunger 
of their belly with something mean and vile ? And wherefore 
do they not eat ordinary, simple, common bread only ? But it 
is plain that it is in order that they may not afflict themselves. 
But, if^ they really wish to afflict their bodies, let them not 
sate themselves, but eat bread only. And, behold ! they are 
wasted and shrunk and reduced to weakness. But it is 
plain and manifest that these men do not struggle with their 
bodies, nor yet do they wrestle ^ with Satan ; but for the sake 
of vain glory they exercise themselves in the tricks of their 
evil devices, and not in the afflictions of asceticism." 

And further the rest of the epistle with proofs from the 

1 Read ^OIuJOAjoA^J for CTlJa.LjoAjtJ. 

2 Read ^OinmV) for ^OlS -me^Vn 

' The MS. has iaQj-fiD (so Overbeck), not isOCD, as L. prints. 
■* Read Oy-J^ZZ] for O^o^ZZI, as Overbeck. The MS. has a dot both above 
and below the letter. 

^ The word J is accidentally repeated in the MS. 
" Read ^ '? for ^?'. 




Ephraim,^ who was chief priest in Antioch, rebuilt from its 
foundations the round-shaped church in Antioch and the four 
triklinia adjoining it. And, when he performed the consecra- 
tion of it, he assembled one hundred and thirty-two bishops 
from his jurisdiction in the year one ; ^ and on the occasion 
of the dedication ^ of the church he received a contribution 
from each one of them, such as he pleased, on a lavish* scale. 
And he confirmed ^ the Synod of Chalcedon in a document 
which the bishops whom he had assembled were required to 
sign ; and they anathematised the holy Severus, the believing 
patriarch, and everyone who agrees with him and does not 
accept the Synod. 

But God, who makes judgment for the oppressed, after a 
short time roused up the Assyrian against him and against 
the city, according to the words of the prophet, who said, 
" The Assyrian is the rod of Mine anger and the whip where- 
with I scourge : against a profane people will I send him, and 
against a peevish people will I give him a charge, to lead 
away captives and to take ^ the prey." '^ And two years after- 
wards, in the year three,^ Khosru went up against Antioch, as 
described in the following chapter.^ 

The rest of the tenth Book is wanting in Add. 17,202. 
The sixteenth chapter and a fragment of the fifteenth are, 
however, contained in Cod. Rom., and the former exists also 
in a shortened form in Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 12,154 (fol. 158), 
from which it is published by Land. Part of the contents of 

1 Mich. fol. 173 v. ' 537-8- , = iyKalria. 

i Read "(Av . e^ « for ]Aj.> i ^ ». = Read J^J for ij_». 

6 MS. IQiiJ, not lanJ, as L. ' Isa. x. 5, 6. " 540. 

» There follow in the MS. the words (A^lj V»'. "*e sixth chapter," 

3 I 2 THE CHRONICLE OF [book x. 

chapters 6—15 may also be recovered from the fragments of 
James of Edessa (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 14,685, fol. 22), and 
from Michael and Gregory. 

P. 79, AND JAC. EDESS. L.c} 

In the eleventh year of Justinian, which is the year eight 
hundred and fifty of the Greeks,^ in the month of December (?) ^ 
a great and terrible comet appeared in the sky * at evening- 
time for one hundred days.^ And that year the peace between 
the kingdoms was broken, and Khosru, king of the Persians, 
went up and carried off captives from the cities of Sura and 
Antioch and BerrhcEa and Apamea and the districts belong- 
ing to them, a bitter captivity. And the Romans also went 
down to Persia and carried off captives from the countries of 
Kurdistan and Arzanene and Arabia. 

Then Khosru went up against Callinicus with a great 
army, and carried off captives from it and from the whole of 
the southern part ^ of the land between the Rivers.'' 


[Moreover Zachariah the Rhetor also writes concerning 
this scourge as follows.] 

^ The order and contents of these passages agree so well with the headings at the 
beginning of this Book, that I make no doubt that they are taken from our author. 
In general I follow Michael, whose account is the longest. 

' 538-9- 

^ Or January, it not being stated whether it was the 1st or the and Klionun. 
The month is only in Jac. Edess. 

* " In the sky " is only in Jac. Edess. 

^ So Jac. Edess. Mich, has "several days." 

* " The southern part " is only in Jac. Edess. 

' Mich, and Greg, afterwards relate the capture of Antioch and Callinicus over 
again. As this second account occurs in similar words in " Dionysius " (Cod. Syr. 
Vat. 162, fol. 71), who writes out John of Ephesus, and is absent in Jac. Edess., it 
is almost certainly derived from John, a fact which strongly confirms the previous 
conclusion that the account in the text is derived from our author. 

^ Greg. (p. 80) also quotes a passage relating to the plague as from Zachariah ; but 
only the last sentence of this is identical with Mich.'s quotation, the rest being 
identical with a passage quoted by Mich, from Jo. Eph. It is clear, therefore, that 
either Gregory has erred or his text is corrupted. 


In the Greek version of the prophecy of Ezekiel is a 
passage referring to the plague of tumours ; and instead of 
what is stated in the Syriac language, " All knees shall flow 
with water," ^ he says, " All thighs shall be befouled with 
pus." ^ And this plague, which is the rising of a swelling on 
the groins and in the arm-pits of men, began in Egypt and 
Ethiopia and Alexandria and Nubia ^ and Palestine and 
Phoenicia and Arabia and Byzantium (?) * and Italy and 
Africa and Sicily and Gaul, and it penetrated to Galatia and 
Cappadocia and Armenia and Antioch and Arzanene and 
Mesopotamia, and gradually to the land of the Persians and to 
the peoples of the North-East, and it slew. And those who 
were afflicted (?) ^ with the scourge and happened to recover 
and not die trembled and shook : and it was known that it was 
a scourge from Satan, who was ordered by God to destroy men. 

In the city of Emesa was the head of John the Baptist, 
and many sought refuge with it and escaped : and the demons 
were disturbed before men, being scattered (?) ^ by the 

MICH. FOL. 173 /?; GREG. P. 79'' 

The Romans went down and did much destruction in the 
country of Armenia.^ 

^ Ezek. vii. 17. 

^ This passage is written in the margin of 9. 13 in Cod. Rom., where it is printed 
by Mai (p. 358) as part of the text (see p. 242, note l). 

' Greg. " Libya." 

* OT-i-^lQS. If Byzantium is meant, the spelling is strange. Moreover, th^ 
Syrians always call it " Constantinople,'' or " the royal city." Greg, omits. 

■' MS. laXol, "ate" ; perhaps we should read \op\, "took." 

"• I take ,Q_.iO» A_» to be an error for ^QAOt Aj. 

' The close correspondence of this account of the expedition against Edessa with 
the heading of ch. 9 seems to show that it is derived from our author. Jac. Edess. , 
indeed, inserts the capture of Petra between the Armenian campaign and the expedi- 
tion to Edessa, but only by a slip, for the following sentence, " and from that time 
the Romans were attacking it" etc. (see ch. 13), must refer to Petra, not to Edessa, 
as is proved by the sense and by a comparison with Mich. 

^ In Jac. Edess. only. 

314 THE CHRONICLE OF [book x. 

And again Khosru went up and made an attack ^ upon 
Edessa, and, not being able to take it, he 'carried off captives 
from Batnae and departed. 

GREG. HIST. BCCL. PP. 2 I 5, 2 1 7. 

And on account of the distress and scanty numbers of the 
pastors among the Persians there was a man named Cyrus, a 
believing bishop,^ who consecrated and ordained priests, and 
that from the year one down to this year eight.* And, lest the 
heads of the communities of believers should be blamed, or 
because the priests who were among the Persians belonged to 
the opposite party (?), and they were assailed by affliction and 
trouble, they procured provisions (?) ; ^ and then after due 
deliberation they consecrated and appointed chief priests 
in Arabia ; and these were Theodore the monk, a strenu- 
ous man, and James, the laborious and industrious, the very 
strenuous,^ who was then in the royal city.'^ And he was to 
be found everywhere, visiting and exhorting with readiness. 
And he was a practiser of poverty and an ascetic, and swift on 
his feet, and travelled like 'Asahel.* And he was a presbyter 
in the monastery of the Quarry in the village of Gamuwa, 
which is on the mountain of Izlo.^ And by the treaty which 
he concluded he rescued many from among the Persians. 

^ " And made an attack " is in Jac. Edess. only. 

^ That this passage is derived from our author is shown by the use of the indic- 
tional years, which is not found in Jo. Eph. Moreover, according to our author's 
own peculiar fashion the numerals are given in Greek. 

^ " Of Singara" is added by Greg. *• 538-545. 

° This sentence (not in Greg. ) is extremely obscure and probably corrupt. The real 
meaning seems to be that many Monophysites had been carried off by the Persians. 

^ Greg, adds "a simple man." 

' In Mich, this clause is applied to Theodore, but is followed by the words 
"This is my lord James Burd"oyo," which seem to be a gloss intended to point out 
that they really belong to James. After this Greg, inserts " and they ordained him 
oecumenical metropolitan. " 

8 Mich. " Active in his journeying, and travelled like a courier." 

' Greg, adds, " and he began to go round the countries of the East and to give 
ordination to the orthodox, showing himself in the dress of a beggar, and chiefly 
on the roads from fear of the persecution. " 


MICH. FOL. 1 8 5 K ; GREG. P. 8 1 ^ 

Khosru, king of the Persians, again went up and carried 
off captives from ^ Petra, a city in Lazica, and placed a 
garrison there.^ And from that time the Romans continued 
making attacks upon it for seven years, and then the Persians 
were defeated and the Romans took it from them. 

And at that time there was a scarcity of produce and a 
lack of the fruit of trees, in the year nine,* and there was a 
famine which destroyed soul and body, and it was followed by 
emaciation such that a man ate 10 lbs. of bread at one time 
and whatever other kinds of food he could get with it 
through greediness and hunger. And he became swollen and 
inflated from the food, but was not satisfied, but was hungry 
and greedy for food, and asked for bread to fill his belly, and 
so he died. 

After this there was a plague among oxen in all countries, 
especially in the East, and it lasted two years, until the lands 
remained untilled for lack of oxen. 

^ That this passage comes from our author appears from the juxtaposition of 
these two events, the campaign in Lazica and the famine, as in the headings above, and 
from the use of the indictional reckoning with the numeral in Greek ; see note below. 

2 So Mich. Jac. Edess. has " took." 

^ Here Jac. Edess. interpolates the attack on Edessa (see ch. 11, note). 

^ 546. The translator of Mich. , who alone records the date, has r^iS « 1 "^ 
(.^Ol, ' ' in the district of Hanata " ; but no such place is known, and I have no 
doubt that it is a misunderstanding of harov, which our author transliterates as t.yJ01 
at p. 249, 1. 7, 12 ; p. 258, 1. 9, I,. 

3i6 THE CHRONICLE OF [book x. 



[In the eighteenth year of Justinian, which is the year eight 
hundred and fifty-seven of the Greeks,^ the barbarians^ took 
Rome, the chief city of Italy ; and since they could not guard 
it, they established themselves in the camp * by the side of it, 
while they left the city deserted and empty .^] 

In ^ the third year after the sack of the city of Ilium, which 
was sacked in the days of Samson and Eli the priest in 
Jerusalem, kings began to be set up in the city of Rome, 
which was at first called Italy, and the kings who reigned in 
it were called '' kings of the Latins. And in the days of 
Yotham and Ahaz, kings of Judah, Romulus became king 
there, and he built up the city with great and noble buildings, 
and it was called Rome after his name ; and the kingdom of 
its inhabitants was called the kingdom of the Romans from 
the time of Hezekiah the king. 

^ The heading and the latter portion of the chapter are in Cod. Rom. The 
first paragraph, which seems to be derived from the same source, I supply from Mich.' 
and Greg. (pp. 80, Si). A portion of the Syriac Michael containing this paragraph 
and the description of Rome in the next chapter has been edited by Prof. Guidi 
(Bull, della Commiss. Arch, di Kama, xix. p. 61 ff.). 

^ 546. This was the twentieth of Justinian, and the fact that the same misreckon- 
ing is found twice in 12. 4 and once in 12. 5 tends to show that this sentence is 
derived from our author. 

^ Mich. " the Romans. " * Kda-rpa. 

^ Mich, adds, ' ' of its people. And that you may know what loss to the empire 
of the Romans was wrought at its capture, behold ! I will write out an account, 
though only in a summary, composed by one that knew and saw its buildings." 

8 Mich. fol. 185 r. 

' The MS. has ^^£jAkj, not ^j-Ti^ijALD, as Mai prints. 



[from the ecclesiastical history of ZACHARIAH, FROM 

Now the description of the decorations of the city, given 
shortly, is as follows, with respect to the wealth of its 
inhabitants, and their great and pre-eminent prosperity, and 
their grand and glorious objects of luxury and pleasure, as in 
a great city of wonderful beauty. 

Now its pre-eminent decorations are as follows, not to speak 
of the splendour inside the houses and the beautiful forma- 
tion ^ of the columns in their halls and of their colonnades (?) * 
and of their staircases, and their lofty height,* as in the city 
of wonderful beauty. 

It* contains 24 churches of the blessed apostles. Catholic 
churches. It contains 2 great basilicce, where the king sits 
and the senators are assembled before him every day. It 
contains 324 great spacious streets. It contains 2 great 
Capitols. It contains 80 golden gods.^ It contains 64 ivory 
gods. It contains 46,603 dwelling-houses. It contains 1797 
houses of magnates. It contains 1352 reservoirs ^ pouring 

1 1Z o*^ T is probably an error for ]A£3», " decoration,'' as in Cod. Rom. and in 

the introduction to this book. 

^ This is the heading in 12,154 (see p. 311). Cod. Rom. has "a description of 
the decoration of Rome." The chapter has been edited with an introduction, notes, 
and translation by Prof. Guidi (Btdl. delta Commiss. Arch, ai Roma, xii. p. 218 ff. ; 
cf. xix. p. 61 ff.), from whose work I have derived much assistance. 

s Read |j_.aO for ]l inrs. 

i n m . ^mj g^ = Tepl(rTv\a (Guidi), or possibly irpoffrdSes, vestibules. 

= Omit J before ^OOTIDOJ. 

" Mich. (ed. Guidi) ; Notitia ap. Jordan Top. der Stadt Rom, 2. 571. 

' The word I^JOJ, "great," has been corrected to |£301J> in the margin of 
the MS., though Mai prints both (Guidi, p. 227). 

8 ,CDOp].D = KdmXos. Notit. "lacos.'' 

3i8 THE CHRONICLE OF [book x. 

forth water. It contains 274 bakers, who are constantly 
making and distributing annonce to the inhabitants of the city, 
besides those who make and sell in the city. It contains 
5000 cemeteries, where they lay out and bury. It contains 
31 great marble pedestals.^ It contains^ 3785 bronze statues 
of kings and magistrates. It contains, moreover, 25 bronze 
statues of Abraham, Sarah, and Hagar, and of the kings of the 
house of David, which Vespasian the king brought up when he 
sacked Jerusalem, and the gates of Jerusalem and other bronze 
objects.^ It contains 2 colossal * statues. It contains 2 columns 
of shells.^ It contains 2 circuses. It contains 2 theatres and 
one.* It contains 2 amphitheatres.^ It contains 4 beth ulde? 
It contains 1 1 imfiya? It contains 2 2 great and mighty 
bronze horses.^" It contains ^^ 926^^ baths. It contains 4 
orbilikon}^ It contains 14 tinon enkofitoriyon}'^ It contains 

' /Saireis. Notit. " arci marmorei XXXVI." 

2 Before (.^J_iJyJ| Cod. Rom. has OT.d Aj], which Mai does not print. It is 
correctly given by Guidi. 

^ Mich. " and took the bronze gates and other objects." 

<■ Read 1 •'■'^ ' U '^'' CTT-«i '"^ 1 yi- 

^ A misunderstanding of " columnae coclides." 

'MS. (jJjO ^ZjZ, not ]p»oO ^ZAaZ, as Mai prints. 12,154 has ,., 
" 3," and so Mich. Notit. " theatra III." ^ 

' 12,154, ,_j..^QJ3 = KW^7io. Cod. Rom. |j?ol (Mich. U'pol), which 
Guidi takes to be a corruption of (-»>0(Z = 6eil>pia. Notit. " amphitheatra II." 

^Ij^^o"! =XoC5oi (Guidi). Notit. "ludi IIII." Mich. Arab, adds ; . '-\ ■C\ 

9 v\)ii<t>eta. (Guidi). Notit. " nymfea XV " (MS. B " XI). Mich. Svr. 
|j_2iQA0] ('OXiiAHTia), Arab. i'^\|\Sn, "places of amusement." 

'"The MS. has ] ■ 1 ■ 1, "feeble," not (jtjaJ, "bronze," as Mai ; but we 
must read | » ^ *■ ^. and so Mich. 

1' The words OlS Aj], omitted by Mai, are in the MS. So Guidi. 

12 Mich. Syr. 56, Arab. "956," and so MS. B oiNotitia: cet. "856." 

^' ^0 n I \ 1 *~)5 1 = Kohprrp ^lylXuv (Guidi). Notit. " Cohortes vigilum VII." 

» ^t^axul v°-l~-^ (Mich. Syr. ia42u1, Arab. ^io^Qj]) = Notit. 

"quorum excubitoria XIII," "quorum" having been translated Hvtivuv, and iSc 

omitted by the Syrian (Guidi). 


2 parenamabole'^ of special bronze horses.^ It contains 45 
sistre? It contains 2300 public oil -warehouses.* It contains 
291 prisons or aspoke} It contains in the regions 254 public 
places 8 or privies. It contains 673 emparkhe} who guard the 
city, and the men who command them all are 7. The gates 
of the city are 37. Now the circumference of the whole city 
is 2 1 6,036 feet, which is 40 miles ; the diameter of the city from 
east to west is 1 2 miles, and from north to south 1 2 miles.^ 

But God is faithful, who will make its second prosperity 
greater than its first, because great is the glory of all the might 
of the dominion of the Romans. 

The eleventh Book, the first three chapters of the twelfth 
Book, and the beginning of the fourth chapter are missing. 

> I^Oii'JVQJ^S) (Mich. I^OOiOJ;^) = Tupefi^oXal. Notit. "castra" (Guidi). 
^ A mistranslation of " equitum singularium " (Guidi). 

3 yuaorpuXXejo (Guidi). Notit. "lupanaria XLV." MS. "46." Read "45" 
with Mich. 

^ diro6tiKdpi.a. 

= N-otit. "horrea CCXC " (MS. B " CCXCI "), so that ly 1 £o] Aj..i3 is probably 

a corruption of (JL£d] AjJD (Duval in Guidi); but, as Mich, also has "prisons," 
the corruption may have existed in our author's original text, and I therefore do not 
emend. ( 00 <yim| Guidi takes to be a corruption of " iiro$rJKai." 

^ This word (5ij(it6iria) generally means "public baths" ; but the translation in 
the text accords with Notit. "latrinse publicse" (the Curiosum printed opposite 
adds "quod est sicessos") "CCXLIIII." 

' ?5rapx<" (Guidi). Mich. Arab. ; ■ |^|QJ, " custodians "; iV(;/«V. " vicomagistri 

^ Here 12,154 adds, " These are exclusive of many things which we have not set 
down here. And these things the author set down while weeping for the city, 
because. in his time the barbarians entered it and sacked it." This MS. omits the 
sentences containing corrupt or difficult words, as well as the introductory and con- 
cluding sentences. Mich. (Arab. fol. 185 ;-) has, in place of the concluding sentence, 
" Verily for the sack of this great city, which was completely burnt at this time by a 
barbarian people, Justinian the king sorrowed exceedingly, and all the magnates of 
the kingdom clothed themselves in mourning. And in those days the king's sorrow 
was increased by the death of the queen, the blessed Theodora, who departed in the 
twentieth year of the reign of Justinian, which is the year eight hundred and fifty- 
nine of the Greeks, and he gave a large quantity of gold on behalf of her soul." 
Greg. (p. 81) has the same in a shorter form. 



. . . earnestly [admonished] her not to do this in a vile 
manner 1 and injure her spirit on account of the future^ 
righteous judgment. And she said to him, " How can I 
worship Him, when He is not visible and I do not know 
Him ? " And after this one day, while she was in her park ^ (and 
these things were in her mind *), in a fountain of water which was 
in the park she saw a picture of Jesus our Lord, painted on a 
linen cloth, and it was in the water ; and on taking it out she 
was surprised that it was not wet. And, to show her venera- 
tion for it, she concealed it in the head-dress* which she 
was wearing, and brought it and showed it to the man who 
was instructing her ; and on the head-dress also was imprinted 
an exact copy of the picture which came out of the water. 
And one picture came to Csesarea some time after our Lord's 
passion, and the other picture was kept in the village of 
Camulia, and a temple was built in honour of it by Hypatia, 
who became a Christian. But some time afterwards another 
woman from the village of Dibudin, mentioned above,^ in the 

^ As there is room for another letter before (jOl and before i'^'^, I read IJOIJ 
and r^XL. Land's text is uninteUigible. 

^ There is room for another letter before ,^L>1^, and we should probably insert 


' irap&Seiffos. 

* Read ^J for ,;^XjJ. 

" ^aKi6\i.ov (Brockelmann jtoikIXt/). 
° In the lost beginning of the chapter (?). 



jurisdiction ^ of Amasia, when she learned these things, was 
moved with enthusiasm, and somehow or other brought one 
copy of the picture from Camulia to her own village ; and in 
that country men call it " a.'x^etpoTroirjTO'i," that is, " not made 
with hands"; and, moreover, she also built ^ a temple in 
honour of it. So much for these things. 

In the twenty-seventh year of the reign of Justinian, the year 
three,* a marauding band of barbarians came to the village of 
Dibudin and burned it and the temple, and carried the people 
into captivity. And certain earnest men, natives of the country, 
informed the "serene king of these things, and begged him to 
give a contribution * and to have the temple and the village re- 
stored (?) ^ and the people ransomed. And he gave what he 
pleased. But one of the men attached to the king's person in 
the palace advised him to have the picture of our Lord carried 
on a circular progress ^ through the cities by these priests, and a 
sum of money sufficient for the building of the temple and the 
village collected. And behold ! from the year three until the 
year nine "^ they have been conveying it about.* And I believe 
that these things happened under the direction of Providence, 
because there are two comings of Christ according to the 
purport of the Scriptures, one in humility, which also took 
place five hundred and sixty-two years before this year nine, 
which is also the thirty-third of the reign of Justinian, and a 
future one in glory, which we are awaiting; and this same 
thing is a type of the progress ^ of the mystery and picture and 
wreathed image ^^ of the King and Lord of those above and 
those below, which shall be quickly revealed. And, indeed, 
I admonish my own self and my brethren, since there is fear 

1 The word ( 1 5^*^ * generally expresses metropolitan jurisdiction, so that the 
expression is equivalent to " in the province of Helenopontus.'' 

" The MS. has AjJD, not ]t *"), as L. prints. 

" S54-"S- * (piXoTLiila. 

5 _jA.«J. I can find no parallel for this use of the word in the lexicons, but it 
may perhaps be so rendered at p. 213, 1. 10 (L.). 

8 iyKVKKla. ' S6l- 

' There is perhaps a gap here, as Land marks, though it is not certain that there 
ever was anything written there. So also in the next line. 

' 4yKVKUa. " \avpaTor. 


322 THE CHRONICLE OF [book xii. 

of falling into the hands of God, that every man devote him- 
self to afHiction and penitence, for he shall be requited for his 
deeds; for the coming of our God, the righteous Judge, is 
already near ; to whom with His Father and the Holy Spirit 
be glory. Amen. 



In addition to all the evil and fearful things described 
above and recorded below, the earthquakes and famines and 
wars in divers places, and the abundance of iniquity and the 
deficiency of love and faith, which have happened and are 
happening, there has also been fulfilled against us and against 
this last generation the curse of Moses in Deuteronomy, when 
he admonished the people who had come out of Egypt, 
when they were just about to enter the land of promise, 
and said to them, " If thou wilt not hearken unto the voice 
of the Lord thy God, and wilt not observe and do all His 
statutes and His commandments, which I command thee 
this day, all these curses shall come upon thee and overtake 
thee " ; ^ and a little further on he speaks thus : " The Lord 
shall give for the rain of thy land powder; and dust from 
heaven shall He send down upon thee, until He destroy 
thee. And He shall smite thee before thine enemies ; and 
thy carcase shall be meat unto the fowls of heaven and unto 
the beasts of the earth, and there shall be no man to fray 
them away."^ 

Such fearful things and more fearful things are coming ; 
for in the year four,^ on the first Sabbath, which is the Sabbath 
befofe * the feast of unleavened bread, the heavens above us 

^ Deut. xxviii. 15. ^ Deut. xxviii. 24-26. '■' 556. 

* The MS. has OT-y-J, not .00,^,1, as L. prints. 


were covered with stormy (?) ^ clouds, brought by the east 
winds, and instead of the usual rain and moistening water 
dropped upon the earth a powder composed of ashes and dust 
by the commandment of God. And it showed itself upon 
stones and fell upon walls ; and discerning men were in fear 
and trepidation and anxiety, and instead of the joy of the 
Passover they were in sorrow, because all the things that are 
written had been fulfilled against us on account of our sins. 
Now it was the twenty-eighth year of this king. 

Now, as regards the scope and sequence of the work, the 
book has brought us down in chronological order as far as the 
year four ; but as to one chapter, concerning an event which 
happened here at the end of the year one,^ which before this 
year four we omitted, we have retraced our steps like men on 
the sea through the violence of the waves and record it briefly, 
it being as follows : — 



In the summer of the year one,^ when the year was now 
just drawing to an end, and a council of bishops was being 
held in the royal city, certain men, their representatives * in 
the cities here, whose names I forbear to record, some of 

I'jA m . c^m The adverb Aj|rQ-i_2l£D occurs in i. i (p. 3, 1. 22, L.), 
7. 6 (p. 215, 1. 2), and 7. 9 (p. 224, 1. 13) ; see p. 13, note 6. Here, by a slight 
alteration of meaning, we may render it "violent" or "stormy," a meaning 

supported by the expression 1j.£D.j^.£1£D \11d (stormy water?), which is quoted 
by Payne Smith from the Lexicon of Bar 'AH. We inight, however, read 
1/\ m". '~irr> . "thick," as proposed by Smith on 7. 9. The adjective also occurs 
in I. 7 (p. 73, 1. 5) as an epithet of words, where the meaning seems to be "heated," 

2 Summer 553. ' 553- 

* Read ^r^l^ for ^r^ii". 

324 THE CHRONICLE OF [book xii. 

them, as I think, acting out of jealousy (?) ^ or spite, wrote to 
their bishops, who were sojourning in the West, in order to 
please them and also to gratify their ears, saying, " There 
are certain Schismatics,^ that is, dividers, in the district, and 
especially in the land between the Rivers, who are holding 
councils and are, as it were,^ attracting the whole people from 
one end to the other to join them, and are in separation from 
our Church." And the bishops there brought the communica- 
tion which they had received before the king, and he ordered 
Audono (?) * the duke, who was at Hamimtho, to investigate 
the matter in conjunction with Basiliscus, a presbyter of 
Antioch; and they were to reconcile them, if willing, to the 
Church. And, while the matter so stood. Bar Korgis,^ a 
presbyter of Amida, joined them at Hamimtho ; and he 
assembled the priests and the inhabitants of the villages in 
the district of the trench and put constraint on them, as ^ 
well as from the property,^ so to speak, of Dith, a believing 
man, who had lately died,^ and from Ingilene and Tzophanene. 
And, when these men reached the city of Amida, then they 
put pressure on the five chaste cloisters of monks ^ there with 
the intention of ejecting them ; and they spoke with them and 
listened to them. And they readily met them, and especially 
the gentle John the archimandrite, of whom we have mentioned i" 
that he was providentially " present, a Greek and a grammarian, 
and the earnest Sergius, their visitor ; which men stood at their 

' I read IjOjjJ for 'jJOjj.iS, as Dr. Hamilton suggests. 

^ airo(rxl<rrai. 3 Rg^d Akj]:) for ^ALd]^. 

■* This perhaps represents the Teutonic AuHwin or Aldwin ; or we might make the 
easy correction ]j-»>0( for Pjo], and translate "Evodian." 

^ The MS. has .£0.^0X3, not .Ca^.JQjO, as L. prints. 

^ It is probable that something has here dropped out. ' oiicrla. 

* The MS. has j.J_l, not p4_ii, as L. prints. 

" Insert J before ]->','->?■ 

" In the lost portion. After this it is probable that something has been lost, 
since the following statements can hardly apply to John. In this case we may 
render "of whom we have mentioned that [. . . , and X.,] who was providentially 

"By "TT/jiraa." 


head, supported by the learned and believing men, John and 
Sobbo, and Stephen, an archiatros of the city. And they did 
not expel the cloister societies of monks, but they retired to 
Izlo.^ And, since Peter, the master of the offices, arrived in 
the year two,^ and heard from the monks about the threats 
made against them, he withdrew them. The duke he re- 
strained from again expelling the monks, and censured him. 



Now Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, as the Chronicle 
of Eusebius of C^sarea declares, two hundred and eighty years 
and more before the birth of our Lord, at the beginning of 
his reign, set the Jewish -captives in Egypt free and sent 
offerings to Jerusalem to Izra'el,* who was priest at that time ; 
and he assembled seventy men learned in the law and had 
the Holy Scriptures translated from the Hebrew tongue into 
Greek ; and he stored them up and kept them with him ; for 
in this matter he was indeed moved by God, in order to 
prepare for the calling of the nations who should attain to 
knowledge, that they might be true worshippers of the glorious 
Trinity through the ministration of the Spirit. 

Yet again about the space of one hundred and thirty years 
after him Ptolemy Philometor also was honourably moved and 
exerted himself, and by means of ambassadors and letters and 
presents, which he sent and dispatched to the rulers of the 
countries of the nations, he urged them to write down and 
send to him the limits of the lands under their sway and 
of the neighbouring peoples, and also a description of their 
habitations and their customs. And they wrote and sent 
them to him except the northern region extending to the East 

1 The MS. has V^.], not ^1^1, as L. 2 ^^j,^, 

" (TKi,p(.(j>oi. * El'azar is meant. 

326 THE CHRONICLE OF [book xii. 

and to the West. And we have thought it necessary to write 
it out here at the end for the understanding of the discerning. 
And the account is as follows : — 

[At this point follows an epitome of the geography of 
Claudius Ptolemseus, whom our author has taken for an 
Egyptian king. As no good purpose would be served by 
publishing a translation of this section, I omit it. A portion 
of it is also contained under Zachariah's name in Add. MS. 
14,620, fol. 28, with considerable variations from our ,MS. 
After the description of the province of Africa this MS. has 
the curious addition, " and they speak Syriac and Latin." 
There is another addition to Ptolemy in the notice of the 
Scenitae of Arabia Felix,i where our author adds, " who are 
called Sabaeans," to which 17,202 further adds, "the same is 
Sh'ba," while in place of the Saba;ans, whom Ptolemy mentions 
lower down,^ our author has " the Ofirians, the same is Ofir." ^ 
These additions are of course due to our author himself or 
some earlier Christian translator; but there are others which 
point to a difference of reading. Thus in place of "'AOaKai 
Aidloire<; " * he has " others who live in the water, who eat 
fruit," and to the notice of the Sachalites he adds, " from 
whence come pearls, and they sail on the water on bladders," 
an addition which in Nobbe's text of Ptolemy is printed as the 
note of a Scholiast.^ Again to the notice of the frankincense 
country in Ethiopia ® he adds, " thence comes beet." There 
are a few other places where our author' throws some light 
on Ptolemy's text. Thus in place of the He^xjivot '' of Ethiopia 
he has " cubit-men," and, therefore, perhaps read Utj'xivoi, while 
among the tribes of Arabia Felix in the place where Nobbe's 
text has Awprjvoi^ our author's reading |j_3^j»oj (14,620, 
V^5cL»j) shows that he read " Aeoa-aprjvol," as in the text of 

^ Ptol. Geo^. vi. 7. 21. 2 Idid. vi. 7. 23. 

' Similarly in place of "tux 'kaa^uv 6puv " (vi. 7. 24) he has " the mountains of 

* Ptol. Geog: iv. 9. 3. 

^ 76id. vi. 7. II. Montanus prints it as part of the text, and so it is in the Athos 
MS. reproduced by Langlois. Wilberg brackets it. 
^ Hid. iv. 7. 31. ' /did. 

* Hid. vi. 7. 23. " Aaprivol " is the reading of nearly all the MSS. 


Montanus.i Other variations from Ptolemy's text are prob- 
ably due to carelessness or misunderstanding. There is, 
however, one peculiar variation, of which it is hard to see 
the origin, in the account of Taprobane, where our author 
has " and their women are deaf," the corresponding state- 
ment in Ptolemy being "■^ rt? eVaXetro iraXai, StfJiovvBov, vvv 
oh XakiKT)' Kal ol KareT^oi'Te? ainrjv KOLV&'i SdXat, fiaXKoi'i 
yvvaiKeLoi<i et? uTrav avaBeSe/ievoi." ^ I continue the translation 
at p. 536, 1. 13, of Land's text.] 

This description of the peoples of the world was made, as 
recorded above, by the exertions of Ptolemy Philometor and 
in the thirtieth year of his reign, one hundred and fifty years 
before the birth of our Saviour, so that the space of time from 
that day to the present, which is the twenty-eighth year of the 
reign of Justinian, the serene king of our days, the eight 
hundred and sixty-sixth year of Alexander, and the three 
hundred and thirty-third Olympiad,^ will be found to be a space 
of seven hundred and eleven years. In such a space of time, 
therefore, how many cities have been built and added among 
all peoples in the world from the time of Ptolemy down to the 
present day, and especially since the birth of our Saviour ! And 
peace has reigned among nations and kindreds and tongues, 
and they have not observed their former custom, nor has nation 
stood up to make war or to use their swords against nation, nor 
have they contended in battle, in that the prophecy has been 
fulfilled in them which says, " They shall beat * their swords 
into plowshares and their spears into pruning-hooks." ^ 

And besides these there are also in this northern region five 
believing peoples, and their bishops are twenty-four, and their 
Catholic lives at D'win, the chief city of Persian Armenia. 
The name of their Catholic® was Gregory, a righteous and a 
distinguished man. 

' So in the case of the tribe who in Nobbe's text are called 'O/JuiyKirai, and in 
Montanus' 'Ofiavirac, our author's reading, n 1 ■ ^Kn'-j^ (14,620, QX^wjuSoLO), 
though corrupt, is nearer to the latter than the former, and nearer still to 'O/jui/uTai, 
which is read by several MSS. 

2 /did. vii. 4. I. 3 555. * The MS. has ^QAjJ, not vQ-i>!J. as L. prints. 

° Isa. ii. 4. ^ Probably the word " first " has dropped out. 

328 THE CHRONICLE OF [book xii. 

Further Gurzan/ a country in Armenia, and its language 
is like Greek ; and they have a Christian prince, who is subject 
to the king of Persia. 

Further the country ^ of Arran in the country of Armenia, 
with a language of its own, a believing and baptized people ; 
and it has a prince subject to the king of Persia. 

Further the country of Sisagan, with a language of its 
own, a believing people, and there are also heathens living in it. 

The country of Bazgun,^ with a language of its own, 
which adjoins and extends to the Caspian Gates and sea, the 
Gates in the land of the Huns. And beyond the Gates are the 
Bulgarians with their own language, a heathen and barbarous 
people, and they have cities ; and the Alans, and they have 
five cities ; and the men of the race of Dadu (?), and they live 
on the mountains and have strongholds ; the Unnogur, a 
people living in tents, the Ogor, the Sabir, the Bulgarian,* the 
Khorthrigor, the Avar, the Khasar, the Dirmar (?), the 
Sarurgur (?), the Bagarsik (?), the Khulas (?), the Abdel, the 
Ephthalite, these thirteen peoples dwelling in tents ; and they 
live on the flesh of cattle and fish and wild beasts and by 
arms ; and beyond them the tribe of the pigmies and of the 
dog-men, and north-west of them the Amazons,^ women with 
one breast each, who live entirely by themselves and fight in 
arms and on horseback ; and there is no male among them, 
but, when they wish to pair, they go ^ in peaceful fashion to a 
tribe near their country and hold intercourse with them for a 
month of days and return to their country ; and, when they 
bear a child, if it is a male, they kill it, and, if it is a female, 
they preserve it alive ; and in this way they keep up their 
.ranks. And the tribe which lives near them is the Harus (?), 
tall, big-limbed (?) '' men, who have no weapons of war, and 

' I.e. Georgia or Iberia. ^ Read |5Z.| for |5 (. 

^ I.e. Abasgia. 

* This is probably a corruption or confusion, as the Bvilgarians are said above to 
have had cities. The people here meant are perhaps the " BoupoiJ7oii>'5oi " of 
Agath. V. II. 

= Cf. Strabo, xi. 5. i. 

8 The MS. has ^j^ASd, not .SjXlAk), as L. prints. 

1 (iDJCniD. This should mean "cut limb from limb." 


horses cannot carry them because of the bigness of their 
limbs (?). And to the east again verging on the north are 
three other black tribes. 

Now in the land of the Huns about twenty years and 
more ago some men translated some books into the native 
tongue ; and the origin of it, which the Lord brought about, I 
will relate as I heard it from certain truthful men, John of 
Rhesaina, who was in the monastery founded by Ishokuni 
close to Amida, and Thomas the tanner, who were carried 
into captivity when Kawad carried away captives fifty years 
and more ago. And, when they reached the land of the 
Persians, they were again sold ^ to the Huns and went beyond 
the gates and were in their country more than thirty years ; 
and they took wives and begot children there. But after 
about this space of time they returned and told us the story 
with their own mouths as follows : — 

After the coming of the captives from the land of the 
Romans, whom the Huns had taken away with them, and 
after they had been in their country for thirty-four years, then 
an angel appeared to a man named Kardutsat, bishop of the 
country of Arran, as the bishop related, and said to him, 
" Take three pious priests and go out into the plain and 
receive from me a message sent to thee by the Lord of spirits, 
because I am guardian of the captives who have gone from 
the land of the Romans to the land of the nations and have 
offered up their prayer to God. And he told me what to say 
to thee." And, when this same Kardutsat, which, when trans- 
lated into Greek, is Theokletos^ had gone zealously out into 
the plain and had . . ? called upon God, he and the three* 
presbyters, then the angel said to them, " Come, go into the 
land of the nations and warn the children of the dead, and 
ordain priests for them, and give them the mysteries, and 
strengthen them ; and behold ! I am with you and will deal 
graciously with you there, and signs shall ye do there among 

1 The MS. has O before QJLSJl (, which L. does not print. 

^ From Armenian kardal, to call, and Astuats, God. 

' MS. apparently Aj|iD5_, certainly not A-i]V), f), as L. 

* MS. ]AXZo001, without division ; there is no O before it, as L. 

330 THE CHRONICLE OF [book xii. 

the nations, and all that is needed for your service ye shall 
find." And four others went with them ; and in a country 
in which no peace is to be found these seven priests from 
evening to evening found a lodging and seven ^ loaves of bread 
and a jar of water. And they did not enter by way of the 
Gates, but were guided over the mountains. And, when they 
reached the place, they told these things to the captives, and 
many were baptized, and they made converts among the 
Huns also. They were there for a week of years,^ and there 
they translated books into the Hunnic tongue. 

-Now at that time Probus happened to be sent on an 
embassy^ to those parts by the king, in order to hire some of 
them to meet the nations in war. And, when he heard from 
the Huns about these holy men and understood their story 
also from the captives, he was very eager and desirous to see 
them. And he saw them, and received a blessing from them, 
and showed them much honour before the eyes of those nations. 

And our king, when he heard from them * the facts 
recorded above, which the Lord so brought about, loaded 
thirty mules from the territories of the neighbouring Roman 
cities and sent them to them, and also flour and wine and 
oil and linen cloths and other commodities and sacramental 
vessels. And the animals he gave as a present to them, 
because Probus was a believing and a kindly man. 

Now another Armenian bishop also, whose name was 
Maku (?),^ was stirred to emulation by such noble deeds and 
went out after two more weeks of years ; and he was honour- 
ably moved and went to the country of his own accord and 
some of his priests with him. And he built a brick church 
and planted plants and sowed various kinds of seeds and did 
signs and baptized many. When the rulers of these nations 
saw something new happening, they admired the men and 
were greatly pleased with them and honoured them,^ each 

^ Insert before |S*'^ 9. ' Insert J before ( » 1 » ' irpeff^ela. 

* Perhaps we should read OTJ-LD, < ' from him. " 
« The MS. has O OV), not .ClkJ, as L. prints. 
" The MS. has ^Qj], not ^-^], as L. prints. 


one^ among them inviting them to his own district and his 
own people, and beseeching them to be his instructors : and 
behold ! they are there to this day. And this same thing is 
a token of the mercies of God, Who cares for everyone that is 
His in every place. And henceforth it is the time which is 
placed in His own power, that the fulness of the peoples may 
come in, as the apostle said.^ 

For for one week of years the king of Persia also, as 
those who know relate, has separated himself from the eating 
of things strangled and blood, and from * the flesh of unclean 
beasts and birds, from the time when Tribonian the archiatros 
came down to him, who was taken captive * at that time, and 
from our serene king came Birowi, a perfect ^ man, and after 
him Kashowi, and now* Gabriel, a Christian of Nisibis. From 
that time^ he has understood his food, and his food is not 
polluted (?) * according to the former practice, but rather it is 
blessed, and then he eats. And Joseph also, the Catholic of 
the Christians, is high in his confidence, and is closely attached 
to him, because he is a physician, and he sits before him on 
the first seat after the chief of the Magians, and whatever he 
asks of him he receives. 

Out of kindness towards the captives and the holy men he 
has now by the advice of the Christian physicians attached to 
him made a hospital,^ a thing not previously known, and has 
given 1 00 mules and 5 o camels laden with goods (?) i" from 

' Insert jO before ^\o. 

^ Rom. xi. 25. 

3 Omit J before ,Jl3. 

^ The MS. reading seems to be »oA.» (, for which we must read tj.£3Aj (, 
as L. 

= Only ^Q-il is visible, but the word must be |i 1 Vl ii. as no other word 

beginning with those letters suits the context. 

" L. prints only Ol ; the second letter seems to be •_• : read (^Ol. 

' The MS. has ^j-iOl, not ^JCTl, as L. prints. 

* Only 1 . . . ALd is visible. I guess at the meaning. Perhaps | g\ 1 ^ AVn 

' ^evoSoxeiop (text feciSoxos). 

i» ■ •NO possibly, as Payne Smith suggests, = KXrjpos ; or perhaps KeWdpioy, 
" store-room," might stand for " stores." 


the royal stores, and 12 physicians, and whatever is required 
is given ; and ^ in the king's retinue (?) ^ . . . 

' The MS. has O before Li \'^'~), not J, as L. prints. 

^ Li \''). At this point the MS. breaks off, which makes it hard to tell the 
meaning of this word. The ordinary meaning "division" or "half" seems 
impossible, and I therefore take it to be the other | i« ^''^^ which perhaps = 
0rfXa7J : cf. Bedjan, Act. Mart, et Sand. vol. ii. p. 540, 1. 10, where James, the 
Persian martyr, is said to have been in the | 11 \°^ at court. Across the last 
page of the MS. some illegible words are written in another hand. 


Aaron, bp. of Arsamosata, 208. 
Abasgia (Bazgun), 328. 
Abbo, monastery of, 211. 
Abdel, 328. 
Abgersatum, 226. 

Abraham, (1) (the humble) archimandrite 
(of Amida?), 210. 

(2) (Bar Khil!) bp. of Amida, 

167, 296, 300. 

(3) (son of Euphrasius) presby- 

ter, 193. 
Acacius, ( I ) bp. of Constantinople, 80, 
100, 104, 105, 112, 
113, 117, 125, 127, 
128, 129, 130, 133, 

139, I44> 146. 
His letter cited, 128-130. 
(2) (Bar Eshkhofo) tribune, 300. 

^Etheric, bp. of Smyrna, 177. 

Aetius, deacon of Constantinople, 46. 

'Afotho Ro'en (?), 162. 

Africa, 38, 262-264, 313, 326. 

Agapetus, Pope, 253, 264, 267, 268, 297. 

Agathon, presbyter of Alexandria, 138. 

Aglaophon, dialogue of Methodius ad- 
dressed to, 14. 

Ahlaf (?), 168 (note 3). 

Akhore, 161. 

Akhs'noyo, bp. of Hierapolis, 73, 176, 
177, 179, 180, 183, 184, 207, 211, 

His letters, 184, 207, 211. 

'Akibo, monastery of, at Chalcis, 179, 

Akoimetoi, monastery of, 168. 

Alans, 328. 

Alexander, bp. of Hierapolis, 275. 

Alexandria, 48, 57, 58, 59, 64-69, 75. 76, 
78, 79, 81, 96, 110, 112, 113, 116- 
121, 124, 125, 133-136, 138, 140, 
143, 207, 209, 243, 257, 258, 266, 
286, 287, 288, 292, 300, 313. 
Synod at, 103. 

Alexandrines, letter of the, 73. 

Alimeric. See Theodoric. 

Amantius, /r«/. sacr. cubic, 189, 190. 

Amasia, see of, 321. 

Amazons, 328. 

Ambrose, bp. of Milan, cited, 92. 

Amida, 17, 151, 153-164, 187, 208, 209, 
226,227, 228, 296, 298, 300, 324, 325. 

Ammodis, 165, 224. 

Araon, monk of Alexandria, 103. 

Amphilochius, bp. of Side, 43, 46, 74. 

Amrin (?), 207. 

Anachristo-Novatians, ill. 

Anastasia, church at Berytus, 77. 

Anastasia, town (?), 212, 228. 

Anastasiopolis, 167. 

Anastasius, (l) bp. of Jerusalem, 100, 
107, 113, 146. 
(2) Emperor, 145, 148-151, 
163-167, 169-185, 
187, 189-191. 

Anatolius, ( l ) bp. of Constantinople, 23, 
24, 43, 44, 69, 74, 
75, 79, 100. 
His letter cited, 75. 

(2) brother of Dioscorus, ill. 

(3) presbyter of Alexandria, 96. 
Andrew, (i) archimandrite of Alex- 
andria, 133, 135, 138. 

(2) bp. of Samosata, 177, 275. 

(3) brother of Asclepius, 203. 

(4) chamberlain, 189, 190. 

(5) deacon of Alexandria, 139, 

144, 149. 
Anthemius, Emperor, 59, 60, 61, 68. 
Anthimus, bp. of Constantinople, 265, 268, 
270-277, 279-282, 284-293, 297. 
Letters cited, 271-276, 287-290. 
Anti-Csesar, 145, 184, 221. 
Antioch, 60, 126, 127, 168, 190, 205, 212, 
213, 229, 296, 299, 311, 312, 313. 
See of, 180, 184, 209. 
Synods at, 126-128, 180, 311. 



Antoninus, bp. of Berrhoea, 207. 
Antony, archimandrite (of Natfo?), 210. 
Apamea, 206, 312. 

See of, 184. 
Aphphadana, 161, 223. 
Apollinaris, bp. of Laodicea, 56, 58, 71, 

249, 275. 
'Arab, 151, 210, 222, 225. 
Arabia, 126, 180, 184, 232, 312, 313, 314. 
Arabia Felix, 326. 
Arabs (inhabitants of 'Arab), 151, 

155 (?) (see note 2), 164. 
Arathu (?), bp. of Ingila, 208. 
Arcadius, Emperor, 16, 17, 117. 
Archelaus, (l)bp. ofCsesarea, 139, 150. 

(2) praf. prat. Africa, 262. 
Arches, monastery of the, 210. 
Areobiijdus, (i) (cos. 434), 38. 

(2) (cos. 506) map;, mil. 
Orientis, 160, 161. 
Ariadne, Empress, 148, 185. 
Arians, 65, 74, 184. 
Arimenites, 263. 
Ariminum, Synod of, 115. 
Arius, presbyter of Alexandria, 34, 42, 

Armenia, 297, 313, 327, 328. 
Armenians, letter of Proclus to, 24-37. 
Arran, 158, 328, 329. 
Arsenius, prefect of Egypt, 138, 139. 
Arzamena, 161. 

Arzanene, 161, 206, 227, 228, 31Z, 313. 
Asclepius, bp. of Edessa, 203, 204. 
Asia, petition of bps. of, 107-109. 

Their address to Acacius, 113. 
Asnath (Asyath), book of, 11, 15. 
Aspar, ma§;. mil. in prasenti, 60, 74- 
Asthebid (Spahpat), 206, 225. 
Asylus, bp. of Rhesaina, 266. 
Atafar (?), Saracen chief, 223, 224. 
Athanasius, ( I ) I. , bp. of Alexandria, 20, 

45. 183, 237. 
His works cited, 84- 

86, 92, 250, 251. 
(2) II., bp. of Alexandria, 

140, 144, 14s, 146, 

150, 187. 
Attachse, 227. 
Audono(?), 324, 325. 
Auxonius, lawyer of Berytus, 77- 
Avar, 328. 

Bagarsik(?), 328. 
Bar Gabala, Saracen king, 228. 
Bar Hakino, archimandrite of the mon- 
astery of Hanino, 211. 
Bar Korgis, presbyter of Amida, 324. 
Bar Shalumo, 205. 

Bar Tsaumo, bp. of Nisibis, 275. 
Basil, (l) bp. of Cfesarea, 20, 183. 
Cited, 89, 275. 

(2) bp. of 'Tripolis, 46. 

(3) general, 223. 

Basiliscus, (l) Emperor, 99, 100, 104, 
109, 112, 113, 145, 
His encyclical, 105- 
(2) presbyterof Antioch, 324. 
Bassianus, bp. of Ephesus, 69, 100. 
Bassus, monastery of, 210. 
Batnse, 298, 314. 
Bazgun. See Abasgia. 
Bederiana. See Mauriana. 
"bedyeshu", monastery of, 210. 
Belisarius, mag. mil. Orientis, 223-226, 

228, 263-265, 296. 
Berrhoea (in Syria), l68(?), 296, 298, 

299, 312. 
Beruya (?), house of, bps. of Rhesaina, 

Berytus, 77. 

Bessa, duke of Martyropolis, 227-229. 
Beth Gaugal, 210. 
Beth Helte, 227. 
Beth R'kum, monastery of, 211. 
Beth Shuro, 209. 

Beth Thiri, monastery of, 16S, 210. 
Birowi, 331. 

Boetius, prefect of Egypt, 112. 
Bulgarians, 328. 
Burugundi (?), 328 (see note 4). 
But . . . (.'), rebel, 299. 
Butzes, general, 223, 225, 226, 228. 
Byzantium (?), 313. 

Cabarsarin, 65. 

Csesarea (in Cappadocia), 320. 

(in Palestine), 231. 
Caesareum, at Alexandria, 64, 65.- 
Calandion, bp. of Antioch, 113, 125, 

146, 179, 
Callinicus, 296, 298. 
Camulia, 320, 321. 
Canopus, 124. 
Cappadocia, 43, 245, 313. 
Cartadon (?), 65. 
Carthage, 38, 262, 263, 264. 
Caspian gates, 151, 206, 328. 
Catholic of Armenia, 327. 

OfSeleucia, 331. 
Celer, (i) doniesticus, 192. 

(2) mag. off., 160, 163, 169, 173- 
Celestine, Pope, 20, 24, 106, 272, 289. 
Chaboras, 296. 



Chalcedon, 43,191. 
Synod of, 23, 38, 41, 43-48, 49, 
50, S3, 59. 68, 69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 
7S> 79. 80, 99, 106, 107, 108, no, 

IIS, 119. 123, 125, 133-136. 139. 

144, 14s, 149, 150, 170, 174, 17s, 

177, 183, 184, 187, 190, Z03, 207, 
208, 252, 253, 265, 270, 273, 27s, 
28s, 289, 293, 298, 299, 311. 

Acts of, cited, 252. 
Chalcedonians, 283. 
Chalcis, 298. 
Chazar. See Khasar. 
Cherson, 79, 80. 

Christodorus, deacon of Alexandria, 96. 
Chrysostom. See John. 
Cilicia, 126. 
Citharizon, 229. 
Clement, bp. of Rome, 309. 

Works of, 183. 
Clementine writings cited, 309. 
Clementinus, (i) patrician, 172. 

(2) tribune (?), 298. 
Comet, 312. 
Constantia, 162, 298. 
Constantine, (l) bp. of Laodicea, 207. 

(2) commandant of Theo- 

dosiopolis, 153- 

(3) 1-. Emperor, 15, 107. 

(4) general, 228. 
Constantinople, 38, 79, 80, 81, 97, 104, 

109, n8, 139, 142, 149, 150, 168- 

178, 185, 189-192, 245, 246, 253, 
261, 262, 263, 26s, 267-269, 277, 

313 (?). 323. 324- 
Patriarchate of, 69, 79, 105, 127. 
Synods at, 21, 22, 106, 107, 108, 121, 
122, 127, 136, ISO, 248, 268, 272, 
289, 293, 323. 
Constantius (?), 299. 
Cosmas, (i) archimandrite of Amida, 210. 

(2) monk of Chalcis, 73, 179, 


(3) spatharius, 135-138. 
Cross, Feast of the, 186. 
Cutzes, general, 223. 

Cyriac, martyr, relics of, 230. 
Cyril, bp. of Alexandria, 20, 23, 24, 41, 
42, 4S, 46, 64, 67, 99, 106, 114, 
139. 237. 272, 289, 293. 
Works of, 23, 42, 119, 120, 122, 272, 

273. 289, 293. 
Cited, 94-96, 234, 237, 295. 
Cyrus, (1) archimandrite of An tioch, 210. 

(2) archimandrite of Sugo, 210. 

(3) bp. ofSingara, 314. 
(4)bp. of Tyre, 27s. 

(S) deacon of Alexandria, 96. 

Cyrus, (6) governor of Amida, 155, 157, 


(7) presbyter of Alexandria, 117, 

118, 124, 125. 

(8) ('Adon) presbyter of Amida, 


(9) presbyter of L gino, 296. 

Dadu (?) 328. 

Dalmatus, monastery of, 170, 171, 177. 

Daniel, (i) Stylite, 113. 

(2) visitor of Edessa, 210. 
Dara, 165-167, 208, 222, 224, 225, 228, 
229, 299. 
See of, 167. 
Decius, Emperor, 4 (note 3). 
Demonicus (?), 264 (note 2). 
Demosthenes, prief. prcet. Orientis, 203. 
Dibudin, 320, 321. 
Diodorus, bp. of Tarsus, 20, 42, 177, 183, 

252, 275. 
Diomedes, silentiary, 72. 
Dionysius, (l) the Areopagite, pseudo-, 
works of, 183, 266 ; 
Cited, 250. 
(2) count of Egypt, 64, 65. 
Dionysius, letter of pseudo - Julius to, 

cited, 86, 87. 
Dioscorus, (i) I., bp. of Alexandria, 22, 
24, 41, 43-46, 48, S8, 
73, 79, 99, 106, III, 
114, 117, H9, 120, 
124, I2S, 140. 
Works cited, 45, 46, 98. 
(2) II., bp. of Alexandria, 187, 
Dirmar (?), 328. 
Dith (?), 148, 163, 324. 
Dodo, (i) anchorite, 207. 

(2) monk of Samke, 16, 17. 
Dominic (?), 264. 

Domitziolus, nephew of Butzes, 226, 227. 
Domnus, bp. of Antioch, 22, 24, 45, 100. 
Dorotheus, (l) bp. of Marcianopolis, 42. 

(2) count, 52. 
Dosarenes (Dorenes), 326. 
D'win, 327. 
Dyrrhachium, 148. 

Earthquakes, (at Antioch), 60, 190, 
205, 213. 
(at Constantinople), 
Eclipse, 178. 

Edessa, 203, 204, 297, 298, 314. 
Edribath (?), 223. 

Egypt, 64, 69, 76, 79, 118, 121, 313. 
El'azar. See Izra'el. 



Eleusinus, bp. of Sasima (Theoph. A. M. 

5999), 243. 
Elijah, (l) archimandrite of the monastery 
of Ishokuni, 210. 

(2) bp. of Jerusalem, 184, 187. 

(3) (the potter) monk, 134. 

(4) monk (of Amida?), 210. 
Emesa, 206, 207(?), 313. 
Ephesus, 18, 69, 107. 

See of, 69, no, 112, 113. 
Synods at, 20, 22, 23, 44, 106, 107- 
109, no, 113, 114, lis, 122, 127, 
136, 248, 252, 272, 293. 
Ephraim, ( i ) bp. of Antioch, 205,213,253, 
266, 267, 297-300, 311. 
(2) the Syrian, 17. 
Ephthalites, 151-153, 328. 
Epictetus, letter of Athanasius to, cited, 

85, 86. 
Epiphanius, (l) bp. of Constantinople, 
187, 190, 213, 265. 
(2) bp. of Magyda, 113. 
Ethiopia, 313, 326. 
Ethiopians, 193, 202. 
Euchaita, 203. 
Eudocia, Empress, 38, 51- 
Eunomius, bp. of Cyzicus, 34, 275. 
Euphemia, church of (at Alexandria), 135. 
(at Chalcedon), 47, 
Euphemius, bp. of Constantinople, 139, 

145, 146, 149, 150, 187. 
Euphrasius, bp. of Antioch, 190, 205, 

212, 213. 
Euphrates, 208, 210, 225, 226, 228, 229, 

262, 296. 
Euphratesia, 126, 180, 184, 209. 
Eupraxius, chamberlain, 38, 39, 41. 
Euprepius. See Pamprepius. 
Europe, 68. 
Eusebius, ( l ) bp. of Ancyra, 43. 

(2) bp. of Csesarea, cited, 15, 

18, 325- 

(3) bp. of Dorylaeum, 21, 22, 

42, 43- 
Eustace, (i) architect of Amida, 267. 

(2) bp. of Antioch, 169, 178. 

(3) bp. of Berytus, 43, 47, 67, 77. 

(4) merchant of Apamea, 152. 

Eutherius, bp. of Tyana, 275. 

Eutyches, archimandrite of Constantin- 
ople, 19-23, 41, 42, 58, 96, 119, 120, 
122, 232, 249, 270, 275, 294. 

Eutychian, bp. of Amida, 165, 167. 
Eutychians, 56, 81, 109, no, 112, 172, 
243, 268. 

Faige, 225. 

Famines, 17, 151, 155, 315. 
Farzman {^ape(rfi,dvi}s), 161, 163, 206. 
Felicissimus, (i) duke, 165, 223. 

(2) Julianist, 243. 
Felix HI., Pope, 145, 146, 150, 187. 
Flavian (l), II., bp. of Antioch, 145, 146, 
179, 180, 183, 187, 191, 
203, 270. 
(2) bp. of Constantinople, 21-23, 
24, 42. 
Forty Martyrs, church of, at Amida, 158. 
Frankincense country, 326. 
Fravitta, bp. of Constantinople, 139, 140, 
146, 149. 
His letter cited, 140-142. 

Gabbula, 192, 211. 

Gabriel of Nisibis, 331. 

Gadar, Kadisene, 226, 227. 

Gadono, 161, 162. 

Gaian, bp. of Alexandria, 266. 

Galatia, 313. 

Gallus, Emperor, 4 (note 3). 

Gamaliel, relics of, 11, 16. 

Gamuwa, 314. 

Gangra, 44, 48, 74, 77, 79, 207, 211. 

Gaul, 313. 

Gaza, 51, 52, 54. 

Geiseric (Zirzeric), king of the Vandals, ' 

38, 262. 
Gemellinus, bp. of Perrhe, letter of 

Rabbulo to, 301-310. 
Gennadius, (l) bp. in Asia, 107. 

(2) bp. of Constantinople, 79, 

80, 100, 146. 

(3) bp. of Teos(?), 107. 

(4) deacon of Alexandria, 96. 
George, bp. of Alexandria, 66. 
Georgia (Gurzan), 328. 

Glon, Persian general, 160, 161, 162. 
Goths, 60, 184, 185, 190, 191, 204, 316, 

319 (note 8). 
Gregory, (l) (of Nazianzus) bp. of Con- 
stantinople, 20, 183. 
Cited, 89, 90, 274, 290. 

(2) (Thaumaturgus) bp. of Neo- 

Csesarea, cited, 87, 88. 

(3) I., bp. of Nyssa, 80. 

Cited, 89. 

(4) II. , bp. (?) of Nyssa, 80. 

(5) I., (the Illuminator) Catholic 

of Armenia, 327. 
Gurzan (Georgia), 328. 

Habib, son of Gamahel, relics of, 1 1, 16. 

Hadrian, tribune, 232. 

Hamimtho, 324. 

Hananyo, archimandrite (of Amida?), 210. 



Hanino, monastery of, 211. 

Al Harith, son of Kha'b (Khanab), 194, 

Haimosho (?), 210. 
Harus'(?), 328, 329. 
Hebdomon, Martyr's church at, 170. 
HeliopoUs (in Syria), temple of, 204, 205. 
Helladius, deacon of Alexandria, 133, 

13s, 138- 
Henotikon, 118, 120-124, 127, 129, 130, 

133, 136, 138, 144, 184, 273, 289, 293. 
Hermogenes, mag. off., 231, 261. 
Herulians, 225. 
Hibo, bp. of Edessa, 23, 42, 43, 46, 177, 

Hierapolis, 298. 

Hieriphthum (?), 223 (see note 4). 
Hierotheus, pseudo-, works of, 183. 
Hilarus, Pope, 100, 145. 
H'nono, 159. 

Homerites, 193, 197, 198, 202. 
Hormisda, Pope, 184, 187, 212. 
Hormizd, Ptehasha of Arzanene, 226-228. 
Huns, 151-153, 206, 212, 224, 228, 229, 

230.243, 328-331. 
Language of, 329, 330. 
Hypatia, 320, 321. 
Hypatius, mo^. mil. inprasenti, 160, 161, 

185, 186, 191, 206, 246. 

Iberia (Gurzan), 328. 
Ignatius, (i) archimandrite of Chalcis, 210. 
(2) bp. of Antioch, works of, 183. 
Ilium, 316. 
lUus, mag. mil. Orientis, 116, 117, 125, 

Illyricum, 189, 221. 
India, bp. of, 99. 
Ingilene, 324. 
Irenseus, (l) bp. of Lyons, works of, 183. 

(2)bp. of Tyre, 275. 
Irene, church of, at Constantinople, 104. 
Isaac, (l) archimandrite of the monastery 
of "bedyeshu, 210. 

(2) consul of Amida, 158. 

(3) presbyter of Amida (perhaps 

confused with Isaac of Anti- 
och), 16, 17. 

Isaac, monastery of, at Gabbula, 210. 

Isaiah, (l) bp. of Hermopolis, 8 J, 96-98. 
(2) monk of Palestine, 125, 137. 

Isaurians, 150, 151. 

Ishokuni, monastery of, near Amida, 210, 

Italy, 68, 145, 264, 267, 313, 316. 
Izdegerd, 227, 228. 
Izlo, 210, 325. 
Izra'el (El'azar), high priest, 325. 


James, (i) bp. of Batnse, cited, 151. 

(2) (Burd''oyo) bp. of Edessa, 

297, 314- 

(3) monk of Alexandria, 99, 104. 
Jerusalem,38, 50-55, 113,186,204,318,325. 

Feast of the Cross at, i86. 
Patriarchate of, 49, 113. 
John, ( 1 ) archimandrite of Amida, 324. 

(2) archimandrite of Hauro, 211. 

(3) (sonof Aphthonia)archimandrit 

of ICenneshre, 208-210, 253. 
Cited, 253. 

(5) archimandrite of the Orientals, 


(6) Bar Habloho, 160. 

(7) I., (Talaia) bp. of Alexandria, 

116-118, 125, 146. 

(8) II.,(Hemula)bp. of Alexandria, 

I4S, 187. 

(9) III.,(Niciota) bp. of Alexandria, 

145, 184, 187. 

(10) bp. of Amida, 154, 155, 208. 

(11) I., bp. of Antioch, 20, 24. 

(12) bp. of Constantia, 207, 211, 212, 

298, 299. 

(13) I., (Chrysostom) bp. of Con- 

stantinople, 38. 
Cited, 90-92. 

(14) II., (Cappadox) bp. of Con- 

stantinople, 186, 187, 190. 
(,15) bp. of Ephesus, 69, 100. 

(16) bp. of Germanicea, 43, 44. 

(17) II., bp. of Jerusalem, 184, 187, 


(18) bp. of Magihs (Liber. 18), 133, 

135. 138. 

(19) deacon of Amida, 165. 

(20) eunuch, 51. 

(21) hermit of Anastasia, bp. elect of 

Martyropolis, 212, 228. 

(22) (the Vandal) mag. mil. Tkracia, 


(23) monk of Amida, 325. 

(24) (of Rhesaina) monk of the 

monastery of Ishokuni, 329. 

(25) II., Pope, 264. 

(26) (Cappadox) /riz/. prat. Orient- 

is, 245. 

(27) presbyter of jEgse, 23, 177, 275. 

(28) presbyter of Alexandria, 133, 

13s. 138, 139- 

(29) rhetor of Alexandria, 56-58. 

(30) scholastic of Amida, 148, 149. 

(31) silentiary, 44, 59. 

(32) tribune, 42, 43, 49. 

(33) xenodocharius of Dara, 167. 



John of Anzetene (John Urtoyo), monas- 
tery of, at Amida, 156, 210. 

John the Baptist, church of, at Alex- 
andria, 116. 
Head of, 313. 

Joseph, Catholic (Nestorian) of Seleucia, 

Josephus, cited, 163. 
Julian, (i) bp. of Antioch, 100, 146. 

(2) bp. of Halicarnassus, 211, 232- 

244, 258-260. 
His works cited, 234, 235, 
236, 237, 238, 244, 259. 

(3) presbyter of Alexandria, 133, 

135. 138, 139- 
Julianists, 244, 266. 
Julius, Pope, (pseudo-), works of, 20, 183. 

Cited, 86, 87, 90. 
Justin, Emperor, 160, 187, 189-193, 205, 

206, 221, 222. 
Justinian, Emperor, 192, 212, 221, 222, 
228, 230-232, 245-258, 260-265, 267, 
268, 297-299, 319 (note 8), 321, 330. 
His works cited, 250. 
Petition of Eastern bps. to, 246-252. 
Justus, nephew of Justinian, 297. 
Juvenalis, bp. of Jerusalem, 20, 22, 24, 
43. 49, 50. S2> 54. 55. i°°- 

Kadisenes, 223, 226. 
Kanarak, marzban, 156, 157. 
Kardutsat, bp. of Arran, 329, 330. 
Karthamin, monastery of, 154, 208. 
Kashowi, 331. 

Katharoi, monastery of, 164. 
Kawad, king of the Persians, 152-161, 
164, 165, 166, 187, 206, 226, 228- 

231. 329. 
Kenneshre (on the Euphrates), 208, 209, 

Khafro d'Birtho (village of the citadel), 

monastery of, 210. 
Khasar (Chazar), 328. 
Khorthrigor, 328. 
Khosru, king of the Persians, 168, 229- 

231, 263, 296, 297, 311, 312, 314, 

315. 331. 332. 
Khulas (?), 328. 
Kurdistan, 312. 
Kutrigo, 156. 

Latin language, 267, 326. 
Latins, 316. 
Lazica, 297, 315. 
Lebanon, forest of, 204. 
Leo, (i) I., Emperor, 59, 60, 61, 63, 68- 
70, 75. 79. 99, 100, 103. 
His encyclical, 69. 

Leo, (2) IL, Emperor, 61, 63. 

(3) Pope, 22, 24, 42, 43, 44, 46, 67, 
68, 70, 72. 73. 79, 100. 
Letters of, 70, 72, 73, 74. 
Tome of, 22, 42, 44, 47, 49, 
57. 59. 70, 74, 80, 106, 107, 
108, 119, 125, 133-136, 
139, .144, 145, 149, 150, 
177, 190, 251, 252, 273, 
275. .285. 289, 293. 
Leontius, (1) anti-emperor, 116, 125, 

(2) councillor of Amida, 155, 

L'gino, 73, 210, 296. 
Liberius (Goth), duke, 204, 229. 
Libya, 121, 313 (?) (see note 3). 
Locusts, 151, 155 (?) (see note 2). 
Longinus, ( i ) monk of Alexandria, 65. 
(2) presbyter of Alexandria, 

139. 144, 149. 
Lucian, presbyter of Khafar Gamlo, 8. 

Macedonius, (i) L,bp. of Constantin- 
ople, 34, 275. 
(2) n., bp. of Constantin- 
ople, 150, 168- 
177. 187. 
Ma'doye, 193. 
Magians, 229, 331, 
Magnus (?), monastery of, 210. 
Majorian, Emperor, 59, 60, 61. 
Majuma, 51. 
Mako (?), 205. 

Maku (?), Armenian bp., 330, 331. 
Mani, heretic, 56, 249, 259. 
Manichseans, 46, 169, 172, 258. 
Marcian, (i) Emperor, 23, 38, 42, 43, 47, 
52, 59, 64, 68. 
His address to the Synod, 

(2) monk of Jerusalem, 50, 114. 
Marcion, heretic, 56, 275. 
Marcionists, 310. 
Marcus, Emperor, loo, 105, 107, 145, 

Marde, 168. 

Marinus, chartulary, 177, 178, 189. 
Maron, archimandrite of the Orientals, 

Martin, general, 262, 297. 
Martyrius, (l) bp. of Antioch, 80, 100, 
(2) bp. of Jerusalem, 114-116, 
.145. 146. 
His addresses, 115, 116. 
His letter,cited, 130, 131. 
Martyropolis, 227-229. 



Marzban, 156, 160, 162, 224. 
Mauriana (Bederiana), 187, 189, 221. 

See of, 221. 
Maximian, bp. of Constantinople, 24. 
Maximus, bp. of Antioch, 24, 100. 
Melebasa, 226, 227. 
Menas, bp. of Constantinople, 268. 
Mesopotamia (Beth Nahrin = between the 

rivers), 151, 153, 230, 312, 324. 
Mesopotamia (province), 180, 184, 209, 

210, 313. 
Methodius, bp. of Olympus, cited, 14. 
Mihran, 224. 

Mihr Girowi (Hep/i€p6ris), 228. 
Mommuno, bp. of Neapolis, 232. 
Moors, 262, 263. 
Mor'abdo of Rhesaina, 1 1 (note). 
Mori, (i) archimandrite of Ramsho, 210. 

(2) bp. of Nisibis, 23, 42. 
Moro, bp. of Amida, 208, 209, 221. 

His prologue, 213-217, 221. 
Morutho, 209. 
Moses, (i) of Ingila, 8 (note 2). 

(2) monk of Tarmel, 229-231. 
Mule (siege-mound), 153 (note 4), 1 54, 228. 
Al Mundhir, king of Al Hira, 193, 197, 
198, 206, 207. 

Camp of, 193. 
Mundus (Gepid), mag. mil. Orieiitis, id,(i. 

Nagrin (Nagran), 193-202. 

Naples, 264. 

Natsih, monastery of, 210. 

Nazarenes, 226. 

Neapolis (in Palestine), 52, 231, 232. 

Nephalius, monlc of Alexandria, 134, 135, 

Nestorians, 55, 56, 74,80,81, 172, I74.204- 
Nestorius, bp. of Constantinople, 19, 20, 

23, 34, 42, 49, 7i> 77, 96, 106, 108, 

119, 120, 122, 123, 125, 168, 170, 

175, 177, 179, 190, 248, 249, 252, 
270, 272, 275, 293. 
His letter cited, 125. 
Nic^a, 43. 

Synod of, 71, 72, 106, 107, 115, 121, 
127, 136, 181, 248, 272, 289, 293. 
Nicodemus, relics of, II, 16. 
Nika Riot, 245, 246. 
Nisibis, 161, 164, 206, 222, 223, 225. 
Nonnus, (l)bp. of Martyropolis, 208, 228. 

(2) bp. of Seleucia, 208. 
Nubia_(?), 313. 

Al Nu'man, Saracen king, camp of, 193, 

Oasis, 20, 42, 139, 169. 
Odoacer, King, 145. 

Ofir, 326. 

Ogor, 328. 

Olybrius, Emperor, 59, 60, 61, 68. 

Omanites (Omancites), 327 (note i). 

Orientals, monastery of the, 210. 

Origen, teaching of, 266. 

Orphan's hospital at Constantinople, 80. 

Osrhoene, 184, 209. 

Palestine, 49, 50, 51, 58, 64, 69, 76, 
77, 81, 113, 231, 300, 313. 

Palladius, ( 1 ) bp. of Antioch, 144-146. 
(2) sophist of Alexandria, 57. 

Pamprepius (Euprepius), philosopher, 
116, 125, 145. 

Paphnout, deacon of Amida, 165. 

Pascasius (Paschasius), deacon of Con- 
stantinople, 169, 171, 174. 

Patrick, mag. mil. infrasenti, 160, 161, 

Paul, (i) Arcadius, 125. 

(2) (the sophist) archimandrite of 

Alexandria, 99, 103-105, 

133, 13s, 138. 

(3) bp. of Alexandria, 299, 300. 

(4) I., (of Samosata) bp. of Antioch, 

20, 56, 275. 

(5) II., (the Jew) bp. of Antioch, 

190, 212. 

(6) bp. of Edessa, 203. 

(7) bp. of Ephesus, 100, 107, no, 

112, 113. 

(8) bp. of Nagran, 194, 200. 

(9) notary, 192. 

(10) steward of Amida, 155, 159, 160. 
Paul and Thecla, Acts of, cited, 309. 
Pechini, 326. 
Pentapolis, 118, 121. 
Pergamius, (i) bp. in Asia, 107. 

(2) prefect of Egypt, 118, 119, 
124, 130. 
Perrhe, 301. 
Peter, (i) of 'Amkhoro (?), 157, 158. 

(2) III., (Mongus) bp. of Alex- 
andria, 73, 113, 116-121, 
124-126, 128, 130, 133- 
136, 138-140, 146, 149, 
His letter, cited, 142-144. 

(3) (FuUo) bp. of Antioch, 100, 

107, 112, 113, 125-127, 
144, 146. 

(4) bp. of Apamea, 207. 

(5) (the Iberian) bp. of Gaza, 51, 

52, 54, 58, 64, III, 125, 

134, 137- 

(6) bp. of Jerusalem, 187, 212, 266. 

(7) bp. of Rhesaina, 207, 266, 



Peter, (S) (Bar Tsaumo), mag. off., 325. 
Petra (in Lazica), 315. 

(in Palestine), 209. 
Phidias, sculptor, 15. 
Philalethes, 180. 
Phoenice, 76, 313. 
Phoenice Libani, 126, 180, 184. 

Maritima, 77. 
Photinus, bp. of Sirmivini, 275. 
Piroz, king of the Persians, 151, 152. 
Plagues, 155, 297, 313, 315. 
Pneumatomachi, 106, 272, 289. 
Pompeius, nephew of Anastasius, 246. 
Probus, (l) envoy, 330. 

(2) nephew of Anastasius, 180. 
Proclus, bp. of Constantinople, 24. 

His letter, cited, 24-38. 
Prolatius (?), ill. 
Proterians, 65, 67, 68, 70, 76, 78, 99, 

no, 118, 119, 124. 
Proterius, bp. of Alexandria, 48, 57, 59, 

65, 66, 68, 78, 100. 
Psoes, deacon of Alexandria (Proc. Hist. 

Arc. 27, Liber. 23), 300. 
Ptehasha (of Arzanene), 227, 228. 
Ptolemy, (i) geographer, cited, 326, 327. 

(2) (Philadelphus) king of 

Egypt. 325. 

(3) (Philometor), king of Egypt 

(confused with (i)), 325, 

Pulcheria, Empress, 42, 47, 52. 

Quarry, monastery of the, 210, 314. 
Quirinus, church of, at Alexandria, 65, 66. 

Rabbulo, bp. of Edessa, letter of, cited, 

Ramlah, 193. 
Ramsho, 210. 
Ravenna, 145. 
Rhesaina, 210, 298. 
Rhumi, 194-198. 
Ricimer, patrician, 60. 
Romanus, (l) Julianist, 243. 

(2) monk of Jerusalem, 50. 

(3) senator, 171. 

Romans (soldiers), 48, 53, S4> SS, 65, 66, 

67, 76, 78, 167, 174. 298(?). 
Romanus, monastery of, 125, 210. 
Rome, 16, 17, 67, 68, 145, 184, 187, 190, 
264, 265, 267, 268, 297, 316-319. 
Description of, 3 17-3 19' 
Patriarchate of, 187. 
Romulus, 316. 
Rufinus, patrician, 230, 231, 261. 

Sab^ans, 326. 

Sabir, 328. 

Sachalites, 326.' 

Sallustius, bp. of Jerusalem, 145, 146, 

150, 187. 
Salmon, fortress, 100, 104, 150. 
Samaritans, 53, 231, 232. 
Samke (near Amida), 17. 
Samuel, (i) archimandrite, 170. 

(2) (the just) monk of Constantin- 
ople, 164. 
Samuel, monastery of, 210. 
Saracens, 165, 193, 206, 207, 223, 232, 

I-anguage of, 193. 
Sardica, Synod of, 115. 
Sarurgur(?), 328. 
Scenitse, 326. 
Scirtus (Daitson), 204. 
Secundinus, letter of Dioscorus to, 45, 

46, 98. 
Separatists, in, 124, 133-136, 138-140, 

Septuagint, 15, 313, 325. 
Serapion, deacon of Alexandria, 133, 

13s. 138. 
Sergius, {\) archiatros of Rhesaina, 266- 
268, 297. 
His works, 266. 

(2) archimandrite of Natfo, 210. 

(3) archimandrite of the Quarry, 


(4) archimandrite of Sodak- 

the(?), 210. 

(5) Bar Zabduni, 160. 

(6) deacon of Amida, 165. 

(7) visitor of Amida, 324. 
Seven Sleepers, Acts of, 18. 

Severus, (i) bp. of Antioch, 73, 180, 
183, 184, 187, 190, 191, 
203, 207, 233, 244, 
253-261, 265, 267-272, 
275, 276, 279-287, 292, 

293. 297, 3"- 
His works, 180. 
Cited, 73, 23s, 236, 237- 
244, 254-261, 268-270, 
(2) Emperor, 59, 60, 61, 68. 
Sh'ba, 326. 

Shiluho, waters of, 204. 
Sh'muni, 209. 
Sicily, 313. 
Sidon, 55, 179. 
Synod of, 179, 180. 
Petition of monks to synod, 181-183. 
Silverius, Pope, 268. 
Silvester, Pope, Acts of, 15, 16. 
Simai, archimandrite of Amida, 210. 



Simeon, (i) archimandrite of Chalcis, 

(2) archimandrite of Gabbula, 

192, 211. 

(3) archimandrite of L'gino, 

73. 210. 

(4) bp. of Beth Arsham, letter 

of, cited, 192-203. 

(5) (the horned) hermit, 212. 

(6) presbyter, 170. 

His letter, cited, 170- 1 76. 
Simplicius, Pope, 125, 145. 
Simuth(?), tribune, 224, 225. 
Singara, 223, 298. 
Sisagan, 328. 
Sisaurana, 296. 

Sittas, mag. mil. in prasenti, 228. 
S'nun, monastery of, 210. 
Sobbo, monk of Amida, 325. 
Socrates, scholasticus, cited, 15, 18, 20, 38. 
Sodakthe (?), 210. 

Solomon, ( i ) archimandrite of the mon- 
astery of Samuel, 210. 

(2) (eunuch) mag. mil. Africa, 


(3) monk of Jerusalem, 55. 

(4) presbyter of Antioch, 145. 
Sophia, church of, at Constantinople, 

burning of, 246. 
Stadium (at Amida), 162. 
Stephen, (i) archiatros oi hxmdii., 325. 

(2) II., bp. of Antioch, 100, 


(3) III., bp. of Antioch, 100, 

Stephen, protomartyr, relics of, 16. 
Stilas, count of Egypt, 76. 
Succensus, letter of Cyril to, 95, 234. 
Sugo, monastery of, 210. 
SuUfos (?), Goth, 60. 
Sunica (Hun), general, 224, 225. 
Sura, 296, 298, 299, 312. 
Symmachus, Pope, 184, 187. 
Syria, 58. 
Syria II., 126. 

Syrians, monastery of the, at Antioch, 

Tabennesiots, 116. 

Tamuroye, 165. 

Taposiris. See Cabarsarin. 

Taprobane, 327. 

Tarmel, monastery of, 230, 231. 

Tetrapylum (at Alexandria), 66. 

(at Amida), 296. 
Thalassius, bp. of Ca;sarea, 43. 
Thannuris, 222, 223, 226, 228, 262. 
Thebetha, 222, 223. 

Thel 'Addo, monastery of, 210. 
Thel Katsro (hill of the fort), 161. 
Theocritus, domesticus, 190. 
Theoctistus, (i) mag. off., 104. 

(2) prefect of Egypt, 114. 
Theodora, Empress, 246, 247, 265, 270,' 

299, 300, 319 (note 8). 
Theodore,(i) bp. of Antinoe, 133-136, 

138, 139- 

(2) bp. of Al Hira, 297, 314. 

(3) bp. of Mopsuestia, 42, 

177, 183, 252, 275. 
Theodore, monastery of, at Gaza, 125, 180. 
Theodoret, bp. of Cyrrhus, 42, 43, 44, 
46, 47. 177, 252, 275. ■ 
Works of, 15, 18, 23, 42, 169. 
Theodoric, (I) (son of Triarius) Gothic 
chief, 145 (confused 
with (2)). 
(2) (Alimeric) king of the 
Goths, 145, 184, 264. 
Theodosiopolis, 153. 
Theodosius, (i) bp. of Alexandria, 266, 
268, 270, 280-289, 
291-293, 295, 299. 
Letters cited, 283-287, 

(2) bp. of Jerusalem, 50, 52, 

55. 56. 58. III. 

(3) II., Emperor, 16, l"], 18, 

' 19, 23, 38, 39, 44, 

51. 107. 
Letter of Cyril to, 234. 
Theodotus, (i) bp. of Joppa, iii. 

(2) duke, 248. 
Theognostus, prefect of Egypt, 117. 
Theophilus, (l) bp. of Alexandria, 117. 
Works cited, 92-94. 

(2) bp. in Asia, 107. 

(3) deacon of Alexandria, 96. 

(4) presbyter of Alexandria, 

81, 96-98. 
Theopompus, (i) monk of Alexandria, 

99, 104, 113. 
(2) presbyter, 282. 
Theorion, monk of Alexandria, 104. 
Thiri. See Beth Thiri. 
Thomas, (i) archimandrite of the- mon- 
astery of Natsih, 210. 

(2) bp. of Amida, 163, 165- 

167, 208. 

(3) bp. of Amrin(?), 207. 

(4) bp. of Damascus, 207. 

(5) bp. of Dara, 167, 168, 207, 


(6) presbyter of Antioch, 243. 

(7) silentiary, 223. 

(8) tanner, 329. 



Thomas the Apostle, church of, at 
Emesa(?), 207. 
Monastery of, at Seleucia, 208, 209. 
Thrace, 145. 
Tiberias, 202. 
Tigris, 159. 

Tiraocletus, composer, 80. 
Timothy, (i) II., (^lurus) bp. of Alex- 
andria, 22, 63, 64-70, 

73-8i, 99. ioo> 103- 
105, 107, 109-113, 
117, 119,120, 140, 146. 
His letters cited, 70-73, 

(2) III., (Salophaciolus) bp. of 

Alexandria, ^8, 79, 
100, no, 112, 114, 
116, 117, 146. 

(3) IV., bp. of Alexandria, 

202, 207, 212, 266. 

(4) bp. of Constantinople, 

177, 184, 186, 187. 

(5) disciple of Paul, pseudo-, 

works of, 183. 
Timus (Timostratus ?), mag. mil. 

Orieiitis, 222, 223. 
Titus, pseudo-, works of, 183. 
Tome. See Leo. 
Trench, district of the, 324. 
Tribonian, archiatros, 331. 
Tripyrgion (at Amida), 156. 
Trisagion, addition to the, 169, 178. 

Tyre, 184. 

Synod at, 183, 184. 
Tzophanene, 324. 

Unnogur, 328. 

Uranius, tax-gatherer, 125, 127, 128. 

'Uzzai, Arabian deity, 207. 

Valentine, heretic, 56, 275. 
Valentinian III.. Emperor, 23. 
Verina, Empress, 104. 
Vespasian, Emperor, 318. 
Vincent, general, 223. 
Vitalian, mag. mil. in prasenti, 185, 
186, 190-192. 

Watch-tower, monastery of the, 210. 

Zachariah (rhetor), bp. of Mitylene, 
38, 39, 41, 60, 103, 132, 146. 
His work cited, 41-146. 

Zakhkhai, monastery of, at Callinicus, 211. 

Zeno, Emperor, 100, 103, 104, 113, 118, 
120, 121, 125, 129, 130, 134, 144, 

145. 148, 149. 150. 179. 185- 
Henotikon of, 121-123. 
Zenodotus, bp. in Asia, 107. 
Zenonis, Empress, 104, no. 
Zirzeric. See Geiseric. 
Zoilus, bp. of Alexandria, 300. 
Zoticus, bp. of Anea(?), 107. 
Z"uro, gate of, at Amida, 160. 


07^765, 1 66. 
ayii3vi(7T'i)Sf 42, 49, 233. 

OLKKoi^iTOVf 153. 

dvdfKTi (pressure), 49 ; (stress), 287. 

dv6.\uj/jLaj 55, 206. 

ava<popd, 108, 151. 

avvQivai,, 318. 

dvTapffta, 299. 

(l»Te7Ki)(cXio>', 113. 

avrlypaipoi' (answer), 235, 236, 237. 

djia, 228, 229. 

dird SiKai'tKWj'i 180, 209. ' 

dTToOTjKdpLOv, 319. 

dnroBiiKTi (!), 319. 

diroa-xlcTTTis, 124, 133, 135, 138, 139, 324. 

dpxiarpos, 266, 268, 297, 325, 331. 

d(r0o'\«o (safe-conduct), 255. 

dxei-poiroiriTos, 321. 

PaXavia (?), l6o, 168, 171. 
PaArtKiKi) {basilica), 317. 
/Sdo-is (pedestal), 318. 
pepr/Sapios, 206, 208. 
/3^/ta (tribunal), 52, 258. 
pipXlov, 266. 

/3oi}Seia (military force), 176. 
;8oi;Xein-T}s, 155, 163. 

yitTT^pva { = Ki(rT^pva), 1 66. 
7yw(TTi«:6s, 211, 

deKovpicoVj 148. 

Sij/ioVioj' (bath), 166, 167, 189; {latrina), 

319- , 
drifioTLKOSy y8. 
did\a\iai, 21. 
3tara7/AaTa, 55* 
Si/eat (rights), loi. 
Si^va-h-Tj!, 99, 120, l8o, 184, 187, 205, 

233, 252, 253, 264. 
doyfiartKos, 22, 1 80. 
So/ifiTTiKO!, 190, 192. 
5oCf, 119, 165, 222, 223, 227, 228, 229, 

232, 248, 324, 325. 
SwaTifSov, 172. 

iyKVK\la (circular progress), 321. 
4yK6K\ios, 69, 74, 99, 100, 104, 105, 107, 
109, 113. 

iK^dria-ts, IJI, 245. 

IkSikos {defensor civitatis), 133. 

iKK\ri(TLa(iTLK7i (ecclcsiastical history), 15, 

evrev^ii, 116. 

i^ipKeTov, 187. 

i^Kov^iTiSipia, 318. 

eirapxos (officer), 319. 

eiriffKoireiov, 1 7 1. 

ei5a77Aios { = eiayyc\iK6s), 282, 285, 286, 

£(iTa^ia, 41. 

Biarpov (theatre), 318. 
ffeoipriTiKos, 211. 
0£<opla, 213, 243. 
6e6piov (?), 318. 

iSidiri)! (foolish), 275. 
IvSiKTiiiv, 148. 

'tTrwiKds ( = tJTTrtKdV), 246, 263. 
lTrT6Spofj,os, 66. 

fcaXa/tdpioJ^, 178. 
/cai/aAos, 317. 

KUTTlTdl^WV, 317. 

Kda-rpa, 187, 296, 316. 

Kacrrpov, 189, 

KardffTaaLS, 23. 

KOT^X'/"''' (conversion), 15. 

KevT-qvdpiov, 166, 206. 

KipKos, 318. 

(cX^pos (?) (goods), 331. 

K68pa, 153. 

KOfi^ipTov, 174. 

KifiTjS, 52, 160. 

KdfjLTjs dvaroXijs, 205. 

Kodprrjs ^lyOyuiv, 318. 

K0i//)07raX(iTi;s, 189, 190. 

Kvv^Lov, 318. 

\avp5,Tov, 321. 

XlpfWos (W/3eX\oi), 22, 23, 67, 113, 136, 
171, 173' 

XifXtTOf, 296, 298. 

\o7o9e<r/a, 167. 

Xi7os (division of literary work), 126, 
148, 168, 181, 203, 218, 219, 220, 224, 
327, 232 ; (treatise), 233, 234, 266. 



XolSopos (?) (informer), 245, 257, 258. 
'KovSdpios (?), 245, 257, 25S. 
\oOSos (\oSSov?), 318. 

Iw/yLffTpmvds, 176. 

ndyiarpoi (mag. off.), 104, 110, 113, 160, 

163, 169, 173, 174, 175, «76, 231, 

261, 325. 
jUatrrpuXXetoj'^ '318,. ' 1 


fiipos (circus-fatti 
fir}X0'VLK6Sf 165. 

voripios, 167, I78(?), 192, 223. 
vv/Ji^eToy, 318, ' 

^evodoxipi-os, 167. 
feyoSoxfioj/, 207, 331. 

dp(liapoTpotpeLOVj 80. 

opt/javoTpd^os, 80. 

oia-la (estate), 67, 167, 200, 324. 

TToKaTwi', 19, 21, 191, 246, 253, 265. 

7ra|a/Adria (= Va^a^dSta), 112. 

irdwas, 112, 270, 280. 

irapddeicros (park), 320. 

TTCtjoaXos, 77" 

xapdralis, 54. 

Trape/AjSoXiJ, 319. 

TreddToOpaj l^y. ' 

ire-irpay/idpa, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 44, 169, 

■jrepiffTvXov (?), 317. 
7rXao'T6s, 174. 
irXdros, 146. 

iroidXri (?), 320 (see note 5). 
ro\i.Tela (commonwealth), 211, 261; 

(manner of life), 12. 
irpatirdaLTOs, 1 89, 190. 
irpaiTibpiov, 174. 
irpaKT'fip, 112, 125, 127, 
TT/jofis (investigation), 133. 
vpea^ela (embassy), 330'. 
irpodtTTELOv, 124, 185. 
Trpicoia (Providence), 43,' 324. 
irpovS/iia (ecclesiastical rights), 167, 221 ; 

(general privileges?), 184. 
Trpiarayiia, 76, 78. 
irpoa-rdi (?), 317, 

xpoo-^iii/Tjo-is, 47, IIS, 1I9> I33> 175- 
vpdaairov (theological term), 275. 

piyai, 172, 190. 

(rdxpa duapnivm, 165, 166. 

1 The word is in the adjectival form, " the men 
the substantive. 

(T-qiieta (short-hand), 47. 
ffi.'Xevndpi.os, 44, 59, 72, 148, 149, 223. 
crMvnoi', 169. 
aCKivnov Kofi^hTov, 174. 
(XKdpi<j>os, i6s> 325. 
(TTriKovXa, 210.^ 
airvpls, 55. 

ffTO'VpbidtU St.' TjfJ.ds,. 172. 
^(TTpaTTTrbt (of Egypt), 64, J65, 76. 
arpaTTiKdrri^ {mag. mil.), 38, 60, 74, 171, 

173, 222, 223. 

iTii7KeXXos, 203. 

a\yyKk'f)TiK6s, 317- 

(riyicKfiToi, 117, 171, 175, 177, 264. 

aili^oKov, 13; (creed), 47. 

(rwo5i/c6s (Synodite), 300. 

ffOvo^Ls, 165. 

a-vvTVxla, 173. 

a-<pcupa, 308. 

ffxoKdpioi., 172, 190, 246. 

ra^Seiov (rafiLetov), 1 65, 166, 17 1- 
rctfis (officials), 259. 
TerpdirvKov, 66, 296. 
rerpeua77^\top, 209, 213. 
TpdKTarov, 206. 
rpi^ovvos, 42, 43, 49. 
rpiKklvLov, 311. 
rpLirOpyiov, 1 56. 

iiirapxio. {= iwapx^Oj), SSj.^S^- 

iiTrapxos [praf.prat.), 97, 203, 245, 262; 
(/r<?^. J<?-i5.), 97, 169, 172, 175 ; (of 
Egypt), 112, 114, 117, 118, 119, 13s, 
138 ; (Persian governor), 228. 

OTraros, 158. 

iiTQypa(paL (= dToypa^ai), 163. 

6ir68ens, 233. 

vTTOfj.viflfjLaTa, 15, 18, 75: ^^9* 

tpaKi6\i.ov, 78, 79, 100, no, 114, 146, 

320 (?). 
^tiXcrpK, 97. 
^vraala, 33, 45, 107, 123, 258, 259, 

(pdyrans, 277. 

<j>i.\oT( (contribution), 321. 
<p6<rira, 223, 225, 228. 
(paval (cries), 109, 124. 

xMapxos, 224, 225, 232, 30P. 
XpoviKdv, 4 (note 3), 38, 61, 63, 325. 

lipdptov, 175. 

of the specula," but this assumes the existence of